Migration is a core theme in world
historical studies. It is an expansive
term that often embraces or crosses over to emigration, immigration, and diaspora
Its place in world history owes much
to the work of Patrick Manning at the World History Center at the University of
Pittsburgh. Manning was a contributor to
a landmark work in this field: Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen and Patrick Manning, Migration History in World
History: Multidisciplinary Approaches Studies in Global Societies
History, 3, (Leiden: Brill, 2010), which divided migration research
intofour areas, history, biological/population genetics, linguistics and anthropology. As this work pointed out, traditionally, most
historians concentrated their studies on human population movements after 1750,
due to the availability of written records. However, in what has been called the "new synthesis: anthropologists, archaeologists,geneticists,
linguists, and biologists are acting in concert are facilitating migration
research as far back as 80, 000 years ago.2.
Some online examples of relatively light-hearted exploration of the
"new synthesis" as "history" can be found in Jan Vansina's "Historians, Are Archaeologist Your Siblings?" and Peter Robert Shaw's
response, "Sibling Rivalry? The Intersection of Archaeology and
However, well apart from problems of
definition and the place of the new synthesis in migration research, are far
more fascinating issues for research and classroom discussion, such as migration
"stories," or myths or theories that are used in nationalistic
discourse or identity politics, such as The Aryan Invasion Theory, Manifest
Destiny, Zionist and Arab migration histories into the Levant, and the
"Empty Land" theory that sparked European migrations into Africa.
These and other issues are included in this annotated list of digital resources
on migration designed to assist researchers and classroom instructors engaging
in world historical analysis.
The following digital resources are
organized along the following lines: Getting Started-- introductory guides, websites,
book reviews and articles, monographs, foundation papers, slide shares,
video/film, lesson plans, bibliographies, syllabi and resources presented via a
Getting Started--introductory Guides
As with almost
any subject of historical research today, there are a host of digital resources
migration. These are so numerous that it is well to begin with a short list of
key works. However, novices in the field require a means of choosing among even
these. Fortunately, there are several key
books of the printed variety that have been the subject of exceptionally
detailed reviews, available digitally, that constitute a shortcut to grasping
the essentials of the field. There are
also exceptional websites that offer a general introduction to migration
studies and related themes examined in the websites and other digital resources
Five star rating reviews of
Manning's foundational short introduction, Migration
in World History (Florence. KY: Routledge, 2012). Fully revised and
updated, this second edition "traces the connections among regions brought
about by the movement of people, diseases, crops, technology and ideas."
David Christian's review of Patrick
Manning, "Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global
Past," New York: Palgrave
Macmillan, 2003" onH-World, February 2004. David
Christianhighlights, concisely, Manning's vision of a new world history
with "connections within the global community" asit's center.
Scott Fitzpatrick's review of Peter
Bellwood, "First Migrants: Ancient Migrants in Global Perspective,"
H-Net reviews by Craig Lockard and Heather Streets-Slater of Jon Thares Davidann and
Marc Jason Gilbert, Cross-Cultural
Encounters in Modern World History. New York: 2013, Pearson, 2013. Uses the causes and effects of migration as
the fulcrum of studies of the encounter between, among others, Europeans and Ameridians, Polynesians and the West, and European-African
relations from the slave trade to the current tensions between
populist/nativist movements and recent migrants from Africa and the Middle
East. Each chapter includes study
questions for students.
Timothy Nicholson, SUNY Delhi,
review of Aran MacKinnon and Elaine MacKinnon, "Places
of Encounter: Time, Place and Connectivity in World History,
Volume I and II.Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2012, in World History Connected, Vol. 11, No.
2, July 2014. The MacKinnons' two volume paperback portrays29
historical urban centers over the past 3 million years, from Nagasaki to Dubai.
Not a specific work on Migrations, but addresses movements of people.
"Unit 3: Human
Migrations," Bridging World History, Annenberg Learning, 2013. See
learning resources and video segments on "Out of Africa,"
"Peopling the Pacific and Americas," and "Linguistic Clues:
Bantu Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa" along with a Jerry H. Bentley
brief audio clip on "Urumchi mummies of western
See lesson activity for Unit 3:
Human Migrations-Click view the video segment, lower left corner of site
and do same for the other migration topics and regions:
http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_video_3-1.html?pop=yes&pid=2146# and http://www.learner.org/courses/worldhistory/unit_main_3.html
National Geographic Education, 1994-2014. Large number of resources,
activities, lessons on human migration in world history. See tabs at top
of page for resources and scroll down to see instructions as to filtering by
Type, Grades and Ages, Intended Audience, Subjects, Downloadable.
World History Course book, Migration in World History,
helpful in preparing for the student critiques. A free pdf. See also section on slide shows.
"Human Journey: Migration
Routes," Genographic Project, National
Geographic, 2014. https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/about/
"Journey of Mankind-The
Peopling of the World," Bradshaw Foundation. Professor Stephen Oppenheimer's
documentary film about history of human migrations. Oppenheimer is Oxford
University-based DNA archaeologist.
Project, last updated February 25, 2012. See summaries of Homo Sapien migrations out of Africa and into other regions
during the Pleistocene era. See short 53 minute Migration video clip
showing Migration of humans out of Africa to visual the migration summaries.
"History of International
Migration," University of Leiden website moderated by Dr. Marlou Schrover, last updated
January 25, 2007. See tabs at top of this page for specific dates for
Dr. Nicola Yeates,
"Meet the Immigrants: Migration Maps," Open Learn, Open
University, last updated April 8,2008. Interactive map showing
world migrants, where they came from and where they go.
Bamber Gascoigne, History of Human Migrations, History World
website. See examples of earliest human migrations. Also, here:
International Organization for
Migration, Geneva, Switzerland. IOM was born in 1951 after WW II European
displacement of peoples and has grown into a foundation to assist people forced
to migrate from conflict zones.
International Institute of Social History website, Institute of the Royal
Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam. This website is
focused on European Global Labour History and looks at migration of labor.
Migration Education in Europe
website. Free online resources for migration into Europe.
Forced Migration online website.
See article on reproductive health for refugee women, last updated August
17, 2011. See home page: http://forcedmigration.org/
"Issues in Depth:
Migration," Globalization 101, SUNY, Student University of New York
project, Levin Institute. See resources for Globalization and Migration in
world history via tabs on left side of this Home Page.
Humanitarianism," Forced Migration Online, a world of information on human
displacement, website last updated April 3, 2013. Religious organizations
which aid people fleeing conflict world-wide.
"Jews Around the Globe," My Jewish Learning website. Highlights Jewish migration.
history, Best History sites, 2013. Websites and related websites for
immigration and migration in US History.
Moving Here-Migration Histories,
National Archives, UK. See Caribbean, Jewish, Irish and South Asian
histories and migration stories highlighting their migration to Britain. Site
no longer updated and archived in UK National Archives since 2013.
"Where We're From," International Organization For Migration, World Bank, 2010.
Interactive app and map for migration from any country and migration to
any country in the world.
Migration," LANIC, Latin America Network Information Center, University of
Texas, Austin. Resources,links for Latin American migration and
Centre for Middle Eastern and
Islamic Studies, University of Bergen Research Project descriptions. Note
projects surrounding cultures around the Indian Ocean and migration.
MPI , Migration Policy Institute website, Washington DC think
tank dedicated to sharing resources, articles on world-wide migrations.
Center for Migration Studies, CMS,
New York. This website focuses on international migration, encouraging
understanding betweenImmigrants and receiving communities, and
safeguarding the rights and dignity of migrants. Site established in 1964
by St. Charles Scalabrinians an international
community of Catholic priests, nuns and lay people.
Fred Pearce, "Arrival City:
How the Largest Migration in History is Reshaping Our Worldby
Doug Saunders," The Guardian Book Review, September 17, 2010. Fred
Pearce summarized and compared Saunders' work on migration of rural
pastoralists to urban centers to other books and claimed Saunders' book is a
positive approach to that history.
Mark L. Clifford review of Tom
Miller, "China's Urban Billion: The Story Behind the Biggest
Migration in Human History," Zed Books, Ltd, November 2013, The Asian Review of
Thomas Goodrich review of R. M.
Douglas, "Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second World War," New Haven and
London: Yale University Press, 2012, seen in Counter Currents Book
Reviews, January 2013. Counter Currents Publishing defines themselves as The
Pittsburgh State University, Kansas, Review of Ian Goldin,
Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan,
"Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will
Define Our Future," Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press,
2012, 371 pp. seen in World History
Connected, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2013, Forum on Travelers and Travel Writers,
"Book Review: Exodus:
How Migration is Changing Our World," by Paul Collier, Oxford
University Press, October 2013. Review by Dalibor Rohac, The London School of Economics and Political
Science, Review of Books, August 5, 2013. See other Migration book
reviews at bottom of Dalibor Rohac's review.
Dr. Esme Cleall, review (no. 1597) of Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson, "Empire, Migration and Identity in the
British World," Manchester, England: Manchester University
Press, 2013, 336 pp. seen in Reviews in History, UK, accessed September 5,
University of Illinois, "New
Ideas About Human Migration from Asia to
Americas,"Science Daily, October 29, 2007. See "Related
Stories" on right side of this page.
"The Great Human Migration,"Smithsonian Magazine, July
2008. Five page article on why humans left their African homeland 80,000 years
ago to colonize
Briwnys, "Myths of 19th Century Science: The
Indo-European Invasions," News Vine, September 17, 2008. Article
explaining "scientific" origins of Aryan and Indo-European
Donald K. Grayson and David J.
Meltzer, "A Requiem for North American Overkill," Journal of
Archaeological Sciences,30, 2003, pp. 585-503. Grayson
and Meltzer give burial rites to Paul S. Martin's "overkill
hypothesis" which was the correct historiography as to extinction of Pleistocee megafauna. That
would be that human hunters migrated throughout regions killing animals.
This article stated that there needs to be more research as to this
incorrect theory for North America.
Kirkus Reviews, Felipe
Fernandez-Armesto, "Our America: A
Hispanic History of the United States,"Norton, January 2014.
Kirkus called Armesto'sOur
America"a welcome corrective to Anglocentric versions of American history..." Armesto details the settlement, evolution of the United States from the perspective of
Hispanic explorers, settlers, migrants and native residents across the
Southwest and Florida. He also discussed modern day migrations of Latin
people and culture across the United States.
Dr. Esme Cleall, review (no. 1597) of Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson, "Empire, Migration and Identity in the
BritishWorld," Manchester: Manchester University Press,
2013, 336 pp., seen in Reviews in History, UK, accessedSeptember 5, 2014.
See Stanford University student
citing Paul S. Martin theory as to extinction of Pleistocene Megafauna. Robin Gibbons, "Examining the Extinction of
the Pleistocene Megafauna,"Anthropological
Sciences, Stanford University, Spring 2004, pp.
F.E.G. Cox, "History of Human
Parasitology,"Clinical Microbiology Reviews,American
Association for Microbiology, Vol. 15, No. 4, October 2002. See especially
early section on Human Evolution, Migrations, Civilization and Parasitic Infections.
"Global Migrations, 1846-1940,"Journal of World History,
Vol. 15, No. 2 (2004) by University of Hawai'i Press, seen in Project Muse.
"Global Migrations and Regionalization, 1840-1940," Paper for
conference on Mapping Global Inequality, Santa Cruz, California, December 13, 2007.
Stephanka Korytova-Magstadt, "In
Search of Causes: Historiography of Migration, 1910-1990," ACTA Universitatis Carolinae Studia Territorialia V, 2003.
The author stated in introduction of this monograph that key concepts
used in modern migration scholarship will be demonstrated, including the basic
questions as to why people left, who left and how many left which increasingly has
used the sciences of sociology, statistics, geography, psychology
Michael J. Greenwood, University of
Colorado, Boulder and Gary L. Hunt, University of Maine, Orono,
"The Early History of Migration Research Revisited," Colorado.edu,
Spring Economics Course, originally published in International Regional Science
Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 3-37. This
paper/monographwas a scientific study of United States migration
beginning with a look at the 1880's research by Ravenstein,
D. S. Thomas1930's work and a gravity model, 1930's-1940's,
Susan Stanford Friedman, University
of Wisconsin-Madison,"Migrations, Diasporas, and Borders,"
Introduction to Scholarship in the Modern Languageand Literature,
Nicholas David, ed., New York: MLA Publications, 2007.
Susan Stanford Friedman, "The
'New Migration': Clashes, Connections and Diasporic Women's Writings,"Contemporary Women's Writing,Vol. 3,
Issue 1, 2009, pp. 6-27. Global diasporas into Canada
and UnitedStates from women writer's points of view.
"Migration and History, Section
1.3," International Organization for Migration, Essentials of Migration
Management, Vol. One: Migration Management Foundation, 2004. This paper
from theIOM leads readers/policy makers to think about developing
Migration policies in their region or locale. Topics includedas
background are "Migration in World History," "Migration in
Recent Times," and "Developments and Challenges" with Learning
objectives and GuidedQuestions. See also definitions for different
types of immigrants/migrants.
ed.-in-Chief, Ilse Pinto-Dobernig,
ed., "Migration, Development and Poverty Reduction in Asia," IOM,
International Organization for Migration and Peoples Republic of China Foreign
Ministry, 2005. Paper analyzing migration, development and poverty
reduction in China, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Viet Nam.
Osvaldo Muniz, Wei Li, and Yvonne
Schleicher, "Migration-Conceptual Framework: Why do people move to
work in another place or country?" AAG Center for Global Geography
Education. A learning module or conceptual framework.
P. Nick Kardulias, The College of Wooster, and Thomas D. Hall, DePauw
University, "A World-Systems View of Historical Migration Past and
Present: Providing a General Model for Understanding the Movement of
People," Forum on Public Policy, 2006. As an introduction Kardulias and Hall quote Lillian Trager,
"Most of those engaged in Policy Debates continue to make a number of
assumptions about migration, assumptions that are contradicted by much of the recent
Dr. Cora Cagatucci,
"Maps 2: History-Ancient Period," for Humanities 213-Historical
Overview, Central OregonCommunity College, last updated April 13, 2011.
Not really a slide share but could be used as one or developed into a Map
power point on ancientcivilizations. These many clean color maps
are supplements to teaching migration history. See maps 3 at
bottomof this site.
Pamela Hammond, "Migration as a
Theme in History." 30 frame slide share.
Dr. Henry Yu, St. John's College,
University of British Columbia, "The Cantonese Pacific: Migration,
Historiography, and Unsettling Settlers," American Studies, Princeton
University presentation, November 11, 2013. Dr. Henry Yu extensive power
point on Cantonese/Chinese migration into Canada and North America and reaction
"The Road to Refuge," BBC
Special Report, 2001. See slideshow and photo diary of refugees in
Tanzania. This BBC Special Report seen in:
http://www.henry4school.fr/History/immigration/refugees.htm See more resources, videos, audio podcasts, novels,
"Science Bulletins: Early
Migration for Modern Humans," Human News, American Museum of Natural
History, uploaded January 10, 2013. 2:01 video showing evidence that
human migrations into Europe occurred 1000 years earlier than previously
"Tribute to Paul S. Martin,
Pleistocene Ecologist (1928-2010)," The Great Story blog, assembled by
Connie Barlow. See numerous audio and video clips with Dr. Martin. Paul
S.Martin focused on the "overkill hypothesis" for extinction of
large animals by migrating human hunter gatherersand Ms. Barlow is a fan,
yet does present some evidence which can question Paul Martin's hypothesis.
"The Americas: Migration From Asia to Americas," The Incredible Human Journey,
BBC, published on YouTube, 58:29,February 25, 2014. Anthropologist
and medical doctor Alice Roberts traces early human migration from Asia to the
"From Jesus to Christ,"
PBS Frontline documentary video, WGHB Educational Foundation, 1994-2014.
Much on migration in the story of Jesus, the Jews, and Christianity.
Thomas C. Mountain, "Africans
Uprising Against Slavery: The Zanj Revolt, 869-883 CE," YouTube 4:16 video,
published November 12, 2013. ThomasMountain, independent Western
journalist in Horn of Africa, specifically in Eritrea since 2006, recounted the
forced migrations of east Africans to Basra, Iraq to work as slaves in the
humid, hot salt marshes.
"Patrick Manning World History
and the African Migration Simulation," Digital History. Dr. Manning
explained his African Migration simulation in five short video segments.
"The Oregon Trail:
Westward Migration to the Pacific Ocean," Education Portal. See
video and quiz, transcript, and timeline prepared and narrated by Alexandra
Lutz. Some sections of this resource will ask for 5 day free trial access, but
this video can be seen free. Seealso Texas expansion/migration
problems (video) on upper right side of page. These materials suited for middle
and high school students.
History.com. See short video clips (2-3 minutes) on history of American
The Mexican-American War, PBS, seen
in YouTube, 1:28:52 video documentary, published March 4, 2013. History
of the Mexican-American war in the mid-19th century was a result of
romanticized migration called Manifest Destiny?
Documentaries, Pt. 1-History and Global Context," Color Line, The Society
Pages website/blog, January 26, 2011.Professor's blog for his The
Sociology of Immigration courses which allows one to watch his favorite global
immigrationdocumentaries. See part 2 and 3 of three part series:
Pt. 2 seen in Asian Nation blog,
January 2011. Unauthorized Immigration.
Best Immigration Documentaries, Pt.
3, Assimilation and Integration.
Full Film, "Hester
Street," 1975, 89 minute color film set in 1896, New York City's Lower
East Side where a Russian Jew, Jake, has assimilated to America. He meets
his wife and family who have migrated from Russia and his wife has more
problems with assimilating to American culture. See study guide for this
film in Lessons section.
"Twice A Stranger (doc)," Anemon Films, Greece. See
trailer and comments on documentary showing the population exchange between
Greece and Turkey in 1922-1924. See interview with Turkish women who was part
of this migration as a little girl by Brittney Nadler in the Daily Illini and
also on right side of page see comments on Hindu-Muslim and German-Polish
John Green, "Growth, Cities,
and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25," 12 minute video on
growth of American cities after 1900. Immigration as a reason begins at
the three minute mark of the video.
Matthew Roberts, "On the Road
Again," [wide angle] Window Into Global History, Migration lesson plan
utilizing five video clips which focus on Africa and China migration in early
21st century. Based on PBS Wide Angle documentaries "Border Jumpers,"
2005 Africa and "To Have and Have Not," 2002
Chinese rural to urban migration.
Documentary Films on Migration,
Culture Unplugged. See example below, "Maid in Lebanon:"
Carol Mansour, Film, "Maid
in Lebanon," Culture Unplugged. Migrant workers to Lebanon,
25:00 video documentary.
Migration Documentary Films,
MacArthur Foundation Media. See modern migration documentary films.
"Faith and Fate," History
of the Jews in the 20th century, 1:07:09 YouTube video documentary, uploaded
April 21, 2009. Much of 20th century Jewish history involves migration.
"After Words: Felipe
Fernandez-Armesto,Our America: A
Hispanic History of the United States,"Book TV, C-Span 2, hosted
by Tanzina Vega of theNew York Times.
1:03:41 Video interview. Dr. Armesto discussed his
book which explained the settlement and evolution of the United States from the
perspective of Hispanic, explorers, settlers, migrants and native residents
across the Southwest and Florida. "Our America" also
discussed modern day migrations of Latin people and cultures across America.
"New Diaspora" website
featuring short documentaries/videos on modern Greeks who migrate. Copyright
Peter M. Scheidler,
Kenwood Academy High, Chicago, Illinois, "The Question of Identity:
Ethnicity, Language, Religion and Gender Before Islam-Mesopotamia." Lesson Plan 2, Migration into Ancient Mesopotamia, a
Mapping Lesson, The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago.
Jenny Meyers administrative leader.
BBC The Incredible Human Journey,
Ancient World History, Foundations Page. See tabs at top of page esp. "Late
Pleistocene" for Map Exercise on global migrations and 59:05 video. See
"Migrations and Militarism Across Afroeurasia," World
History for Us All, San Diego State University. What caused pastoral
nomads tomigrate into settled areas between 2000-1000 BCE is question at
the heart of this lesson. Primary authors areSusan Douglass and Jean
Johnson. See Lesson pdf:
World History For Us All, San Diego State University website, Migration lessons and resources.
Results of World History for Us All search for resourcesdealing
with Migration in world history.
Indian Ocean in World History
website, Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center, Lessons
Director Susan Douglass, 2009, updated 2010 and 2011. Materials
andlessons to supplement Migration history in the Indian Ocean. See review
ofthat website by AP World History student and teacher:http://worldhistoryconnected.press.illinois.edu/8.1/maunu.html
Bryan Scheiber and John Maunu, "Featured Review of Indian Ocean in
World History Websites,"World History Connected,Vol. 8,
No.1, February 2011.
Exploring Africa Lessons, Bantu
Migrations, Activity 5, Michigan State University matrix website.
Our Shared Past in the
Mediterranean, Curriculum Project For Educators, published by Ali Vural Ak Center forGlobal
Islamic Studies, George Mason University, 2014. See 6 Lesson modules dealing
with history and culture of the Mediterranean region many dealing with
Amy S. Valerio, "Pastoralists
and Agrarians: Identifying Connections Between Historical and Contemporary Migrations," University of North Carolina
education Lesson Plans. Amy Valerio, Ravenscroft Schools, Raleigh, North
Carolina designed a lesson plan comparing Aryan migrations into northern South
Asia and contemporary Sudan, Africa. When teaching
the Indo-Aryan migrations one has to be aware of the controversies involved,
esp. with the Aryan Invasion theories. See full text of Edwin E. Bryant
and Laurie L. Patton, eds., "Indo-Aryan Evidence and Inference in
Indian History,"New Yorkand London: Routledge, 2005:
See 535 slide share of Bryant and
Patton, eds., book:
National Geographic Education, 1994-2014. Large number of resources,
activities, lessons on human migration in world history. See tabs at top
of page for resources and scroll down to see instructions as to filtering by
Type, Grades and Ages, Intended Audience, Subjects, Downloadable.
"Human Migration: The
Story of a Community's Culture," Xpeditions Lesson Archive,National
Geographic. American migration lessons.
Liz Stinson, "An Infograhic that Maps 2,600 Years of Culture in 5
Minutes," wired.com, August 7, 2014. Infographic created at
University of Texas, Dallas showing how creative minds/artists moved/migrated,
as a change over time, to art hubs. Examples mentioned are Greece, Rome,
Paris, Berlin, and Hollywood. Even though Eurocentric this could be used
as a change over time exerciseto highlight types of arts/artists at each
hub city, why the urban site became an art hub and why it may have declined.
Also, one could add any world
historical context swirling around that city or how that city and it's art effected thesurrounding regions, also world
Seeing that this infographic is Eurocentric,
one could also research what sites prior to Greece were art/intellectual hubs,
such as Babylon, early AbbasidBaghdad, Andalusian Spain or even Bollywood
today and what allowed these "hubs" to create art, intellectual,
technological advances and why they declined.
Brendan Smyth, "Early European
Imperial Colonization in the New World," Gilder Lehrman Institute lesson and resources. You may have subscribe to this site to access
resources. Free subscription. European migrationsor
colonization of Americas lessons.
"Exploring Modern Human
Migrations," National Geographic Education, 1996-2014. Activity
includes research assignments for students on Romani migrations in Europe since
1400, African-Americans after WW II, Jews to Palestine, Vietnam Boat People and
Afghan migrations during 1979 Soviet invasion.
"Background Lessons for Journey North," Learner.org, Journey North lessons.
Human migration is indeed the topic of migrations in world history, but
early humans had to understand, to survive and adapt, animal, bird, fish
migration patterns which in many cases they followed. Here are some
resources and lessons to help in that study if one so wishes.
History: Ancient Civilizations," Houghton Mifflin. See Bantu,
Aryan migrations, Jewish Diaspora,spread of Christianity, Invasions into
Roman Empire maps.
Margaret Beale and Sloan Lynch,
"Push Pull Factors of Migration," National Council for the Social
Studies, Vermont Scholar website.
Migration Lesson Plans, World
Vision, Australia, 2014. See six lesson plans on migration including push
US-Mexican War, PBS, Lessons for
educators. See other digital resources for this war, Migration and
Manifest Destiny in NorthAmerican section towards end of this article.
"Three Perspectives on Native
American Removal and Westward Expansion," Teaching History website.
Primary source lesson plan on Cherokee removal, 1830's, utilizing
documents, letters, stories and speeches.
Guide," Teaching With Movies. "Hester Street,"
1975, 89 minute color film about New York City's Lower East Side, 1896, and a
Russian Jewish family and their problems assimilating to American Life after
migrating from Russia. See full film: http://www.ovguide.com/hester-street-9202a8c04000641f8000000000e56787
Migration in world history teaching
modules, Global REM, University of Minnesota, last modified August 27, 2012.
See manyexamples of migration teaching lessons for University and
Post-Secondary students. See example of modern Muslim migrations to
Europe and Gender, Culture and Migration lesson modules below.
"Muslim Migration to
Europe," University of Minnesota teaching modules. Resources and
teaching module for understanding waves of modern Muslim migrations to Europe
from mid-twentieth century to present.
"Gender, Culture and
Migration," Global REM, University of Minnesota teaching modules.
Hollie Nyseth Brehm, "American Immigration," The Society
Pages, University of Minnesota. Hollie Nyseth Brehm included two "articles" within The Society
Pages website. Immigration in the 2012 Election, November 18, 2012, and
Teaching Race, Ethnicity, and Migrations from University REM research site, December
7, 2012. Both of these articles include lesson ideas, resources, and note
a "Quiz" on Immigration.
"May is Asian Pacific American
heritage Month,"Scholastic.Lessons and activities
highlighting Asian Pacific migration to America for grades pre-K through 12th.
Transatlantic Teaching Training
Resources, Migration Resources on the Web, June 2004 Workshop for Teachers, University
of Wisconsin, Madison. See resources for general migration history,
German immigration to the US/ Wisconsin and Immigration to Germany, plus Lesson
plans for teaching Migration in world and US history.
Two migration lessons explaining how
geography and the environment effect migration of peoples, The Geographic Advantage,
An AAG (Association of American Geographers) Companion Website for
"Understanding the Changing Planet, 2013. See "Understanding
the Changing Planet:"
Osvaldo Muniz (Texas State
University), Wei Li (Arizona State University) and Yvonne Schleicher
(University of Education-Weingarten, Germany), Conceptual Framework: Why
do people move to work in another place or country?" AAG
(Association of American Geographers) Center for Global Education. Detailed
Migration lesson module including key questions, case studies and list of
Savvy, Issue 7, January 2009. See various lessons on global
Victor Carmona, "Approaches to
Understanding Current US/Mexican Immigration Issues," Kellogg Institute for
International Studies, University of Notre Dame, September 20, 2010. See
readings, novels, monographs, articles, movies, documentaries, Television
series, and Lesson Plans.
Stephen Wesson, "Mexican
American Migrations and Communities: A New Library of Congress Primary
Source Set," Library of Congress, May 6, 2013. Click on
"blue" link to see primary sources in Spanish and English.
Caribbean Immigration, Education
Materials, In Motion, New York Public Library, 2005. See lessons,
population statistics, maps for teaching Caribbean
immigration especially into the United States.
Center for Latin American and
Caribbean Studies, University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana, 2013. See
resources and lessons (K-14) section on Latin American Immigration and
Curriculum Resources for the Classroom, revised edition, Hemispheres Project
Lesson modules, University of Texas, Austin, December 2011. See case
studies about migration from all regionsand countries in the world.
"Immigration in Europe: Challenges
and Opportunities-A Resource Packet for K-14 Educators," ORIAS, University
ofCalifornia, Berkeley, prepared for Forum March 2011. Note
European and North American lesson modules.
"Resources on Migration,"
Center for Latin American Studies, The Ohio State University. See
resources forOrganizations, Media, Books (elementary, middle school, high
school), and Lesson plans for Latin American migration.
"New Faces: Latinos in
North Carolina," Working Films. Five Lessons in this 24 pp. pdf
dealing with globalization, migration and Latinos in North Carolina. One
could adapt this lesson for your state.
"US Immigration Policy:
What Should We Do?" Choices, 2014. One week curriculum unit on US Immigration policy.
Collection," Facing History and Ourselves, 2014. Lesson plans and
resources for Migration and Immigration studies.
The Festival," Project Kit, June 2013. Film festival resources
and lessons for Cine Migratorio in Spain which
portrayed experiences of migrations organized by youths living in Spain.
Note Ryba L. Epstein designed DBQ [Document Based Essay question] on Travelers and their
views on "the Other" they encountered in
their trade, political and militarymissions, migrations, diasporas, etc.
Ryba L. Epstein 2011. Permission granted for
classroom use with acknowledgement.
Note to teachers: choose 6-8 of the following documents for a timed essay. All
may be used for an out-of-class practice DBQ.
Travel and the "Other" DBQ
Instructions to students:
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand
historical documents. Write an essay that:
• Has a relevant thesis that does more than simply restate the question.
• Supports the thesis with evidence from the documents.
• Uses all of the documents.
• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as
possible and explaining the reason for the groups [group implies at least two
documents]. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.
• Interprets the meaning of the documents correctly.
• Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors' points
• Notes what additional information or documents would be useful to answer the
question and explains why that document would be useful in answering the
Using the documents listed below from the time period of 600 BCE to 1500 CE,
analyze the various reactions of travelers and the people whom they encountered
to the "other" and speculate on the reasons for these reactions. Be
sure to explain what specific additional sources might change
yourinterpretation of the question.
Hanno, a Carthaginian admiral, on a voyage along the west coast of Africa,
around 425 B.C.E., searching for sites for new settlements:
"Passing on from there we came to the large river Lixos,
flowing from Libya, besides which nomads called Lixitae pastured there flocks. We stayed some time
withthem and became friends. . . . Inland from there dwelt inhospitable
Ethiopians in land ridden with wild beasts and hemmed in by great mountains. .
. . [Further along the journey, probably up the Senegal River] . . . we came to
the end of the lake, overhung by some very high mountains crowded with savages
clad in the skins of wild beasts, who stoned us and beat us off and prevented
us from disembarking."
Priscus, c. 450 C.E., official sent to Attila the Hun
by the Eastern Roman Empire:
"A lavish meal, served on silver trenchers, was prepared for us and the
other barbarians, but Attila just had meat on a wooden platter, for this was
one aspect ofhis self-discipline. For instance, gold or silver cups were
presented to the others diners, but his own goblet was made of wood. His
clothes, too, were simple, and no trouble was taken except to have them clean."
Ibn Fadlun, circa 920 C.E., ambassador of the Caliph
of Baghdad to the Bulgar Khaganate:
"I saw the Rus when they arrived on their
trading mission and anchored at the River Atul [Volga]. Never had I seen people of more perfect physique; they are tall as
date-palms, and reddish in color. They wear neither coat nor mantle, but each
man carries a cape which covers one half of his body, leaving one hand free.
Their swords are Frankish in pattern, broad, flat, and fluted. Each man has
[tattooed upon him] trees, figures, and the like from the fingernails to the
neck. . . . They are the filthiest of God's creatures. They do not wash after
discharging their natural functions, neither do they wash their hands after
meals. They are as donkeys."
From Travels of Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and explorer, describing the
capital of the Yuan dynasty in China c. 1280-90 C.E.:
"The people are idolaters; and since they were conquered by the Great
Khan* they use paper money. [Both men and women are fair and comely, and for
the mostpart clothe themselves in silk, so vast is the supply of that
material, both from the whole district of Kinsay, and
from the imports by traders from other provinces.]
And you must
know they eat every kind of flesh, even that of dogs and other unclean beasts,
which nothing would induce a Christian to eat."
*Kublai, grandson of Genghis Khan
Usama, Syrian Muslim chronicler, 12th century:
"Everyone who is a fresh immigrant from the Frankish lands is ruder in
character than those who have been acclimatized and have held long associations
with the Muslims. . . .
we came to the house of one of the old knights who
came with the first expedition. This man had retired from the army and was
living on the income of the property he owned in Antioch.
He had a fine table brought out, spread with a splendid selection of appetizing
food. He saw that I was not eating, and said: ‘Don't worry, please; eat what you like,for I don't eat Frankish food. I have
Egyptian cooks and only eat what they serve. No pig's flesh ever comes into my
house.' So I ate, although cautiously, and then we left."
Ibn Battuta, from Travels in Asia and Africa, 14th century:
". . . I met the qadi of Mali, Abd al-Rahman, who came to see me: he is a black, has
been on the pilgrimage [to Mecca], and is a noble person with good qualities
He sent me a cow as his hospitality gift. I met the interpreter Dugha, a noble black and a leader of theirs. He sent me a
bull. . . . They performed their duty towards me [as a guest] most perfectly;
may God bless and reward them for their good deeds!"
Bertrandon de La Brocquière,
from his book The Journey to Outre-Mer, French
pilgrim to the Middle East, around 1433 CE:
"They [the Turks] are a tolerably handsome race, with long beards, but of
moderate size and strength. I know well that it is a common expression to say
‘as strong as a Turk',
nevertheless I have seen an infinity of Christians excel them when strength was
necessary, . . . They are diligent, willingly rise early, and live on little,
being satisfied with bread badly baked, raw meat dried in the sun, milk curdled
or not, honey, cheese, grapes, fruit, herbs, and even a handful of flour with
which they make a soup sufficient to feed six or eight for a day. . . . Their
horses are good, cost little in food, gallop well and for a long time. They
keep them on short allowances, never feeding them but at night and then giving
them only five or six handfuls of barley with double the quantity of chopped
straw, the whole put into a bag which hangs from the horse's ears. . . . I must
own that in my various experiences I have always found the Turks frank and
loyal, and when it was necessary to show courage, they have never failed . . .
Sultan Bayezid II, ruler of the Ottoman empire
"You know very well the unwashed [Christians] and their ways and manners,
which certainly are not fine. They are indolent, sleepy, easily shocked, inactive; they like to drink much and to eat much; . . .
They keep horses only to ride while hunting with their dogs; if one of them
wishes to have a good war-horse, he sends to buy it from us. . . .They let
women follow them in the campaigns, and at their dinners give them the upper
places; and they always want to have warm dishes. In short, there is no good in
Christopher Columbus, from his log dated October 12, 1492:
"I want the natives to develop a friendly attitude toward us because I
know that they are a people who can be made free and converted to our Holy
Faith more by love than by force. I therefore gave red caps to some and glass
beads to others. . . . And they took great pleasure in this and became so
friendly that it was a marvel. They traded and gave everything they had in good
will, but it seems to me that they have very little and are poor in everything.
I warned my men to take nothing from the people without giving something in
From Book 12 of "The Florentine Codex," a history of the Spanish
conquest of Mexico written by Friar Bernardino de Sahagún in collaboration with Aztec menwho were former students, late 16th
"They gave [the Spaniards] emblems of gold, banners of quetzal plumes, and
golden necklaces. And when they gave them these, the Spaniards' faces grinned;
they were delighted, they were overjoyed. They snatched up the gold like
monkeys. . . . They were swollen with greed; . . . they hungered for that gold
like wild pigs. . . . They babbled in a barbarous language; everything they said
was in a savage tongue. . . ."
Migration Topical Bibliography,
British Library, Social Science Collection Guide. This bibliography was
developed in 2008 by PhD student, Amy Claridge and
includes books, theses, journals, databases, maps and sound archives.
"Significant Books on
Immigration, Immigrants, and Ethnicity," University of Washington
bibliography, 2010. Most works listed are American history focused encompassing
books written from 1985-2006.
"Migration," History in
Focus, UK. Bibliographies (annotated) on migration topics including
"General," see 18thcentury convict transportation, Africa,
American including Caribbean, Asian and Middle East, Australian, British and
Irish, and Europe.
"Blacks in the Diaspora,"
Worldcat.org, Search, 2001-2014. See 144 books on Blacks in global
Patrick Manning, Department of
History website, University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Manning's publications and
articles manyhaving to do with migration in world history,
Global History Annotated
Bibliography, Arts on line, Monash University,
Australia, April 27, 2013. Many of these titles include migration in
world history chapters, sections, discussions and historiography.
international institute of social history. Short collection of student
and worker migrant sites for social justice.
David Christian, "The Silk
Roads in World History," (History 680) Central Asia Studies World Wide,
course syllabus for the Study of Central Eurasia, San Diego State University,
Department of History, Fall 2001.
Dr.Elaine MacKinnon syllabus
for her World History Survey course, Fall 2012,
utilizing Bentley and Zeigler,Traditionsand Encounters,McGraw-Hill
and her own work, Places of Encounter:
"Out of Eden: History of Expulsions in the Pre-Modern West," Fall 2013, syllabus, Harvard University. Deportations and
forced migrations focus of this course.
"Migration in Twentieth Century Europe," Oberlin College, Fall 2006 syllabus.
"The Sociology of Migration," Department of Sociology, Boston
College, Fall 2010.
Thomas Anderson, University of
Pittsburgh Spring 2010, "History 1716-Indian Ocean World," syllabus.
Dr. Rajashree Mazumder, "Migration in the Indian Ocean Draft
Syllabus," Yale University, Fall 2013.
Professor Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, "Islam Beyond the Central Islamic Lands: China and
Europe," New York University, History Department syllabus, Fall 2011.
Course examines Islamic diaspora and migrations into China and western Europe.
Professor Irene Bloemraad,
University of California, Berkeley, "Sociology 146: Immigration in
Global Perspective," Spring 2012.
Shira Klein, "Migration in World History," syllabus,
Chapman University, Fall 2013.
"The History of Immigration in Europe and the United States from WW II to
Present," New York University course syllabus, Spring 2011. This course focused on the genesis of multicultural contemporary
Dr. Michael J. Greenwood,
"Migration, Immigration Adaptations and Development, Economics course
syllabus, University of Colorado, Boulder, Spring 2011. Course surrounded economics of United States migration history.
Aldo Lauria Santiago, "Colloquium in Labor History: Latin American Workers,
South and North," Rutgers University, Department of History syllabus.
Urban and rural workers since late 19th century, Latin American labor
migration or incorporation into the United States and labor organizing, protest
and revolt was focus of this colloquium.
Migration," Coursera syllabus prepared by Dr.
Abril Trigo, The Ohio State University, 2014. Course
aimed at high school teachers.
"International Migration," Soc 236A, UCLA
course syllabus, Department of Sociology.
"Asian-US Migration," Pittsburg State University, Fall 2012. Migration
from India, Japan and China to the United States graduate course.
Dr. Huei-Ying Kuo, "Chinese Migration in Modern World History, 1500's-2000's," School of Sociology syllabus,
John Hopkins University.
"MSc Global Migration,"
Student Handbook, University College London, 2013-2014. UCL Department of
Geography postgraduate course handbook. Important theme for students to
understand is global migration in the age of globalization.
Dr. M.S.Y. Lee and Dr. A.S.C. Sim, "Globalization and Migration, Global Issues
course syllabus, The University of Hong Kong, 2014-2015.
The Protection Project, John Hopkins
University, Syllabi Archive. See course syllabi on Migration, human
trafficking, Gender and migration, plus other topics in this website.
Regional Migration Digital
Sean P. Connaughton,
"Oceanic Explorations: Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement,Terra Australis 26," Australian National
University, 2007 seen Academai.edu. Terra Australis is a series of monographs on Pacific settlement, migrations, archaeology,history, ed. by Stuart Bedford, Christophe Sand and Sean P. Connaughton.
"Pacific Migrations," The
Encyclopedia of New Zealand website. See resources on original peoples,
Lapitapeople migrations to modern times.
"Scientists Improve dating of
early human settlement," Phys.org News, November 15, 2012. Simon
Fraser University scientists, Canada, have dated human colonization of
Polynesian triangle to 880-896 BCE.
Lynton Dove White, "Canoe
Plants of Ancient Hawaii," Ka Imi Naauao o Hawaii Nei, 2003. Voyaging canoes criss-crossed Oceania and finally to the mid-Pacific to Hawaii. Lynton Dove White's website
describing those plants and the migrations.
Marcia Malory, "Research
Reveals Tonga's Role as Pacific Trade Hub," Phys.org news, July 8, 2014.
Tonga's growth as a centralized political and trade center impacting a vast
region of the Pacific unveiled by examining tombs on Tonga.
Charles W. Romney, "Habeas
Corpus, Asian Migrants, and Imperial Rights in Hawaii in 1900,"World
HistoryConnected, 2011. Dr. Charles Romney, University of
Arkansas, Little Rock, highlights Chinese female migrants lawsuits against men
who "bought" them as prostitutes and then claimed they were married to
the immigrant women.
John Maunu, "Hawaii in World
History: On-Line Resources,"World History Connected,
Vol. 8, No. 3, October 2011. See many digital resources, lessons, university
syllabi, etc. involving migration, diaspora, immigration in Hawaiian history.
map source: Traditional 'Out of Africa' migration map. K.
Kris Hirst, Migrations Out of Africa, Archaeology,
Roger Blench, "Language,
Linguistics and Archaeology; their integration in the study of African
prehistory," Chapter for The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology,"
Peter Mitchell & Paul Lane, eds., July 2013. Roger Blench discussed
the "new synthesis" in African prehistory migration studies which
incorporates the social sciences, language, linguistics, archaeology, DNA
genetic research to reach farther back into world history.
Charles Q. Choi, "Ancient
Arabian Stones Hint at How Human's Migrated out of Africa,"Live
Science,August 26, 2014.
Stanford University Medical Center,
"Genetic Evidence Used to Trace Ancient African Migration,"Science
Daily,August 5, 2008. Using DNA evidence Stanford University Medical
Center claimed that new ideas such as animal herding strategies, moved via
migration not by movement of ideas between neighbors.
"Africa Human Geography,"
National Geographic education encyclopedia Lessons. Note comments on
three important migrations which shaped African history: earliest
pre-human migrations from the "Mother Continent," Bantu and Slave
"Bantu Migrations," New
York State Education Department. See slide show on left side of page for
maps of Bantu migrations.
Shula Marks, "South Africa-'The
Myth of the Empty Land,'"History Today,Vol. 30, Issue
1, 1980. Shula Marks unveils abundant archaeological evidence, much of it
recently gathered, for the widespread settlement of South Africa before 1488
when Portuguese sailors first reached the Cape. The South African
government had "given" native Bantu-speaking peoples only 13% of the
land claiming "evidence" that at the time of initial white migration
large areas of land were empty. Migration as political, propaganda and
Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic
Slave Trade Database. Information available on more than 35,000 slave
voyages. Idea proposed in 1990 by David Ellis and Stephen Behrendt of the British Public Record Office.
Patrick Manning, "African
Population, 1650-1950: Methods for New Estimates by Region," African
Economic History Conference, Vancouver, BC, April 2013. Dr. Manning's
presentation summarizing his methodology for estimating African population
including variables of birth, death, migration and forced slave migrations.
All this part of the African Population Project.
Aderito Machava, "Women and
Migration in African Historiography: Notes for a Debate,"Afrika Zaani,Nos.
18 & 19, 2010-2011, pp. 17-24. Council for the Development of Social
Science Research in Africa & Association of African Historians, 2013. Aderito Machava claimed that
women are invisible in African migration research and studies due to the
patriarchy evident in African cultures.
Peter Stanton, "The Subaltern
Global History and Africa: Slaves, Soldiers and Migrants-Challenging
Historians," Georgetown University research paper (18 pages) for Phi Alpha
Theta Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference, March 23, 2013. Focus is on
historiography and historical challenges to teaching the under-class, or subaltern,
in African studies.
monograph seen in Academia.
"The African Diaspora in the
Indian Ocean," Schomburg Center for Research in
Black Culture, The New York Public Library, 2011.
Website with tabs at top to navigate through the many resources on African
migration in the Indian Ocean world with an introduction by Dr. Omar H. Ali,
University of North Carolina, Greensboro. See Dr. Omar H. Ali's essay in pdf format: http://www.uncg.edu/afs/faculty/omar_ali/ali_publications/BOOK%20CHAPTERS/The_African_Diaspora_in_the_Indian_Ocean_World_Ali_Essay.pdf
Tiffany Ruby Patterson and Robin D.
G. Kelley, "Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African
Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,"African Studies
Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue on the Diaspora, April 2000, pp.
11-45. Seen in Jstor.org. See Table of Contents of that Special Issue:
Sola Akinrinade and Olukoya Ogen, "Historicising the Nigerian Diaspora: Nigerian
Migrants and Homeland Relations," TJPTurkish Journal of Politics,Vol.
2, No. 2, Winter 2011. These two professors from
Osun State University reject diaspora historiography of placing individual
counties' migration history within the larger context of African diaspora and
urge more study on single nation diasporas.
Natasha Sheldon, "The Takla Makan Mummies: Human
Migration and Ethnic Discord," Decoded Past, May 7, 2013. Tarim Basin is controversial home of the Takla Makan Mummies which some
say prove pre-modern human migratory patterns and ethnic discord as well as
early East-West admixture of migrating peoples. Mummies can also prove that the people who live in the Tarim Basin are not ethnic Chinese and deserve to be
granted independent statehood.
Christine Keyser, etc.,
"Ancient DNA Provides new insight into the History of the south Siberian
Kurgan people," OriginalInvestigation, May 16, 2009, Springer-Verlag 2009. Exploring DNA this team finds evidence
as to who settled south Siberia during early Eurasian steppe migrations.
Bronze and Iron Ages south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly
"Investigating the Sea Peoples: Nomadic Tribes and Causes of Migration From Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age," May 1, 2012
paper seen in academia.edu.Molly Greenhouse is undergraduate student in
University of Maryland, Baltimore County Ancient Studies program. This
paper was given special notice by University of Maryland.
David Christian, "Silk Roads or
Steppe Roads," used with permission for Bridging World History, Annenberg Foundation, 2004. The traditional view of the
Silk Roads was that it linked trade and migration of major regions of agrarian
civilizations in Afro-Eurasia and as originating in the Classical Era.
David Christian cites evidence as to the Silk Roads as trans-ecological
exchanges of the agrarian world to the pastoralist world of inner Eurasian
steppes and woodland cultures to the north. Plus, Christian postulated
that the Steppe/Silk Road exchanges were much older than the classical period,
actually reaching back to the 4th millennium BCE.
Craig Benjamin, "The Yuezhi and Sogdia,"Tansoxiana WebfestschriftSeries
I, March 2003. Dr. Benjamin, now professor at Grand Valley State
University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, discussed the defeat of the central
Eurasian steppe Yuezhi by the Xiongnu in 162 BCEand the Yuezhi westward migration
into Sogdian territories, today Afghanistan.
"The Sogdians of the Silk Road," Silk Road Sogdians blog,
April 4, 2011. The Sogdians centered in Central Asia,
Uzbekistan, etc. dominated the Silk Road as principal merchants until conquered
by Hephthalites and Turks in the 5th and 6th
centuries CE. Their trade diasporas linked
China, India and the Middle East cultures.
Xinru Liu, "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of
Nomadic and Sedentary Societies,"Journal of World History,Vol.
12, No. 2, 2001, pp. 261-292. Migration, adaption and change over time in Central Asia, 130 BCE-240 CE.
Jeffrey Hays, "Horseman
Migrations, Weapons and Life on the Steppe," Facts and Details, last
updated November 2012.
etc. al, "Unravelling Migration in the Steppe: Mitochondrial DNA
Sequences from Central Asians,"
Royal Society paper, published March
31, 2004, pp. 941-947. Researchers claimed that this paper will help clarify
debates on theWestern and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asian
migration history. See C. Lalueza-Fox research
cited in blogsite below on Central Asian migrations,
languages, DNA and archaeology studies, especially
facial, ethnic photographs of various European looking Central Asian people:
Yunus Emre Gurbuz,
"One Migration, Two Different Historiographies: The Migration of the
Uzbeks and Kazakhs in the 15th century," Turk Studies,International
Periodical for the Language, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, Academic
Vol. 8, Issue 5, September 2013. Seen in academia.edu. The Soviet Union
"new man" was to be stripped of allethnic identity and be a
Soviet which ignored central Asian schools of ethnic identity in the classroom. Yunus Emre Gurbuzexplained Uzbek and Kazakh migration history
compared to Soviet versions.
"The Russian Minority in Central Asia," Kennan Institute, Woodrow
Wilson Institute Center for Scholars, Occasional Paper # 297, paper translated
by Michelle Smith. Migration of Russians into Central Asia.
"Going Beyond 1915 to Celebrate the Strength and Vibrance of the Global Armenian Diaspora," Kick Starter.
Erica Marat, "Labor Migration
in Central Asia: Implications of the Global Economic Crisis," Silk
Road Paper, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Project, May
2009. Erica Marat's monograph discussed Central Asian labor migrations in
the 2000's with peak migration being in 2008.
Emily Underwood, "Ancient Tools
Point to Early Migration Into Arabia,"Science
Magazine, November 30, 2011. 106,000 years ago people stood near the Red
Sea and decided to migrate into Arabia which had a "greener"
environment than it does now.
"Archaeological Evidence About the Story of
Abraham in the Bible," Ancient History, about.com. Clay tablets
cited as evidence for journey/migration of Abraham west to the Levant.
"The Age of the Patriarchs,
1950-1500 BCE," Jewish Virtual Library, short summary of Egyptian empire
and Abraham's migration out of Mesopotamia.
D. T. Potts, "Potts 2013-Mesopotamian
and Persian Migrations: Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration,
Blackwell, ed. I. Ness 2013," Academia. Five page encyclopedia entry
for Mesopotamian and Persian migrations in ancient history.
"The Jewish Diaspora,"
Frontline PBS, "From Jesus to Christ," documentary, 1995-2014 WGBH
Educational Foundation. See slim essays by L. Michael
White,University of Texas, Austin, Shaye I. D. Cohen, Brown University,
Paula Fredriksen, Boston University on the Jewishmigrations in time of Christ. Christians
began to spread out beyond the original homeland and they were followinga
migration path that had been well trod by other Jews. See Frontline PBS
entire "From Jesus to Christ" documentary:
"Immigration to Israel:
Introduction and Overview," Jewish Virtual Library, 2014. Jewish point of view
as to migration/immigration into their homeland. Migration theory and history
as evidence as to who owns the land in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Im Nin'Alu's Book of Origins.
Jewish website dedicated to providing evidence for Jewish right to Israel
and all of Jerusalem with migration histories of semitic peoples.
Fred M. Gottheil,
"The Smoking Gun: Arab immigration into Palestine, 1922-1931,Middle
East Quarterly, Winter 2003, pp. 53-64. Pro-Israel
point of view as to control of land in the Levant. See link to "Founding
National Myths" article on top right of page.
Mushsin Yusuf, "The Partition of Palestine-An Arab
Perspective,"Palestine-Israel Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2002.
Mushin Yusuf begins his article by claiming, "the Jewish Conquering of Palestine can be viewed in the Western tradition of the crusades
and imperialism." The Palestine-Israel Journal was founded in 1994
by an Israeli and Palestinian journalist. Note argument as to Palestinian
migration into the region.
Palestine Remembered website
including migrations and Palestinian diaspora. Palestinian perspective as to ownership
of land and migration history.
Nazli Choucri, "Migration in the
Middle East-Transformation and Change,"Middle East Review,Winter 1983/4. Increased need for manpower after oil
price increase of 1973 is reason for major change in Middle East migrations.
Suresh K. Pillai, "Gulf
Dreams-Essays on Migration of Malayalees to Gulf
Countries," 2011 monograph seen in Academia.edu.
Map source: Scheme of
Indo-European Migrations from ca 4000-1000 BCE according to Kurgan hypothesis, Human
"Origins of Indo-Europeans,
Language Development," Human Journey. See three popular theories for
Indo-European people and their language in two page Human Journey
"essay" which include the Kurgan thesis, Anatolian thesis, and the PaleolithicContinuity
Aryan Invasion Theory links,
Hindunet.org. See eight resources/links to Aryan migrations, specifically the Aryan
Invasion theory. See one example of those links: David Frawley, "The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India,"
"Aryan Invasion of India, Pt. 1,"Hindu Online, November
10, 2008. See another version of Dr. Frawley's Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India.
"The Aryan Invasion:
Theories, Counter-theories and Historical Significance,"Archaeology
Online, 2005-2014. References to British use of Aryan Invasion theory to
promote the British Raj in India, i. e., India being ruled for the second time by "people the color of wheat."
Slide ppt. "Aryan Invasion
Theory, Myth or Reality-Evidence for and against," North Carolina State
University, February 21, 2007.
Dr. Koenraad Elst, "The Politics of the Aryan Invasion
Theory," Koenraad Elst website. Professor Elst shares articles and
papers as to the politicization of the Aryan Migration Myth. Migration
stories as political, nationalistic and propaganda. Go to "Home" tab
for updated resources.
"Myths, history, and
Migration," Wayanad, January 5, 2013. A
slim article on the history of northeast Kerala Province, India
migrationbeginning with very ancient peoples, the Jains, British and now
tourists who are making a mess of Wayanad land even
though they bring money. See tribes of Wayanad: http://wayanad.com/tribes-in-wayanad.htm
"Buddhism and Its Spread Along the Silk Road," Silk Road Foundation. Short
article on Buddhist migration into northernIndia, Tarim Basin, the steppe and into China with timeline and map.
Dr. Habib Siddiqui, "The
Decline of Buddhism in Ancient and Medieval India-Analysis,"Eurasia
Review, August 5, 2013. Reasons for Buddhist migrations east and
"Migration: An Anthropological Perspective With Special References to North Bengal, India,"International
E-Publication, International Science Congress Association, 2013. Ashok Dasgupta, University of North Bengal, began his
monograph with a discussion about theories of migration research and moves into
three case studies of tribal migrations in north India.
Thomas Anderson, University of New
Hampshire, "Teaching the Indian Ocean World,"
World History Connected, Vol. 11, Issue 1, February
2014. Note references to Indian Oceanmigration and extensive examples of
migration footnotes/sources at end of this essay.
Richard B. Allen, Framingham State
College, "Slavery and the Slave Trades in the Indian Ocean and Arab
World: Global Connections and
Disconnections," 10th Annual Gilder Lehrman International Conference at Yale University, November 7-8, 2008. Dr.
Allen's monograph highlights 19th century slave migrations in the Indian Ocean
and Arab World.
Mohammad Jalal Uddin Sikder, "Population Movements and the Threat of
HIV/AIDS Virus at the Bangladesh-India Border," RSIS Monograph No. 14,
NTS-Asia Secretariat, S. Rajaratnam School of International
Studies (RSIS), August 22, 2008.
Indian Ocean research projects,
University of Bergen Centre for Middle East and Islamic Studies. See esp.
short summaries of Hadrami diaspora: Migration
of People, commodities and ideas and Trade and Migration project.
Ellen Laipson and Amit Pandya, eds., "On the Move-Migration Challenges in the Indian
Ocean Littoral," Henry L. Stimson Center, 2010.
Suzanne McMahon, South Asian
Bibliographer, University of California, Berkeley,"Overview of
South Asian Diaspora," University of California, Berkeley Library, 1995.
Slim annotations for 19th-20th century Indian migrations. See South
Asia Resources page, South/Southeast Asia Library Resources, University of
California, Berkeley for more on South
Asiadiaspora and migrations: http://www.lib.berkeley.edu/SSEAL/SouthAsia/
"The Indian Diaspora," Vinay Lal Blog.
Dr. Vinay Lal, UCLA professor of South Asian
History and Culture, gives an overview of modern Indian migration. See
four of his Diaspora/Migration articles written for The Hindu news, India, at
the bottom of this short essay. See other resources on this topic on
right side of page.
"South Asian Migration
Histories Timeline," Moving Here website,
Migration Histories, The National Archives, UK. Timeline of British
migrations to and from South Asia.
Xiayun Cai, etc. from Genographic Consortium, "Human Migrations Through Bottlenecks
from Southeast Asia Into East Asia During Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y
Chromosomes," Plosone.org, August 31, 2011 DOI 10.1371/ journal.pone.0024282.
Molecular anthropology studies have found most of the Y-chromosome
lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. This paper displayed
data from 1,652 individual belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer and Hmong-Mien speaking
Craig A. Lockard, "Southeast
Asia in World History,World History Connected, Vol. 5, No. 1,
October 2007. Seereferences to migration and movement of peoples in
this article by Southeast Asian researcher Dr. Craig Lockard, University of
Wisconsin, Green Bay.
Allen Charlie, "Iban's Myth and History: Migration and the Origins of Iban Culture," Allen Charlie website, September
8, 2011. Note links Pt. 1 and Pt. 2 to Iban Migration myths and history. Iban people lived
on southeast maritime island of Borneo.
Lorraine Elliott, ed., "Climate
Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia," S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, monograph no.
24, 2012. Seven chapters by seven authors describing climate change
effects on humanmigration in modern Southeast Asia.
"Global Migration, 1846-1970,"Journal of World History,Issue
15, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 155-189, seen in Bridging World History as Reading
no. 2, Annenberg Foundation, 2004. Adam McKeown has claimed that northern Asia and southeast Asian
migrations have been overlooked within the popularity of Atlantic world migrations.
Dr. McKeown stated that northern and southeast Asian migration is comparable to transatlantic
flows and followed similar cycles of growth and contraction.
"Chinese Migration into
Southeast Asia," OAC, Online Archive of California, 2009 The Regents of the University of California. Brief history
of Chinese migration into Southeast Asia since 19th century.
Amarjit Kaur, "Labor Crossings in Southeast Asia:
Linking Contemporary Labor Migration," New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 1, June 2009, pp. 276-303. Amarjit Kaur, University of New England, links historical
contemporary Southeast Asian long-distance labor migration which
approximated European transatlantic migrations. Southeast Asia was a major
destination of mass long-distance labor migrations in late 19th and early 20th
century fromChina and India and was a defining feature of Asian
Charles Hirshman and Sabrina Bonaparte, "Population and Society in Southeast Asia: A
Historical Perspective," Chapter 1, seen in "Demography of Southeast
Asia: Recent histories and future directions," eds. L. Williams
and P. Guest,pp. 1-37, New York: Cornell University. Hirshman and Bonaparte explain Southeast Asia's huge
demographic change over time citing migration as one reason for that population
explosion inlate 20th and early 21st centuries.
Asmita Naik, Elca Stigler and Frank Laczko, "Migration,
Development and Natural Disasters: Insights From the Indian Ocean Tsunami," IOM Migration Research Series, No. 30,
International Organization for Migration, Geneva, 2007. Thethree authors
focus on Indonesian, Sri Lanka and Thailand migrations due to the effects of
the recent Indian Ocean tsunami.
Lorraine Elliott, ed., "Climate
Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia," RSIS Monograph
No. 24, S. Rajaratnam School of International
Studies, 2012. See six chapters from this monograph seen in academia.edua.
"Human Migrations: Eastern Odyssey,"Nature, May
12, 2012. Humans had spread across Asia by 50,000 years ago.
Nicola Di Cosomo,
"Ancient China and Its Enemies-The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian
History," Cambridge University Press, 2002 seen in academia.edu.
Nicola DiCosomo, University of Canterbury,
Christchurch, New Zealand, cites revisionist scholarship as to the powerful
Chinese empire and relationship to the "barbarians" to the north. New
archaeological evidence shows these nomadic groups to be more organized, advanced
and politically unified than previously thought. Migration and trade
routes was seen as a growing threat to Chinese power.
Sooyoun Kim, "Esoteric Buddhism and the Cross Cultural Transiguration of Suramgama-Sutra
Faith in Goryeo," The Asian Review of World
History, Vol. 2, Issue 2, July 2014, pp. 169-195. University of Southern
California's Sooyoun Kim discussed the migration of
Buddhism from it's origin in 5th century BCE India to China during the birth of Christ
and then a migration to Korea during the period of the Three Kingdoms,
specifically the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392 CE).
Dr. Kim discussed the syncretism that took place as Buddhism adapted to
Chinese and Korean religions and showed how Korea under the Goryeo dynasty developed their own form of Buddhism differing from the Chinese.
Basel University, review of Adam McKeown, "Melancholy
Order: Asia Migration and the Globalization of Borders,"
New York: Columbia University Press, 2008, in H-Suz-u-Kit,
July 23, 2010. Dr. Adam McKeownchallenges
old migration historiography in his work, claiming that state borders were not
static in the last two hundred years and that migration occurred within tensions and
conflict among border states.
Professor Michael Laffan, Princeton University, Review of Sunil Amrith, "Migrations and Diaspora in Modern
Asia," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 240 pp.,
January 2012. Date accessed: 3 August, 2014. Sunil Amrith highlights Asian migration history from 1850's to
"Migrations From China,"Journal of International Affairs,Vol.
49, Issue 2, Winter 1996 seen in Indiana University-Purdue University,
Indianapolis Anthropology course readings list.Slim article concerned
migrations within modern China (19th century-20th century).
"The Largest Migration in
History,"The Economist,February 24, 2012. View and
listen to videographic, 2:43, on rural to urban
migration in modern China. See two other articles by clicking on
"here" and "here" beneath the videographic box.
Marja M. B. Asis, "Asian Women
Migrants: Going the Distance, But Not Far Enough," Migration Policy
Institute, March 1, 2003. Discussion of Asian women migrating to Gulf
States and "dragon" Asian economies to fill labor needs in the last
Graemo Hugo, University of Adelaide, "Migration in the
Asia-Pacific region," Global Commission on International Migration, GCIM,
a paper presented for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration, September 2005.
Asian, Southeast Asian, Pacific migration analyzed and discussed.
Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller,
"Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region," Migration Policy Institute,
July 10, 2009. Article describing modern Asian-Pacific migrations. See more
articles on right side of page.
"Urbanization and Demographics
Could Skew China's Economic Rebalancing,"Stratfor Intelligence, September 3, 2014. Internal Chinese migration discussed
and effects on China's future.
Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza,
"The Basque Population and Ancient Migrations in Europe,"Aranzadi Science Society, Munibe,
Supplement No. 6,pp. 129-137, San Sebastian 1988. Monograph
discussing theories as to why the Basque language and culturehas been
preserved a midst many streams of European migrations. See home page for Aranzadi Science Society: http://www.aranzadi-zientziak.org/
Complete text of Robert Drews, "The Coming of the Greeks-Indo-European
Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East, Princeton University
Press, 1988. Dr. Drews discussed migration of
the Bronze Age Greeks, their proto-Indo-European language and war chariots.
"Migration, Identity, and Place," Classics and Ancient History project, University of Exeter, UK. Isayev's ancient Italian research challenges prevailing
view that in the ancient world there was a natural tie to a specific homeland
and a demographically settled world. New understanding of what it means
to belong to a community and place is seen in Elena Isayev's work, in other words, mobility and migration in the last millennium BCE was
ongoing and cyclical.
and Conquests. See other maps many dealing with migrations on left side
"Viking Ethnicities: A Historiographic Overview,"History Compass, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1-12 seen
in Academia.edu. Clare Downham's paper
discussed trends in historiography of Viking ethnicities and cultural identities,
800-1000 CE and highlights comparative analysis of human migrations in the
field of Viking Studies.
Excerpts from Donald W. Treadgold, "The Great Siberian Migration-Government
and Peasant Resettlement from Emancipation to the First World War,"Princeton,
New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957 in University of Oregon pages.
Mid-19th centuryRussian peasant reforms saw migration east past
the Urals into Siberia. See brief comparative to Americanmigrations
Clifton B. Parker, "European
Immigrants to America in early 20th century assimilated successfully, Stanford
Economist Says,"Stanford News,August 7, 2014.
Defying traditional history, Stanford economist claimed that European
immigrants to America in late 19th and early 20th century made as much income
as native born Americans.
Zig Layton-Henry, "New
Commonwealth Migrants-1945-1962,"History Today, Vol. 35,
Issue 12, 1985. Legacy of empire brought a half million Blacks and Asian
to the British commonwealth in the 1950's.
R. M. Douglas, "The Expulsion
of the Germans: The Largest Forced Migration in History," Huffington
Post Blog, June 25, 2012, updated August 25, 2012. Colgate Associate
Professor of History, R.M. Douglas summarized his book, "Orderly and
Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War,"
Yale University Press, 2012. See Yale University Press site and 6:35 Video with Dr. Douglas outlining his book: http://yalepress.yale.edu/book.asp?isbn=9780300166606
R. M. Douglas, "The European
Atrocity You Never Heard About,"The Chronicle Review, The
Chronicle of Higher Education, June 11, 2012. US, Britain and the Soviet
Union ordered forced deportations of 12 to 14 million
German-speaking civilians after WW II. They were moved out of their
birthplaces in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Western Poland.
500,000 died in this forced migration.
Melissa Lane, "Myths About Migration: Historical and Philosophical
Perspectives," History and Policy, Policy Papers, February14, 2006.
Professor Lane, Kings College at Cambridge University, analyzed migration and
the state's right to "control" immigrants and migration and economic
conditions and migration especially in Europe. A continuation of the European
Union's struggle with free movements of people, labor, across European borders.
Short paper with sources. See another analysis of this EU migration/immigration
Hartmur Behr, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, "EU
Immigration Politics: The Myth of the Nation and Legacies of Nationalism,"
published inInternational Political Economy, February 2005, pp
1-18 seen in Academia.edu. Hartmur Behr focused
on French and German struggles with immigration in the context of European
Union agreements to allow free flow of people throughout Europe. Dr. Behr
saw nationalistic identities, i.e., "We" and the "Other"
being part of the political and social angst.
William Jackson, University of
Leeds, review of Marjory Harper and Stephen Constantine, "Migration,
Settlers and the British Empire," Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2010 seen Reviews in History, UK.
"Migration," History in
Focus, UK. History in Focus invited 13 European academics to write short
pieces on Migration and "crossing borders" in British history.
"The African Diaspora in
Europe: Historical Overview," ICD-Institute for Cultural Diplomacy,
2007. Summaries and statisticsfor African migration to European
countries broken down by European countries and their experience with
Debunked," wn.com news, November 21, 2013. Writing from Johannesburg,
South African news journalist debunks migration myths many Europeans hold.
Sasa Stanisic, "Three Myths of
Immigrant Writing: A View From Germany," Words Without Borders,
2008. Sasa Stanisic,
born in Bosnia in 1992, escaped the war torn Balkans as an immigrant to Germany
and has been writing novels, plays and poetry. He discussed three myths
he has seen in European "Immigrant Writing."
study on Russian/Soviet various ethnic group migrations and emigrations from
1980's-1996 utilizing Glenn E. Curtis, ed.,"Russia: A Country
Study," Washington: GPO For Library of
Mary Elizabeth Malinkin,
"Russia: The World's Second Largest Immigration Haven,"National
Interest,August 10, 2014. According to 2013 data, Russia is
second only to the United States in sheer number of immigrants.
Caribbean Migration to Britain,
Moving Here-Migration Histories, National Archives UK. See topics for
Caribbean migration to Britain on left side ofpage.
Community: A Historical Perspective," I Respect, nd.
History of African-Caribbean migration to Britain.
"Regional Special Topic Monograph on International Migration Based on
Analysis of the 2000 Round Census Data of Eighteen Caribbean Countries,"
CARICOM Secretariat, 2009. Migration census data for the Caribbean.
Suresh Pillai, "Indentured
Indian-Emergence of Hindu Identity in Caribbean Countries," 2004 monograph
seen in Academia.edu, 36 pp. Download. Suresh K. Pillai spent 18 months
in the Caribbean researching the Indian diaspora and theirinclusive
cultural tradition of Hindu dharma.
Google Book. Augustin
Lao-Montes and Arlene M. Davila, eds.,"Mambo Montage: The Latinization of New York," Columbia University
Press, 2001. Diaspora/migration of Caribbean and Latin peoples to New
York City and the cultures they produced.
Suzanne Model, "The Secret of
West Indian Success," published online September 16, 2008, Springer
Science, Business Media LLC, 2008. Why have West Indian migrants been
more successful economically than African Americans? Suzanne Model
claimed it is due to "selectivity of migration" which means tendency
of people who migrate to more talented and determined.
Ruel Johnson, "The Diaspora," Caribbean Community
Secretariat, The Caribbean Diaspora, 2011. Ruel Johnson, youngest winner of the Guyana Prize for
Literature and currently a journalist, wrote this short essay honored at the
Caribbean Community Secretariat retreat.
Alex Glennie and Laura Chappell, "Jamaica: From Diverse Beginnings to Diaspora in
a Developed World," MPT, Migration Policy Institute, June 16, 2010.
Analysis of Jamaican diaspora beginning with Spain in the new world.
"Historical Origins of
Caribbean Migration to the US," IPOAA, Indigenous People of Africa and
America. Slim summary of Caribbean migration to the United States.
Professor Jacob Zumoff,
New Jersey City University, Review of Lara Putnam, "Radical Moves:
Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age,"
Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013. See
author's reply. Dr. Lara Putnam, University of Pittsburgh, details diaspora of
Caribbean migrants throughout the Caribbean region and into the Americas during
the 1920's and 1930's.
Martin Franklin, and Samatha C. Joseph, University of
the West Indies, "The Caribbean Diaspora-An Untapped Resource for
Impacting Economic Development through Investments in the Caribbean," 2009
monograph. Globalization has increased Caribbean labor moving, especially to
the United States, Canada, UK and former colonial states.
"Origins," drarchaeology, Dykeman Roebuck
Archaeology LLC, New Mexico, USA, 2013. 2013. Website and archaeology "group"
who question traditional native American origins as
migrations across Bering Strait from Asia. This site claims that Southwest native migration and Origin myths, stories,
accounts give no mention of an Asian land bridge as part of their Origins.
Gary W. Crawford and David G. Smith,
"Migration in Prehistory: Princess Point and the Northern Iroquoian
case," American Antiquity,Vol. 61, No. 4, 1996, pp. 782 790.
Crawford and Smith, Department of Anthropology, Erindale College, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, analyze the "sita theory" of the origins of the Northern Iroquois and their migration
Stuart Fidel, "The Peopling of
the New World: Present Evidence, New Theories, and Future Directions:
A Brief Historical Overview of Paleoindian theories and Research,"Journal of Archaeological Research,Vol.
8, No. 1, 2000. DNA evidence as to origins of Native Americans and their
James B. Griffen,
University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, review of "Walam Olum or Red Score:
The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or
Delaware Indians: A New Translation Interpreted by Linguistic,
Historical, Archaeological and Physical Anthropological Studies,Indianapolis:
Indiana Historical Society, 1954, pp. xiv, 379 seen in Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 51,
Issue 1, 1955, pp. 59-65. See more on Walum Olum below:
Timeline of Ojibwe people, ojibwe.org. See migration notes of west to east migration of Lenni Lanape people recorded on Wallum Olum, the oldest recording
of any people in North America dating back before 1600 BCE.
"Walum Olum," sacred-texts.com. See
interpretation of Lenni Lenape people migration story
in various parts.
"Migration Patterns of the
Americas," Ancient World History blog, February 2012. Native
American migrations to 600 CE.
"Chickasaw Migration Story:
Journey From the Place of the Setting Sun,"
Ancient Origins, August 19 2014. Chickasaw and Choctaw migration myths.
See three short video clips, 1:16, 2:43 and 3:01.
Native American Stories About
Migration, Native Language of the Americas website, 1998-2014. See six native American migration myths.
Marjorie P. Kohli,
"Immigrants to Canada-Emigration Information of the Nineteenth Century,"
University of Waterloo, Canada, last updated December 21, 2010. Marjorie
P. Kohli has researched ship lists linked within this
website citing names of migrants coming into 19th century Canada via ship.
"Colonization and Settlement,
1585-1763," Gilder Lehrman Institute.
Introduction by John Demos. See interactive timeline. May
have to subscribe to see resources. Subscription is free.
William G. Hartley, "Hand Cart
Companies,"Utah History Encyclopedia,Utah History to
Go, 2014. In mid-1850'sMormon leader Brigham Young needing to assist poor
Mormons in migrating to Utah, urged these poor migrants to use hand carts to
move to Utah a journey pulling their belongings in hand carts to Utah.
H. W. Brands' review of David
Roberts, "Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon
Handcart Tragedy," Simon & Schuster, 2008, 402 pp. and Ronald W.
Walker, etc., "Massacre at Mountain Meadows-An American Tragedy,"Oxford
University Press, 430 pp. H.W. Brands reviewed two Mormon migration
histories both ending in tragedy.
Focus, AP World History Professional Development booklet, College Board,2008.
Essays by Kathy Callahan, Tim Keirn, Alex Karras, Rick Warner, Peter
Winn, Adam McKeown, Robert Zeidel,
and Valerie Cox focusingon South American, American, Scottish, Charts on
Global Migrations, Native Americans and British migration toAustralia.
Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite, Jr., "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life
in the Americas: A Visual Image," The Virginia Foundation for the
Humanities and Digital Media Lab at University of Virginia Library, 2011, last
updated November 13, 2013. See, especially, images of transatlantic slave
passage, i.e., forced migrations.
Florida State University, "Crossing National Borders: Locating the
US in Migration History," College Board Teacher's Corner. See books,
articles and websites at the end of the article.
Robert Morgan, "There is No
True History of the Westward Expansion," UTNE, March 2013. Robert
Morgan, author of "Lions of the West," claims there can be no
definitive history of US westward migration due to differing accounts from
historical giants (Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson for example), literary
figures and common people.
History 6393, University of Houston, Texas, February 3, 2000. Dr. Urbano uses Reginald Horseman,"Raceand
Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxons,"
Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981, 367 pp. in this
slimanalysis for his University of Houston students to explain the
"Chosen People" myth as rationale for American migration west.
Linda K. Salvucci,
"When Myth and Meaning Overshadow History: Remembering the
Alamo," Gilder Lehrman Institute for American
History. The Alamo was part of Mexico's attempt to stop US migration into
Mexican territory and has been filled with myth. Linda Salvucci attempts to discuss new research on the
Alamo"story." May have to register for free subscription.
See resources on Mexican American War and Manifest Destiny migration
"US Mexican War:
Prelude," PBS background resources. See various points of view
and essays on Manifest Destiny as a cause for Mexican-American War in mid-19th
century. See YouTube video documentary (1:28:52):
Chinese Railroad Workers in North
America Project, Stanford University, 2014. Ongoing research including
stories of Chinese immigrants to came to work on the western American railroads
beginning in the 19th century.
Review, "Examining Race, Gender and Identity in American Popular
Culture,"Middle Ground Journal,May 12, 2014. Cherri Neminger reviewed three books, LarryAsher,
"With Amusement for all: A History of American Popular Culture
Since 1830,"2006, Linda Frost, "NeverOne Nation:
Freaks, Savages, and Whiteness in US Popular Culture, 1850-1877,"2005,
and Rachel Rubin and Jeffrey Melnick,"Immigration
and American Popular Culture: An Introduction,"2007.
Note references to American popular culture as a reaction to the
immigration of Chinese and Irish in the 19th century in Asher and Rubin/Melnick.
Michael T. Lubragge,
"Manifest Destiny," American History-From Revolution to Reconstruction
and Beyond. See essays, 1801-1900, on Manifest Destiny as a rationale for
US migration west.
Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G.
Williamson, "Historical Factors in Long Run Growth in International
Migration and World Development: A Historical Perspective," National
Bureau of Economic Research working paper, Cambridge, MA, September 1992.
Hatton and Williamson describe mid-19th century to 1914 (WW I)
migration from Europe to North America and effectsthese migrants had on
both receiving and sending countries in this monograph.
"Arab Immigration," Arabs
in America, University of North Carolina. History of Arab immigration to
the United States from 1880's to the present.
"The Great Migration, African
American migration from American South to Northeast, Midwest and West," NPR
Fresh Air audio podcast, September 2010. See oral interviews from those migrants.
"World War I and the Great
Migration," History, Art & Archives, US House of Representatives.
Essay explaining WW I as acause of Black migration north in US
See articles on Immigration and
Migration in American History, Understanding Race website, American
Anthropological Association, 2011.
esp. Video, "Will an Immigration Deadlock Make the US a Second Rate
Nation?" Global PublicSquare Blog, CNN, June 7, 2012. See
examples of othernations' immigration policies, i.e., Japan, Canada, etc.
in comparative to the United States in link below:
Migrations website. Website
dedicated to United States immigration history to individual states submitted
by citizens of those states.
Walter McKenzie, Immigration, Education World, 2000.
Resources for educators teaching Migration and Immigration in American History.
"Myths About Migration: Historical and
Philosophical Perspectives," History and Policy, February 14, 2006.
This short essay/paper discusses states (United States) attempts to
control illegal immigration. Ms. Lane summarized her essay by citing
Steven Friedman who claims, "current forms of
control [of migration] are a greater threat to human rights and democracy than
the presence of immigrants."
Our Immigrant Past: Why Claiming My Family Came Legally Often a
Myth," Immigration Policy Center, November 25, 2008. This US government
essay written in context of increasing "illegal"
migration/immigration into the US, specifically from Latin America.
"Steven Mintz, "The Human Meaning of Migration," Gilder Lehrman Institute. Novelists and autobiographers
haveexplored human meaning of migration in stories, novels, autobiographies especially as to feelings about being uprooted
and adjusting to new environments. Steven Mintz has
gathered an annotated list of readings as examples of this dilemma in American history.
Noelle Swan, "70%
of Americans See Immigration as Threat to American Way of Life,"Christian
Science Monitor, August 7, 2014.
Immigration in the United States Illegally," Immigration.procon.org, seen
on pro con website August 22,2014. See charts andresources
for immigration into the US from 2000-2012, specifically, Top 10 countries of
Origin, Top 10 countriesof Residence, Distribution by age and gender
(2012), Top 10 Jobs held, 2008 which would be brick masons, block
masonsand stone masons, 40%.
"Illegal Immigration is a Policy Used To Exclude
and Exploit,"Truth out,September 5, 2014. See excerpt
from Chomsky's book, "How Immigration Became Illegal," Beacon Press,
Michael E. Smith, Loyola
University of Chicago, "The Aztlan Migrations of
the Nahuatl Chronicles: Myth or
31, Issue 3, pp. 155-186, 1984. Michael Smith claimed that two
independent sets of historical accounts verified Aztlan migration history in the Nahuatl Chronicles.
Avis Weir, Migration
from Latin America, Annenberg Learning, see 26:00 video. This 9-12th grade
lesson designed by SPICE, Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural
Education describedLatin American migration since the 1960's.
Trinidad L. Vicente,
University of Deusto, Bilbao, "Latin American
Immigration to Spain, 1990-2009," Migration Citizenship Education website,
2010. See tabs for more resources for migration and immigration.
Susanne Jonas, "Guatemalan
Migration in Times of Civil War and Post-war Challenges,"MPI,
Migration Policy Institute online Journal, March 27, 2013.
Susanne Jonas highlights Guatemalan migration during their 36 year civil
war (1960-1996) and recent socioeconomic problems.
Amy Goodwin and Juan
Gonzalez, "US Turns Back on Child Migrants After Its Policies in Guatemala and Honduras Sowed Seeds of Crisis,"Truth
out,July 18, 2014. See 45:53 video interview and transcript with
University of California, Santa Cruz professor Dana Frank and Jennifer Harbury, Weslaco, Texas, wife of Mayan Guatemalan guerrilla
commander captured by Guatemalan military in 1980's and disappeared.
"New Study Highlights Causes of Return Migration to Mexico," American
Immigration Council, Immigration Impact website, January 14, 2014.
Guillermo Cantor works for Customs, Border Protection, Department of
Homeland Security references poor economic conditions in the U. S. and its
deportation polices to explain why increased numbers of Mexican immigrants to
the United States are returning to Mexico.
Ivan Gonzalez Alvarado
and Hilda Sanchez, "Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean: A
View From the ICFTU/ORIT." This point of
view on migration in Latin America and Caribbean from Human and Trade Union
Rights Programme. Their claim is that,
historically speaking, the migratory movements of the population of Latin
America and the Caribbean have been closely related to the
development of societies in these regions and, more specifically, to the
economic, social and political imbalances. See also 3 major migration patterns
in the region, information and research from 1980's through early 2002.
"A Mayan Trilogy:
Life, Death & Migration," Icarus Films descriptions of Olivia Carrescia's three films of Mayan natives from a Guatemalan
village, 1982-1996, and their struggle to survive political and economic
upheaval. Seelinks for descriptions of all three films.
David G. Gutierrez,
University of California, San Diego, "An Historic Overview of Latino
Immigration and the Demographic Transformation of the United States,"
National Park Service. Latest resource from 2013.
"Myths and Facts on
Central American Migration Surge," WOLA, Jesuits.org, last updated June
17, 2014. As migration issues heat up in the United States WOLA published
this short Myth and Fact discussion surrounding Central American migration into the United States.
See two Central American
Child migration articles, Wilson Center, August 2014.
"Coffee and the Press of Migration,"Forbes, August 16,
2014. US media focuses on Latin American illegal immigration into the US
caused by political unrest and cocaine drug violence. Willie Foote
discusses an agricultural economic cause, that being, coffee leaf rust which
has cost 500, 000 coffee-related jobs and $1 billion dollars in lost revenue. Why the fungus
outbreak, which has occurred before? Warmer, wetter weather along with aging
coffee trees, under investment, and distressed soil. Environment push
factor in migration example.
"Remapping the Territory-'Our America'by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto,NY TimesBook Review, January 17,
2014. Dr. Armesto, Notre Dame University, new
bookwas reviewed by JulioOrtega, Hispanic Studies professor at
Brown University. Dr. Armesto's "Our America:
A Hispanic History of the United States," Norton, January 2014
does muchwith migration. See Armesto C-Span 2 interview 1:03:41 videoin Film/Documentary section and Kirkus book review in Book Reviews/articles section.
"Book Review Podcast: 'Our America: A Hispanic History of
the United States," Arts Beat Blog,New York Times,
January 17, 2014. Listen to the 38:44 minute audio Podcast interview with
Dr. Felipe Fernandez-Armesto.
John Maunu is Digital Resources editor for WHC, College Board AP World History consultant,
veteran Reader and Table Leader at AP World History Reading, reviewer of AP
World, European and US History materials for publishing companies, co-moderator
of theAP World History College Board on-line Teacher Community and
classroom AP World History consultant at Cranbrook/Kingswood high school, West Bloomfield, Michigan. He
can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org.