According to tradition
Mani, the fountainhead of Manicheanism, said, "My religion is of that kind
that it will be manifest in every country and in all languages and it will be
taught in faraway countries."
missionaries arrived, the Africans had the Land and the missionaries had the
Bible. They taught how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened
them, they had the land and we had the Bible."—Jomo
This resource for the
study of missionaries and religious conversion in world history addresses
topics that range over time and across from many empires, states and religions.
It also examines the responses of those encountering, as well as engaging,
in proselytization. It is organized into sections as follows: global
resources, annotated links to regional missionary and missions, university
and college syllabi, and sources for related music/song and art.
Kees van der Pijl, "The
Foreign Encounter in Myth and Religion," NY: Pluto Press, 2010.
on Travelers and Travel Writing," World History Connected,
Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2013. Many resources from 8000 BCE to Present as to
missionary as travel writer.
"Mission of the
Society of friends of Epicurus," Society of Epicurus. Epicurus and
"disciples", like other Greek philosophers, built schools
throughout the Mediterranean region, teaching their philosophies and beliefs of
life and after-life. His secular thoughts continued globally. One competition
as to missionary and mission was between Epicurean and Stoic schools. See
"fabricated" debate between Zeno, founder of Stoic schools, stoa, and Epicurus, video 16:17 in New Epicurean website:
Epicurus and Epicurean
Philosophy, Epicurus website, moderated by Vincent Cook since December 4, 1996.
Professor Franz Cumont, "Mithraism and Christianity-A
Comparison," CAIS, The Circle of Ancient Iranian
Studies. Mithraism spread from Persia through Turkey into Rome and embraced by
Roman soldiers. See description of Roman soldiers as Mithra
missionaries throughout the Roman empire.
The Mystica, website moderated by Alan G. Hefner,
last updated February 12, 2014. Druid priests were diviners, power
brokers and acted as missionaries within their European cultures.
Jonathan M. Bloom,
"Revolution by the Ream-A History of Paper," Saudi Aramco
World, Vol. 50, No. 3, May/June 1999. Missionary and Mission history
is not complete without discussion of Chinese invention of paper, it's
migration through Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade networks, it's stimulus for
science, education, technology, and, yes, missionary outreach and study.
Linda Learman, ed., "Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of
Globalization," University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. This book from Contemporary Topics in Buddhism series
discussed Buddhist missionaries and mission world wide.
Nestorian.org. Note on left side of this page are tabs for Nestorians in
India, Arabia, and elsewhere throughout Eurasia.
James Kenneth Hamrick,
"Orthodox Preaching as the Oral Icon of Christ," ISSUU,
Orthodox Logos Publishing, 2013. Thirty page slide share booklet with many
Orthodox book suggestions beneath.
Ruth A. Tucker,
"Women Missionaries," Women Missionary blog. Website dedicated
to women missionary memoirs of mission work in China, Africa, 19th century
Oregon and elsewhere. Pearl Buck was daughter of missionary couple in
"Women as Cultural
Emissaries-Consider Women Missionaries," Women in World History
Curriculum. See two primary source examples of missionary work.
First, 8th-9th century Anglo-Saxon nuns, second, Indian writer, Krupa Sattianadan on her experience with British
missionaries in 1878 Bombay, India. See Women in World History Curriculum
"Home" for essays on Women as Cultural Emissaries: http://www.womeninworldhistory.com/essay-07.html
Ildiko Glaser-Hille, "Magyarok Nagyasszony: The
Virgin Mary as a Symbol of Hungarian National Identity," monograph seen
in Academia. Catholic Franciscans and other missionaries use of Mary's humanness to "market"
Jesus as a true human figure in non-Christian regions. Catholic and Byzantine
missionaries used the Cult of Mary in foreign lands to compare to
non-Christian female figures in those regions.
"Cult of the Virgin
Mary in Middle Ages," Metropolitan Museum. Change over time of
Virgin Mary in Byzantine icons and Latin Christianity art.
Lesson Module, "The
Spread of Religions," Unit 7, Bridging World History, Annenberg Learner.
See digital resources, pdf transcripts of videos, 28:00 videos for
the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam in world history.
Google Book. Andrew Buckser and Stephen D. Glazier, "The Anthropology
of Religious Conversion," Rowman & Littlefield, January 1, 2003,
236 pp. Anthropologists Buckser and Glazier
examined a variety of cultural settings via 14 case studies to understand how
religious conversion occurs.
Religion Wikia.com. Comments on missionary tradition in Buddhist,
Christian, and Muslim faiths. See comments on Jewish missionary outreach.
See more resources and information on Missionaries in world religions from
another pesky wiki source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missionary
Yossef Schwartz, "Kabbalah and Conversion: Caramuel and Ciantes on Kabbalah
as a Means for the Conversion of the Jews," 1606-1682, Edizioni
ETS, 2012 monograph. Catholic missionary strategy to convert the Jews.
Virtual Library, 2012. In depth explanation with many links of
history and understanding of Jewish Kabbalah.
Shlomo M. Brody, "Is Judaism a Proselytizing
Religion?" Jewish Ideas Daily, October 19, 2012. Shlomo Brody discussed certain Jewish groups that proselytize
and the argument over missionary outreach in Judaism. Mr. Brody is a
teacher at Yeshivat Hakotel
"Messianic Jewish Musings-Michael Brown and Post-Missionary Messianic
Judaism," Derek4Messiah blog, May 8, 2007. Debate as to
Messianic Judaism as a missionary faith and Rabbinic Tradition and Yeshua.
Post, April 27, 2015. Various articles on Proselytizing around the world,
"EBSCO and ATLA
Announce 11 Separate Thematic Series of ATLA," EBSCO, March 5,
2015. Historical monographs series aimed at Religion and Theology scholars.
See ATLA announcement with links that will open to summaries of each of 11 series:
William Grimes, Review, Nyan Chanda, "Bound
Together-How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization,"
Yale University Press, 2007, 391 pp., New York Times Books, May 30, 2007.
Gregory F. Fegel, "Missionaries are Colonialists-The Unspoken
Historical Colonial Agenda of Christianity," Mamiwata.com. Note Mamiwata is a Vodun site in West
This point of view
originally published in Pravada, Russia,
October 21, 2008:
Dana L. Roberts, "Converting
Colonialism: Visions and Realities in Mission History, 1706-1914,"
Google eBook, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, Janaury 2,
2008, 304 pp. Dana Roberts has taken essays from the North Atlantic
Missiology Project and attempted to show link between colonialism and mission
"Christian Missionary Timeline," Southern Nazarene University.
From 30 CE-2006.
Alex McKay, PhD,
"Towards a History of Medical Missions," Review of David Hardiman (ed.), "Healing bodies, saving
souls: Medical Missions in Asia and Africa," Wellcome Series in History of Medicine, Clio Medica 80, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2006, 348 pp. originally seen in Cambridge
Journal of Medical Missions, No. 51, Issue 4, October 1, 2007, 547-551. Dr.
McKay reviewed David Hardiman's edited work on
Christian medical missions in Africa and Asia.
"Collecting Monks, Museum Founding Nuns: Mission, Museums in
Switzerland, Austria, and Germany," downloaded by R. Loder-Neuhold
to Academia. See many abstracts for research papers dealing with
Missionary materials and activities from all over the globe, Congo, South
Africa, Latin America, Europe, Middle East.
Eddie Arthur, Kang San
Tan, Peter Oyugi and Claudio Muzzi,
"The Modern Missionary Movement-an Era of Western Dominance: Was It
All Bad and Where do we go from here?" Thinking Mission series, Forum at
CMF, May 25, 2011, downloaded to Academia.edu. Presentation by
Eddie Arthur with responses from an Asian, African and Latin American
Felicity Jensz and Hanna Acke,
Introduction to book about 19th century Evangelical Protestant missionary media
in Britain, Continental Europe, North America and British colonial world.
Miss Francis J. Baker, "The
Story of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal
Church, 1869-1895," Cincinnati: Curtis and Jennings
and New York: Eaton & Manis, 1898.
Full text from archive.org.
6 part audio podcast
video of John Chisholm Lambert, "Missionary Heroism." Lambert
(1857-1917) stories of heroic Christian missionaries, men and women,
throughout the globe. See LibriVox recordings of all
chapters of Lambert's book: https://archive.org/details/romance_missionaryheroism_0910_librivox
"Religion and Colonialism," Academic Room. Essay
on European religions and colonial history.
Sheikh Ali Al Timimi, "Christian Missionary Work in Muslim Countries,"
Wn.com, 1:16:26 Video, published January 8, 2013. Sheikh's warnings to
Muslims concerning Christian missionary outreach in Muslim countries.
Lecture/Speech delivered by American of Iraqi
heritage, Sheikh Ali Al Timimi in UK, 1996. Compare
of Missionary Research,
Issue 28:3, July 2004. See pdf articles, most about Christian missionary
outreach in Muslim countries.
David A. Kerr, "Christian
Missionaries and Islamic Studies: Beyond Antithesis," International
Bulletin of Missionary Research, January 8, 2002.
David Kerr explained how Christian Missionary scholars introduced Islam
to the West.
Emily Conroy-Krutz, Michigan State University. Emily Conroy-Krutz papers and articles on 19th century American and
western missionary and mission globally. Dr. Conroy-Krutz
has not downloaded her work to Academia.edu. But one can view most
of her abstracts from this site.
Mission Dawah website, Global missionary effort for Islam, 2015.
"Missionary Work of
Islam," Academic Room. See summary of Muslim missionary
activity from 630 CE to present.
Religion," World Future Fund. Many resources for Nazi German
Heinrich Himmler's plans to develop and promote in Germany and globally a
German Aryan Pagan Religion. Note his comments on future of Christianity
in a Third Reich. See more below.
'Whisperers: The Secret History of the Spirit World," Huffington
Post, June 12, 2013. Excerpt from J.H. Brennan book on Elite
Nazi Pagan Aryan Religion, New York, NY: Overlook Press, Peter
Mayer Publishers Inc., 2013.
Wayne Madsen, "CIA
Involvement With Religious Groups Not a New Charge," Mathaba, March 16, 2009. Mr.
Madsen highlighted examples of religious groups and missionaries linked to CIA
spying from 1950's to 2009.
Pst. Gerald Chen Hsiongcai,
"Buddhist Evangelism into the 21st Century," Buddhism Today,
Panna Youth Centre, Singapore, 2001. Hsiongcai is
Buddhist Youth Centre President and discussed the future of Buddhism and
missionary evangelising into the future.
Jonathan S. Walters,
"Buddhist Missionary Work," Academic Room.
"Buddhism Around the World," Buddhism Today, last
updated November 9, 2001. Note Buddhism and Buddhist activity, news,
evangelical outreach globally.
Dr. Timothy C. Tennent, "Non-Western Church: Top Ten Mission
Trends in 21st Century Christianity," blog, April 15, 2010. Dr. Tennent, President of Ashbury Theological Seminary and
Professor of World Christianity, described demographic Christian growth outside
Dr. Jeff Mirus, "Vatican II on Missionary Activity:
Principles," Catholic Culture, September 22, 2010.
Description of Catholic missionary principles since Vatican II.
Dr. Jeff Mirus, "Vatican II on Missionary Activity:
Mission Work," Catholic Culture, September 23, 2010.
Importance of ritual in missionary, religious conversion, practices,
outreach. "Five." 5 minute video showing the rituals of 5 year
olds in 5 different religions, Aeon Video, April 14, 2015.
Collections," SOAS, Study of Asia, Africa and the Middle East, University
of London. See external links to right of this page for Internet Mission
Photographic Archive. Also:
Practitioners Outside of China," Falun Dafa
website. See tabs on left side of the page for resources, history about
Falun Gong faith and missionary and mission outreach.
Dafa/Falun Gong," University of Minnesota.
Chinese faith organized by Li Hongzhi first
fled Communist China to Paris in 1995 and has missions and outreach
globally. "Pure Heart, Clear Mind" is motto.
Gordon Shepherd and Gary
Shepherd, "Membership Growth, Church Activity, and Missionary
Recruitment," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought,
nd. Gordon and Gary Shepherd quote Harold
Bloom, religious writer, as stating that Mormon missionary recruitment is the
most aggressive of all religions.
Francis X. Rocca,
"Evangelicals and Vatican Reach Accord on proselytizing," National
Catholic Reporter on-line, June 29, 2011. Evangelicals and
Catholics agreed to develop guidelines for proselytizing among other religions
and people without religions.
Jain digital resources
website, Colorado State University.
World Religions &
Spirituality Project, Virginia Commonwealth University website. See many
resources on religions and spirituality by clicking on tabs at top of page.
Michael Van Dusen, "10 Forgotten Ancient Religions," Listverse, October 4, 2013. Ten ancient
religions some of which are being revived today by "new
"Heka: The Magic of Ancient Egypt," Reshafim. Magic was found in all ancient religions
and priests, Kings and their gods had power to use magic. Note example of
Isis, mother goddess, and the "cult's" widespread expansion
throughout the Roman Empire, even evolving into the Marian Cult in
Things," Demonology Project. Project supported and planned by group
of scholars using Magic, Demonology from Egypt to Byzantine world. Seen in Dr. Kasia Szapakowska syllabus,
Swansea University, Wales, UK included at bottom of this article under
Dr. Aziz Ateya, "A Brief History of Evangelism & Mission
(4), Coptic Missionary and Mission Until the Sixth
Century," Evangelism Coptic Orthodox. Coptic Christian missionary activity
in Egypt and Ethiopia.
"Who are the
Copts?" Copts UK website, July 20, 2009, editorial supervisor, Dr. Helmy Guirguis. Scroll down
this history of the Copts to Coptic missionaries and mission section.
"Memoirs of Boston
King, A Black Preacher," Antislavery Literature website. 18th
century Autobiographical narrative memoir by Boston King, a fugitive slave
from South Carolina who became a teacher and missionary in Sierra Leone.
Serialized in four parts in 1798 by Methodist Magazine. See
more resources on left side of this page and teaching guide for this narrative.
Emily Conroy-Krutz, Michigan State University, Review of Erksine Clarke, "By the Rivers of Water: A
Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey," US Religion blog,
March 2014. Biography of complex southern plantation owner and slave
holder John Leighton Wilson who was commissioned by American Christian
missionary society to travel to Africa in mid-1830's to conduct missionary
work. As the civil war began, John Leighton Wilson would join the
"Alexander Crummell, Nationalist and Missionary," Boston
University School of Theology and Missiology biography. Alexander Crummell, born in New York City (1819-1898), overcame
obstacles a black man faced attending a Protestant Episcopal seminary in
Boston and earning a B.A. from Cambridge University in England in 1853.
As an ordained priest he spent the next 20 years as a missionary and
educator in Africa returning in 1873 becoming an influential pastor in
Joseph R. Moss,
"The Missionary Journey of Louise 'Lulu' Fleming, M.D.," Florida
Baptist History, address given to the Florida Baptist Historical Society, May
4, 1996. Louise Fleming, born 1862 to slave mother in Hibernia, Clay County,
Florida, was educated by American Baptist Home Mission. She was chosen to
be a "Talented Tenth" program missionary, in which one out of ten educated
blacks would return to their home area to teach other blacks. Ms. Fleming
applied to African missionary program and was chosen to travel to the Congo
(Zaire) in late 19th century.
"Martin R. Delany
and Edward Wilmot Blyden, Chicken Bones:
A Journal for African American thought, Nathaniel Turner blog.
Biographies of Black nationalists Delany and Blyden
with Edward Blyden also being a gifted linguist and
Christian Evangelist in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Martin Delany traveled
to Africa looking for "pristine" African sites for Black American
emigration which irritated American missionaries in Africa.
"Crowther, Samuel Adjai [Ajayi], 1807-1891," Boston University School of
Theology and Missiology, Missionary Biographies. Born in western Nigeria, a
Yoruba, abducted by Fulani and Yoruba Muslims, sold to Portuguese, liberated by
a British patrol in the Atlantic and taken to Sierra Leone where he was trained
by English missionaries. He was among the first Protestant missionaries
to his native Yoruba homeland, went on two expeditions of the lower Niger River.
Wrote a perspective on missionary endeavors in Africa in 1869, "An
African Bishop Directs Christian Evangelization in Africa," where he used
phrase "Africa for Africans" connecting him to Black nationalists
like Martin Delany and Edward Blyden, see link above.
Andre E. Johnson,
"Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and Rhetoric," R3, Rhetoric, Race and
Religion blog, May 27, 2014. Biography of Henry McNeal Turner who wrote
"An African American Bishop's Views of the Evangelization of Africa,"
in 1891. A free native of South Carolina, McNeal (1834-1915) was ordained in
1853, briefly the first Black Chaplain in the United State Army, became a Back
to Africa activist. In 1880 became the twelfth bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal
Church (AME) who began to spread that church in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and
J. A. Millard, "Mzimba, Pambani Jeremiah,
1850-1911, Presbyterian Church of Africa, South Africa," Dictionary
of African Christian Biography, article reproduced with
permission from "Malihambe-Let the Word
Spread," 1999, Unisa Press Pretoria, South
Africa. Pambani Jeremiah Mzimba
was born in Cape Town Colony, attended the Lovedale Institution, operated by
United Free Church of Scotland for the education of Africans. Ordained in
1875 but broke with white missionaries and founded his own
Presbyterian Church of Africa. becoming a leader
who believed that blacks needed to create their own institutions to
overcome racial prejudice.
"Aggrey, James E. Kwegyir,
1875-1927, Wesleyan Methodist, Ghana," Dictionary of African Christian
Biography. Born in British colony of the Gold Coast, Aggrey completed his mission-school education in record
time and taught in mission schools until 1898. He traveled to the United
States enrolled in Livingstone College, an African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church
institution in North Carolina.
Robert Rotberg, "John Chilembwe-Brief
Life of an anti-colonial rebel, 1871?-1915," Harvard Magazine,
March-April, 2005. American trained Baptist preacher and missionary who
established a mission in what is now Malawi. In 1892 joined domestic
staff of eccentric, African nationalist Joseph Booth, a British Fundamentalist
Baptist missionary. Together they wrote a mission statement for an African
Christian Union which would use African American help in creating mission
training schools, "A Plan for African and African American
Cooperation," in 1892 which angered and terrifiedEuropean
missionaries and colonial figures. From 1900 Chilembwe
had his own mission in Nyasaland (Malawi) and organized an uprising against
Europeans, triggered by African ill treatment and British conscription of
Africans for WW I. Some compare Booth and Chilembwe
to Harper's Ferry Fundamentalist John Brown.
James R. Ryan,
University of Exeter, Review of T. Jack Thompson, "Light on Darkness? Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early
Twentieth Centuries," Studies in the History of Christian Missions,
Grand Rapids, MI.:
Eerdmans Publishing, 2012, 304 pp.
Mahommah G. Baquaqua and
Samuel Moore, 1854 Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, native of Zoogoo,
interior of Africa his description of his homeland, capture into slavery,
conversion to Baptist Christianity in Haiti and return to Africa as
missionary to his native people, Documenting the American South,
University of North Carolina.
Christopher I. Ejizu, "<Conversion> in African Traditional
Religions," Afrika World. Monograph
on conversion experience in traditional African religions prior to Christianity
Silvia Bruzzi, "The Role of Muslim Mentors in Eritrea:
Religion, Health and Politics," Storicamente,
Issue 8, No. 7, 2012. Silvia Bruzzi claimed
that much of colonial history focused on Christian missionaries helping local residents
of colonial regions. In the colonial history of Eritrea in east Africa, Bruzzi detailed the role of Islam and Muslim
Shaykhs as medical
mentors among Eritreans. See same monograph in Academia:
Western Africa, Colonialism," What When How website. European
education begun by Christian missionaries during colonial era. This is a
summary of that process and reaction by West Africans to missionary and later
Bwanda Fusa simulation game,
Dr. Howard Culbertson, Southern Nazarene University, Oklahoma. Simulation
introduces missionary student to "on the ground" training and
simulated experiences in an African "type" environment.
S. Acharya and D. M.
Murdock, "Garden of Eden Originally a Pygmy Myth," Free
Thought Nation, July 25, 2011. Missionaries including Jesuit anthropologist
indicate that much of Ituri people creation myths and
stories similar to the Bible even though the Ituri
pygmies were "uninfluenced" by Christian missionaries. The authors of
this work, as well, as other anthropologists and missionaries claimed that Biblical creation stories can be
found in many, many other cultures.
Daniel Bitton, McGill University graduate student, anthropology,
"Death, Discipline and Domination in the Ituri
Rainforest," monograph seen in Academia. Bitton
described the relationship between the forest-dwelling pygmy hunter-gatherers
with the village-dwelling tribes of Bantu and Sudanic farmers
"involving...economic exchange and joint initiation, marriage and funerary
rituals." The Village tribes dominated by imposing their religion,
missionary-like, onto the pygmy but the Ituri pygmy
accrue material benefits. Can this Democratic Republic of Congo case
study be compared to other missionary and native relations elsewhere in world
"Nubia's Black Pharoahs," Discover
Magazine, December 1, 2005. Archaeologist looking for evidence that
Egyptian embattled priests in Thebes sent
missionaries to convert Nubian Chiefs to Amun and
then move north to conquer Egypt.
Stanford University website, SUL. See the many religions of Africa which
also describe missionary and mission of those faiths.
History of Christian
missionaries in Africa, Exploring Africa Matrix, Michigan State University. See
maps, resources, lessons.
the Missions of the Episcopal Church-Liberia," Project Canterbury, New
York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928.
Report on missionary work in Liberia with many photographs from that
Ineke Van Kessel, "Merchants, Missionaries and
Migrants," Open Access, Leiden University, Africa Studies Centre.
Introduction (14 pp.) to Van Kessel's book, Merchants,
Missionaries, and Migrants, a Dutch/Netherlands history of colonialism in Africa.
Bibliography of African
Missiology. Christianity in Africa sources.
Islam in Africa,
Exploring Africa matrix, Michigan State University. See maps, resources,
Kenya," Wow.com, wikipedia, updated July 8,
2014. First Muslim missionaries into Kenya were Tanganyikans
with Maalim Mtondo being
first missionary into Nairobi in late 9th century.
Sheikh Alhaji Zurkanine, "History
of Bilal Muslim Mission-Kenya," Islam in Africa blog, posted February 19,
2010. Short history of 20th century Shia Islam mission in Kenya, Africa.
Roxanne Panchasi interview with Elizabeth Foster author of "Faith
in Empire: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Rule in French
Senegal, 1880-1940," Stanford University Press, 2013. Listen to
audio podcast interview 1:19:10.
Kathryn Rountree, Research Paper Masters
Thesis, "Catholic Missionaries in Africa: The White Fathers and the
Belgian Congo 1950-1955," Department of History, Louisiana State
University, December 2009.
Colonialism in Africa, Alfagems Secondary School,
Catholic Diocese of Morogoro, Tanzania.
Yazarin Kisa Ozgecmisi, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey, "The Muslim Brotherhood in
Egypt: From Moderation to Authoritarianism," Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika Cilt: 9,
Sayi: 33, ss I-25,
2013. Monograph on Muslim Brotherhood especially since Arab Spring with
comments on the Brotherhood's Islamic outreach, education and recruitment by Dr.
Ozgecmisi, American educated professor with interest
Julie C. Ma and Wonsuk Ma, "Mission in the Spirit: Towards a
Pentecostal Charismatic Missiology," monograph, Regnum Books
International, Regnum Studies in Mission, Oxford, England, 2010.
Downloaded to Academia. Monograph detailing a Pentecostal missionary
spirit throughout the world, especially in poor regions.
"Potential Effects of the Missionary Age Announcement," Times
and Seasons (Latter-day Saints newsletter), October 7, 2012. Latter-day
Saints lower age of missionaries. See 92 comments on this change over time.
Tad James with George Naope and Rex Shutte, "What
is Huna-Excerpt from the lost secrets of Ancient Hawaiian Huna," 1997.
Note comments as to Christian missionaries forced ancient Hawaiian Huna,
Missionaries arrive," Hawaii History website. See short paragraph
introduction followed by three links on Protestant missionaries arriving in
Hawaii. Third link is broken.
Mission Life," Polynesian Cultural Center. Latter-day Saints (LDS)
church in Hawaii and Polynesia plus, description of 200 Polynesian Mormon
converts who migrated to Utah's high plains to build a colony near the Mormon
Diane Lee Rhodes,
"A Cultural History of Three Traditions: Hawaiian Sites on the West
Coast of Hawai'i Island," Donch.com. 1819 saw death of powerful
Hawaiian King and beginning of missionary and US corporate colonialism in
Hawaii. See other "chapters" of Hawaiian culture history at
bottom of this page.
Cynthia Ross Wiecko, "Jesuit Missionaries as Agents of Empire:
The Spanish-Chamorro War and Ecological Effects of Conversion on Guam, 1668-1769" World
History Connected, Vol. 10, No. 3, October 2013. Forum on Jesuits in World History. See link
for that complete World History Connected Forum:
Movement: 20th Century Martyrs Phil Masters and Stan Dale, A Story of the
Yali and Kimyals," The
End of Time blogsite, December 7, 2014. Beginning with two German-born missionaries
sailing to Dutch New Guinea in 1855, Christian missions have been organized in
New Guinea working with the cannibalistic Yali and
their neighbors the Kimyals.
"Religion and Proto-Nationalism: Apelis Mazakmat and 'traces of mild sectarian strife' in New Ireland," Baha'i
Library online, 2001-2002. European missionaries and New
Ireland, Melanesian, Australian natives conflict. Apelis Mazakmat was first Baha'i
religious convert in 1956. See Baha'i website on that conversion and history of the Baha'i mission in New Guinea: http://www.bahai.org.pg/PNGBahais/
University of Melbourne, Australia, "The Failure of the Tommy Kabu Movement: A Reassessment of the
Evidence," Pacific Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, March 1991
download to Academia. Tommy Kabu
movement was negative reaction to missionary and colonial administration
in Papua, New Guinea. Papuan resistance leader named Tommy Kabu, 1922?-1969.
Aborginal History, Australia. See Noel Loos,
"From Church to State: Queensland Government take-over of Anglican Missions
in North Queensland," scroll to p. 73 to read.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, "Christian Missionaries in the Polynesian
Kingdom of Tonga: Late 18th & 19th Century Activities,"
Californian State University, Chico, 1983, updated August 15, 2003.
Missionaries," New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage,
last updated November 21, 2014. Seven section history of Christian
missionaries to the Maori in New Zealand.
Kenneth R. Clark,
"Culture Shock: The Last Cannibals," Chicago Tribune, June
17, 1988. Short article on Mark Twain quote about
missionaries and cannibals and TBS National Geographic documentary
"My Father, the Cannibal." Slim article on missionaries and cannibals in Papua, New
Guinea. See other missionary articles from Chicago Tribune on
right side of page.
Merchants," Asia Society, Silk Road. Note short descriptions of
Buddhist missionaries following the Buddha's exhortation, "Go, Monks,
preach the noble doctrine...let not two of you go in the
Swarna de Silva, "The Place of Women in
Buddhism," A Talk given to the Midlands Buddhist Society (UK) on Sanghamitta Day, 1988. Note de Silva's lecture broken
into table of contents, such as, Women before Buddhism, Early Buddhism and women.
Sanghamitta was supposedly a daughter of Asoka
who traveled to Sri Lanka bringing a Buddhist mission that no longer exists.
She followed her brother there.
"Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by the Portuguese (1505-1658), VG
Web, ACSLU Essays on Unethical Conversion, June 12, 2005. Senaka Weeraratna's thesis was
that the Portuguese Christians used unethical conversion tactics along with
repressing Buddhists in the colonizing of Sri Lanka.
K. N. Panikkar, Indian historian, Review, "Religion and
Politics in Colonial India," The Hindu, October 29, 2013.
Dr. Panikkar reviewed Parma Sengupta,
"Pedagogy for Religion-Missionary Education and the Fashioning of Hindu
and Muslims in Bengal," Orient Black Swan, 2013. Parma Sengupta
claimed it is Myth that 19th and 20th century Western colonial rule secularized
the non-West. Actually, Christian missionaries reinforced Indian religions,
Hinduism and Islam, rather than weakening them.
Dravidian Race, Pt. 1, " Sowing Seeds of Thought
blog, June 18, 2011. Perspective as to British colonial administrators
and Anglican Evangelists ability to divide and rule peoples of Indian
subcontinent based on imaginary histories and racial myth, even inventing an
entire race called Dravidians. British Anglican Missionary Bishop Robert Caldwell
(1814-1891) being one. The idea was to move the "Dravidians" away
from Brahmin Aryan Hindu influence and convert them to Christianity.
Jesse S. Palsetia, "Parsi and Hindu
Traditional and Nontraditional Responses to Christian Conversion in Bombay,
1839-45," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 74,
Issue 3, 2006, pp. 615-645, seen in Academic Room. This monograph focused on
two case studies of Indian youths converted to Christianity in 1839 and
1843 and the Hindu/Parsi communities
attempts to stop the conversions in Indian law courts. See tenets of Parsi Zoroastrianism (India) below:
Tenets of Traditional (Parsi) Zoroastrianism, South Asian Zorastrianism.
Nauzer K. Bharucha, TNN,
"Parsis Say No to Conversion," Parsi Khabar, Zoroastrians in
India, October 11, 2010. Indian Parsis
(Zoroastrians) upset that a Mexican drug gang and Brazilian nudists
claimed to be Zoroastrian have passed an edict outlawing
conversion. Zoroastrians have struggled over proselytizing and conversion
for a number of years. See article below for more on this Parsi
the Faith and keep Dwindling," Parsi Khabar, Zoroastrians in India, September 6, 2006.
"Missions and Expansion," Buddhism Historical Development,
Patheos.com. Early missionary expansion of Buddhism throughout East and
Southeast Asia. See also tab on left of page for "Exploration and
Conquest" for summary of Ashoka's work in expanding Buddhism.
Anagarika Dharmapala, "Our
Duty to the People of the West," vipassana.com, Maha Bodhi Journal,
Vol. 35, September 1927. Buddhist point of view of necessity for Buddhist
philosophies in the powerful west. Who is Anagarika
Dhamapala? He was a pioneer
missionary who attempted to revive Buddhist in India, Europe and the Middle
William J. Hamblin and
Daniel Peterson, "Indian Ruler Sowed Seeds of Buddhism," Desert
News, Utah, May 6, 2012. Article highlighting how Ashoka spread
Buddhism in South Asia.
Aijaz Hussain Malik, Center for Historical Studies,
Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, "Tracing the Genesis of
Conversion: The Role of Sufi Missionaries in the Islamization of
Kashmir," International Journal of Scientific and Research
Publications, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013. Research paper.
Sufi Saints and Sufism
website dedicated to Sufi saints in India, moderated by R. K. Gupta. See
tabs to Sufism in India and Holy Bible in Hindi on left side of website page.
Sufi Hindi Christian Bible written in story form to appeal to the common people
was endorsed and approved by Archbishop of Delhi.
Jesudas M. Athyal,
"Gospel and Cultures: A Subaltern reading of the history of Christian
Mission in India," Jmathyal blog. Note
other tabs as to Christian colonialism in India on left side of this page. Who
is Dr. Jesudas M. Athyal?
Christian World Outreach Center, which offers a biography of Jeusdas Mathew Athyal.
Elst, "The Problem of Christian
Missionaries," Koenraad Elst
Site, June 7, 1999. Dr. Elst, a disillusioned Catholic,
discussed problems of Christian missionaries and the Hindutva movement in India
in this short blog post.
Vishal Mangalwadi, "Can Hindutva Survive the Persecution of
Christians in India?" Mission Frontiers, November 1, 1999
originally seen in "Oh India," October-December 1999.
This was an open letter to all Christians and missionaries in India
as to Hindutva, fundamentalist Hindu parties, persecution of Christians
and those persecution's effects on Hindutva and BJP political party popularity.
Richard M. Eaton,
University of Arizona, "Comparative History as World History:
Religious Conversion in Modern India," Journal of World
History, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997, 243-271. Dr. Eaton looked at why
some communities converted to Christianity in India and why others did not.
Arvind Sharma, "Hinduism
as a Missionary Religion," State University of New York Press, 2010.
Project Muse books. Your university, library or school has to have an
account to access the online book.
B. R. K. Gauthama, "the missionary mandate," The
Hindu, January 13, 2000. Short op ed by Mr. Gauthama as to threat
of Christian missionary outreach in India.
6:17 ABC Nightline video
part of Faith Matters Series, "Miracle Workers in India-holy men or con
men?" aired October 20, 2010. Skeptical ABC reporter visited Sufi,
yogi and Hindu ascetics to observe their popularity in modern India.
Anany Chakravarti, American
University in Cairo, Three monographs downloaded to Academia dealing with
Brazil and Portuguese missionaries in India. "Peripheral Eyes:
Brazilians in India, 1947-1961," 40 pp., "The Many Faces of Baltasar da Costa: 'imitatio
and accomonodatio' in the seventeenth century Madurai
mission," Etnogratica, Vol. 18, Issue 1, 2014,
and "In the Language of the Land: Native Conversion in Jesuit Public
Letters from Brazil and India," Journal of Early Modern History, Vol. 17,
2013, pp. 505-524.
"The War Against Hinduism," Hindu Philosophy, Morals, Rituals
blog, November 13, 2012. Hindu blog discussion and angst as to Christian and
Islamic missionary efforts.
Indonesia," excerpted from William H Frederick and Robert L.
Worden, eds., "Indonesia: A Country Study," Washington,
DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992.
Succinct essay on history of religious change over time in Indonesia from
"Indianization" of Hindu/Buddhism through
Daniel C. Waugh, Faxian
Journey to India, essay, University of Washington, 1999. From 399-411 CE,
Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian traveled to India to find Buddhist books,
materials not available in China. This is a summary of his travels.
Stephen F. Teiser, "Buddhism in China," Academic
Room, 2005. See tabs on left side of page for Buddhism in Japan, Korea,
Mongolia, Taiwan, Tibet and Vietnam.
Donald K. Swearer,
"Buddhism in Southeast Asia," Academic Room, 1987 entry.
Throughout this essay, Donald Swearer wove in references of Buddhist
missionaries and mission.
Cindy Kleinmeyer, "Religions of Southeast Asia," slide
share, Northern Illinois University, June 2004. Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism,
Animism, Catholicism, Confucianism in Southeast Asia. Note references to
missionary and mission throughout.
10:35 audio podcast,
"Assyrian Church of the East in China,"
lecture by Martin Palmer, published on YouTube February 24, 2014.
Nestorian missionaries ventured east from 635 CE Nineveh and Baghdad.
Stele or monument uncovered dating back to 781 CE in China indicating
Nestorian missionary and mission throughout Eurasia.
C. M. Joll, Chapter 2, "Indic, Islamic and Thai Influences:
Extract of Chapter 2 from Muslim Merit Making in Thailand's Far
South, Springer, 2012. Chapter 2 of C. M. Joll
book about Indic, Thai and Islamic influences in history of Thailand's southern
Malay Provinces. Academia download by C. M. Joll.
Joseph Paul Charles, "Global
Christianity: Trends in Mission and the Relationship with Non-Western
Missionaries Working Cross-Culturally in Thailand," South African
Theological Seminary Masters of Theology Paper, October 2009. Mr. Charles analyzed and gave evidence as to decline of mission in
the West, growth in non-western regions, and a case study of Christian
missionaries and mission in Thailand.
Poramin Jaruworn, "The
Roles of the Buddha in Thai Myths: Reflections on the Attempt to
Integrate Buddhism into Thai Local Beliefs," Manusya,
Journal of the Humanities, Special Issue, No. 9, 2005. Monograph
analyzing the syncretic blending of Buddhism into Thai traditional religion.
Missionaries many times will use local beliefs to identify and compare
their faith and how it is similar to those local beliefs.
"Letter to the Viceroy of the Indies," 1591, figal-sensei.org.
The expulsion of Jesuit missionaries in 1587 provoked a reaction by
European Catholic officials. A Jesuit missionary delivered a letter of
protest from Portuguese Goa to Hideyoshi. This is his reply and an
expression of his attitude toward Christianity, missionaries and Japan's place in
Christian writings by
Japanese converts to Christianity, Mission Studies website, John England
Project," Japan Arts and Crafts. Japanese Shogun had approved of
Christian missionaries and missions in 1611 and ordered the building of a new
galleon in Japan to return Spanish officials and missionary back to Spain with Japanese
officials to discuss trade and meet with the Pope in Rome. This article
discussed that history along with quotes from participants.
Ian Harris, ed., "Buddhism,
Power, and Political Order," Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2007,
254 pp. Buddhism in Britain described in first article with remaining articles
concerned with Buddhist power and politics in SE Asia.
Aung, "Evaluation on Buddhist Education and Curriculum of International
Theravada Buddhist Missionary University in Myanmar," Dao Phatngaynay.com,
2014. Buddhism came to Myanmar in 11th century and this paper explained
the importance of promoting Theravada Buddhist education in that Southeast Asia
Theravada Buddhism," International Theravada Buddhist Missionary
University, khemarama, Tinh
An Lan Nha,
Vietnam Buddhist site. This site explained history of Theravada Buddhism in
Myanmar and curriculum of the Theravada Missionary University located in many
Resources," World Christian Missionary Resources, Asia Pacific Institute
of Buddhist Studies, Baguio, Philippines, 2005. Christianity embracing
Buddhism resources for evangelical work in East Asia and Southeast Asia.
Youngmin Kim, Seoul National University, South Korea,
"Wang Yangming," Internet
Encyclopedia of Philosophy. General, administrator, scholar,
philosopher and missionary? Wang Yangming's
neo-Confucianism promoted action as opposed to Zhu Xi, 12th century
Chinese Confucianist, who taught methodical study and
contemplation, possible only for elites. Wang's 1527 "Great
Learning" put forth his thoughts and teachings opposing Zhu Xi and was
enthusiastically received in his lifetime, even though he was exiled for 3
years for his ideas. Wang's "Community Compact for Southern Ganzhou" 1520's showed his
thoughts on model communities where former rebels, criminals could be turned
into model citizens following neo-Confucian values.
John Lawton, "The
Far East," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov/Dec. 1991.
John Lawton focused on spread of Islam into India and the Far East with
sail, not sword, beginning with mid-7th century Muslim mosque in India.
"East Asian History
Sourcebook: Ch'ing-Tsing: Nestorian Tablet: Eulogizing the
Propagation of the Illustrious Religion in China, with a Preface, composed by a
priest of the Syriac Church, 781 A.D.," Paul Halsall,
Fordham University, Jesuit University of New York. Primary source from
Nestorian perspective as to missionary work and mission in China.
"Muslims in China-The History," Saudi Aramco World, Vol.
36, No. 4, July/August 1985.
"History of Islam
in China," Dr. Ben website, last updated August 2014. History of Islam in
China with maps including current Muslim and Chinese conflicts.
Isabel Pina, University
of Lisbon, "Joao Rodrigues Tcuzu and the
Controversy over Christian Terminology in China: The Perspective of
a Jesuit from the Japanese Mission," Bulletin of
Portuguese-Japanese Studies, No. 6, 2003, pp. 47-71.Monograph about Jesuit
missionary and interpreter, Joao Rodrigues (1561-1633), who was at the center
of Chinese Rites Controversy.
Lucian Pye Review of Liam Matthew Brockey,
"Journey to the East: Jesuit Mission to China,
1579-1724," Foreign Affairs, May/June 2007. Slim review.
Caitlin Lu, "Matteo
Ricci and the Jesuit Mission in China, 1583-1610," The Concord
Review, 2011. One could also see Yu Liu, "The Intricacies of
Accommodation: The Proselytizing Strategy of Matteo Ricci," Journal
of World History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2008.
"Matteo Rici and the Ming Dynasty," In Our Times With Melvyn Bragg, 45:24
audio podcast, BBC Radio 4, April 16, 2015. If this podcast moves from this
Home Page, one can still search for it as these podcasts remain on site
History-Religion," ibiblio.org, Richard R. Wertz moderator @1998-2015.
Short history of Christian missionaries in China.
Charles W. Hayford, editor, "American China Missions: An
Introductory Bibliography," Haverford College, April 23, 2003.
Bibliography for American missionary activities and missions in China.
Jane Hunter, "The
Gospel of Gentility: American Women Missionaries in Turn of the Century
China," Yale University Press. Click on "Preview" to
see sample "google book-like" sample chapters.
"Dutch Role on
Taiwan," H-Net, H-Asia Dialog, November 1995. See bibliography
entries for Dutch missionary and missions in Taiwan.
Anthony E. Clark,
University of Alabama, "Early Modern Chinese Reaction to Western
Missionary Iconography," Southeast Review of Asian Studies, Vol.
30, 2008, pp. 5-22. Anthony Clark cited Chinese sources before the
traditional western historiography of focusing on 1899-1900 Boxer Rebellion.
Franklin D. Rausch,
"Jesuits in Korea: Influence Without
Presence," World History Connected, Vol. 10, Issue 3, October 2013.
Part of World History Connected Forum on Jesuits in World History.
"The Tonghak Religion and Uprising: Ch'oe
Cheu on Learning Truth and Twelve Reforms Proclaimed
by the Tonghak Overseer's Office," Asia For Educators, Columbia University. Primary source
documents with questions on Korean Tonghak
religious leaders (Tonghak religion formed in
1860) and 1894-1895 Tonghak believer's led uprising.
Tonghak religion was associated
with Catholic missionaries by the Korean government. A lesson module.
"Buddhism and Its
Spread Along the Silk Road," Silk Road Foundation
@1997-2000. Short history with Map as to Buddhist
missionaries spreading Buddhism east along Silk Road into East Asia.
"Buddhism in East
Asia," Buddha Net, @2008. Buddhist missionaries traveling into China,
Korea and Japan and from China back to India.
Carol Tsang Review of
Brian D. Ruppert, "Buddha Relics and Power in
Early Medieval Japan," Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia
Center, 2000, 505 pp. published in The Journal of Asian Studies,
Vol. 64, No. 2, May 2005, pp. 473-474. Accessed 25/12/2014 to
Academia.edu. Carol Tsang reviewed Brian Ruppert's
study of 9th-14th century Japan and use of Buddhist relics or as Ruppert stated (p. 13) "...symbols that evoke
submission in a given community."
Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan, "Hiraizumi:
Buddhist Art and Regional Politics in Twelfth-Century Japan,"
Harvard University Press Monograph, January 30, 1990. Powells
Books website. How three successive rulers in northern Honshu, Japan used
art and architecture to claim religious and political mandate. Art
and architecture as missionary and mission.
William E. Deal, Case
Western Reserve University, Review of Keller Kimbrough, "Preachers,
Poets, Women, and the Way: Izumi Shikibu and the Buddhist Literature of Medieval Japan,"
University of Michigan, 2008, 374 pp. seen in Japanese Journal of
Religious Studies, January 1, 2010. Late 10th and early 11th century
Heian literature and how court elites and Buddhist missionaries reacted and
used these female poems and literature.
Carmen Sterba, Book Review of Miura Ayako,
"Hosokawa Garasho Fujin," (Japanese
title), 1975, Asia Culture Enthusiast blog, September 15, 2011.
Biographical historical novel about Hosokawa Tama Gracia (1556?-1600) who visited Portuguese Jesuit mission
while her husband was away at war and converted and baptised
in 1587 shortly after Jesuits ordered out of Japan. Both Miura Ayako and Gracia were impacted by
war and conversion to Christianity and are popular in Japan.
Dr. Alexander Berzin, "The Spread of Buddhism to Asia-Buddhism and
Its Impact on Asia," Berzin Archives-Asian
Monographs, Cairo: Cairo University Center for Asian Studies, June
1996. See other resources on left of this page.
Review, "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan: Buddhism,
Anti-Christianity, and The Danka System," by Nam-lin
Hur, Harvard University Asia Center, 2007, 409 pg., Journal
of Law and Religion, Vol. XXIV, May 28, 2008, posted in Hamline University
Law file. Dr. Heine is Florida International University, Miami, Florida
Professor of Religious Studies and History and Director of Asian Studies Program.
Note comments on Tokugawa danka system which
ordered all Japanese to register with a local Buddhist temple, Buddhist
funerary rituals and anti-Christian rhetoric. Example of State missionary
"Irishman Led First
Buddhist Mission West," Maynooth University,
Ireland, December 15, 2014. Maynooth University
researchers found that an Irish born Anglican, Charles Pfoundes,
b. 1840, led Japanese Buddhists to Ireland.
Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, "The Dao of Muhammad: A Cultural History
of Muslims in Late Imperial China," Harvard East Asian Monographs
248, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge, Mass. and London, 2005. Zvi Ben-Dor Benite
was student at Hebrew University and now is East Asian
professor at New York University and his monograph highlights Muslims in late
Imperial China. Note Dr. Benite's page:
Posted by Zia Shah,
"Islam in China," The Muslim Times, December 2011,
accessed March 13, 2015. History of Islam in China including
Video, 9:18 YouTube,
"John Birch," uploaded December 11, 2007. John Birch, born in
China, in 1918 to missionary parents became a missionary in China later
becoming a US intelligence agent during WW II. He was killed by Chinese
communists 10 days after the end of WW II.
Fellowship, OMF, formerly China Inland Mission founded by James Hudson Taylor
in 1865. Website and mission dedicated to Christian outreach in China.
"Religion and Overland Trade in Asia, 1000 BC to AD 1400," Microsoft
Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. Note especially Sogdian Manichaean
missionary efforts with Turks of Tien Shan, 763-840 CE.
"Buddhism and the
Hellenistic World," Religion Facts. Alexander the Great's
"invasion" of central Asia introduced Hellenism and Buddhism.
See other tabs at top and left side of this page for more articles on
Buddhism and its transmission throughout Eurasia and note comments on Greek
Transmission of Buddhism," Buddhism Guide website. Note Buddhist
Missionaries along Silk Road section.
Guru Rinpoche website. Summary of Buddhist cult figure, born in 8th
century Swat valley. His form of Buddhism spread into Tibet, Bhutan and Sikkim.
Two slim essays. One by Howard
D. Owens, "Diasporic Nestorian Communities in Central Asia," describing
Nestorian missionaries and the other by Melvin and Carol R. Ember, "Jewish
Diaspora in East Asia," Yale University, 2005. Note in Owens'
essay differences between Richard Foltz (above and author "Religions of
the Silk Road”) and other historians as to religion diffusion along the Silk
Two short readings:
"Diasporic Nestorian Communities in Central Asia-Nestorian Christology and
Missionaries" and "Jewish Diaspora in East Asia," Loganville
High School, Georgia reading guide. Note slim comments on Sogdian Nestorian
Joel Walker, University
of Washington, Seattle, Review of H. F. Halbertsma,
"Early Christian Remains of Inner Mongolia: Discovery, Reconstruction, and
Appropriation," Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008, 356 pp.
Dr. Walker referenced Halbertsma's history and
archaeology of Central Asia and China as a model for others in this field.
Halbertsma traced earliest Christian missionaries
and missions among the Turkic Ongut people during the
10th through the 13th century.
Mark Dickens, "Nestorian
Christianity in Central Asia," Oxuscom.com, 2001. Mark Dickens is an
independent scholar and consultant working out of Canada and Uzbekistan.
The Nestorian or Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East was
a strongly missionary church using monastic orders, merchants and other laymen
to spread the faith through trade and building medical centers and shelters.
Stanley Samuel Harakas, "Christianity in Eastern Europe and northern
Eurasia," Academic Room, 1987, updated 2005. Dr. Harakas outlines 20 centuries of Christianity, Byzantine
and Latin, in Eastern Europe and northern Eurasia.
Mary Jane Maxwell,
Review of Richard C. Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road: An
Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth
Century," St. Martin's Griffen, 2000, 200
pp. World History Connected, Vol. 1, Issue 2, May 2004. Dr. Foltz
described thematically movement and transformation of all religions that moved
through the vast central steppe Silk Roads for 2000 years.
"Christian Missionary Engagement With
Tibet," Buddhism.com, Buddhism and the West, originally essay seen
in "The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan,"
(3), 2011, pp. 93-118. Note footnotes and secondary sources at end of
essay. History of Christian missionary and missions in Tibet.
"Between Tolerance and Dogmatism: Tibetan Reactions to the Capuchin
Missionaries in Lhasa, 1707-1745," Buddhism.com, Buddhism and the West,
originally published in "Zentralasiatische
Studien (ZAS) 34, 2005, pp. 55-97.
See comment on this author and article in following link.
academic papers as to Christian
missionaries in Tibet and controversy with NKT or New Kadampa
Tradition. Also reference to Ole Nydahl. Who is
Diamond Buddhist Lama Nydahl? Go to http://www.lama-ole-nydahl.org/
"New Kadampa Tradition From Ancient Kadampa to Modern Buddhism," Buddhism Controversy
blog, May 12, 2014. Article referenced missionary strategy of
"marketing" NKT Buddhism as a stress reliever.
"Trials of a
Tibetan Monk: The Case of Tenzin Delek," Human
Rights World report, February 2004, Vol. 16, No. 1 (C). Tenzin Delek, born 1950, was a Tibetan Buddhist
monk/missionary who attempted to revive Buddhism, Buddhist monasteries in Tibet
after he returned home from India, sanctified and blessed by the Dali Lama.
Full report of his situation, arrest by Chinese, and trial. See
update on Tenzin Delek below:
Senior Tibetan Monk on Medical Parole," Tibetan Centre for Human Rights,
April 7, 2015.
Flooded by Christian Missionaries," Kavkaz
Center, January 10, 2008. Independent Islamic Caucasus Center Chechen
Internet agency perspective as to President George W. Bush's strategy in
Afghanistan which includes "attack against Islam" with Christian missionaries.
Prods Oktor Skjaervo, "An
Introduction to Manicheism," Early Iranian Civilization 103 course, 2006 Fall term seen in Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences pdf.
Note extensive bibliography, historiographical analysis, life of Mani and
missionary expansion of Manicheism.
The Full Wiki. From the 3rd century through the 7th century Manichaeism
was the most widespread religion in the world with churches as far East as
China and as far West as the Roman Empire. Note references to missionaries
David A. Scott,
"Manichaean Views of Buddhism," University of Chicago, 1985 seen
in Academic Room. Dr. Scott described Mani and Manichaean's
reaction to Buddhism and Buddhist missionaries and missions moving east and west.
"The Real Magi, The Real History Behind the Bible
Story of the Wise Men," Blog @2010. The three Wise Men were Zoroastrian
missionaries. See also Dr. Ali Jafarey, "The
Zarasthushtrian Assembly," article.
Hannah Michael Gale Shapero, "Ancient Iranian Religions: Conversion
to Zoroastrianism," The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, CAIS. Dr.
Shapero discussed the debate over Zoroastrian
conversion and proselytizing. Conservatives say NO conversion unless
parents are both Zoroastrian while liberals are more open minded. See
traditional Zoroastrian website, "Traditional Zoroastrianism: Tenets
of the Religion," for more information and resources on Zoroastrian and
conservative point of view from India: http://tenets.zoroastrianism.com/index.html and see article from Parsi
Khabar, Zoroastrians in India, September 6, 2006 as
dwindling Zoroastrian populations.
(Medina Period, 622-632)," Chapter 16, October 17, 2008, download to
Scribd.com. Muhammad as missionary within the mission of Yathrib or Medina.
John Lawton, "The
Arab Heartland," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 42, Issue 6,
Nov/Dec 1991. Muslim outreach, missionary and mission in the Arab world
beginning in 7th century. See other articles on Muslim expansion history
on left side of this page.
"Missionary Work of
Islam," Academic Room, copyright 2013. History of Muslim
missionary work from 650 to 1995.
Sayyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha, "The Origin of the School of Sufism,"
International Association of Sufism, originally an article from journal, "Sufism:
An Inquiry," Short article on origins of Sufism during the
Prophet Mohammad's time which saw these suffee
believers delivering their practices and beliefs throughout the Middle East,
Persia, Egypt after his death.
R. James Ferguson,
"Meeting on the Road: Cosmopolitan Islamic Culture and the Politics
of Sufism," Research Paper No. 4, The Centre for
East-West Cultural and Economic Studies, December 1996. R. James
Ferguson, Bond University, Queensland, Australia described Sufi missionary,
political, and economic influences within the Islamic world.
Camille Helminski, "Women and Sufism," The Threshold
Society, June 8, 2002, originally appeared in Gnosis #30
(winter 1994). Women Sufi mystics working with male Sufis as disciples,
some becoming so popular that people came to visit them as human "missions" holding truths as
to communication with God.
John P. Dickson,
Introduction to doctoral thesis, "Mission-Commitment in Ancient Judaism
and in the Pauline Communities," Coronet Books, October 2003. See
more on Mr. Dickson below.
John P. Dickson,
"Chapter 1 Winning the Gentiles: Mission and Missionaries in Ancient
Judaism?" pp. 11-50, John Dickson, Australian historian, minister,
public speaker, and strong Christian "public advocate," first chapter
from his doctoral thesis. Opening sentence of this chapter sums up the
subject: "The question of whether Judaism at the time of
Christian origins was a 'missionary religion' is a well-worn track in
scholarship, and, as yet, no consensus has been reached." John
Dickson goes on to analyze the topic.
and Influence," History Doctor AP World History website. Note monasticism
and monks and their missionary work in Slavic regions and Russia.
Professor Ahmad Moussalli, American University of Beirut, "Wahhabism,
Salafism and Islamism: Who Is The Enemy?" Conflicts
Forum Monograph, January 2009. Dr. Moussalli
attempted to define ideologies and terms used by Wahhabism, neo-Wahhabism, Salafism, neo-Salafism, and Islamism.
Since 911 chaos has surrounded these movements and ideologies and Dr. Moussalli compared and contrasted the movements.
Ziauddin Sardar, Review,
"Ibn Abd al-Wahhab by
Michael Crawford, book review: A Puritan's Progress," The
Independent, UK, December 18, 2014. Sardar
reviewed missionary outreach of the conservative cleric who allied himself to
Saud family in 18th century Saudi Arabia.
"A History of
Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims," Orthodox
wiki. Entry as to Byzantine Orthodox missionaries among Muslims.
Mehmet Ali Dogan, excerpt, "Missionary Schools," Encyclopedia
of the Ottoman Empire, pp. 385 ff. Short excerpt on Protestant
Missionaries in Ottoman Empire and Ottoman's response.
Norimitsu Onishi, "A
Nation Challenged, A Shrine, A Tale of the Mullah, and Muhammad's Amazing
Cloak," NY Times, December 19, 2001. Afghanistan Taliban
Mullah, Mohammad Omar, proselytized his authority as Commander of the Faithful
in Kandahar, Afghanistan by standing on top of a central mosque wearing Mohammad's
Cloak. It was a successful attempt to display and promote his status as an
Afghanistan religious and political leader which some considered blasphemous in
that he was an uneducated, rural man with no blood ties to the Prophet Mohammad
of Missionary Research,
Issue 28:3, July 2004. See pdf articles concerning Christian missionary outreach
in Middle East and Muslims.
"The Works of
Samuel M. Zwemer," Logos. See
Logos publishing site with samples of 40 year Christian missionary Samuel Zwemer and his work among Muslims in 19th century Middle
East. His work was published in 1900.
"Missionary to US Marine: Life of Colonel William Eddy," Oxford
University Publishing blog, April 28, 2015. Born to American
Presbyterian missionaries in Lebanon, William Eddy would join the U. S. Marine Corps
and work for OSS during WW II in the Middle East.
Dalit Haley, Tova Dvorin, "Muslim
Missionaries Converting Jewish Women in Israel," Israel National
News, December 30, 2013. Group called Dar Al-Islam is converting
unhappy Jewish women, many from central Asia, in Arab Israeli village.
E.K. Hayward Review of
Fred Spier, "Religious Regimes in Peru:
Religious and State Development in a Long-Term Perspective and the
Effects in Andean Village of Zurite,"
Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1994, 328 pp. seen in World
History Connected, Vol. 7, Issue 3, October 2010.
Fray Andres de Olmos,
"Final Judgement," 1530's, Stages of Conflict, Hemispheric
Institute. Franciscan friar Andres de Olmos wrote "Evangelical
theatre" or religious plays with dramatic action. Andres de Olmos "Final
Judgement" was written for Nahua audiences.
Bernardino De Sahagun, University of Houston resource. Spanish missionary
and priest who sailed to Mexico and wrote prayers, hymns, and
devotional texts in Aztec language, Nahuatl
including, in 1540, sermons in Nahuatl. See
more information on De Sahagun by clicking on
"Achievements," "Codex" and "Sources" tabs.
Self Gutenberg. Brief biography of Dominican friar and missionary to the Nahuatl (Aztecs), (1537-1588) famous for his Duran Codex or
"The History of the Indies of New Spain." He preached in
native villages and grew to respect the Mexica.
Google book. Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time,"
Stanford University Press, 2006, 329 pp. Native chronicler and Christian church
official, Chimalpahin, left us with the rare
indigenous perspective about Spanish missionaries communicating Christian ideas
in New Spain with his Annals, 1613. He described religious activities in which
Spanish, native, African, and mestizo participated.
"Missionaries," Oxford University Publishing Bibliographies,
last updated August 26, 2011. Slim annotated bibliography of Catholic and
Protestant missionaries in Latin America, Caribbean and North America.
Month: Olaudah Equiano," Sisters
of the Faith, February 6, 2009. Olaudah
Equiano, slave to missionary in Nicaragua, 1775.
Prince, American National Biographies Online. Born free in
Massachusetts, Nancy Gardner Prince (1799-ca. 1856) had traveled to the
Russian court after she had married an African-American seamen, returned
to Boston to become involved with abolition movements, then to Jamaica as
teacher and raising money for missions and orphanages. Her concern for
fair treatment of Blacks everywhere hoping that clergy and missionaries would
help, especially in the West Indies became suspect as she traveled the West
Indies. In 1841 she published a "travel guide" in Boston which
was a scathing attack on British colonialism, corruption by political,
religious, missionary and mission officials and their failures in helping
people of color in the West indies. See that
entire 15 pp. booklet here:
Nancy Gardner Prince,
"The West Indies: Being a Description of the Islands, Progress of
the Church, Education, and Liberty Among the Colored Population Generally," published in Boston in 1841, 15 pp.
"Haitian Vodun," Assata Shakur Forum,
posted October 26, 2008. This post with cited sources explained how Vodun developed and expanded in Haiti in four stages
among the poor and how a syncretic blending of Vodun
with Roman Catholicism occurred.
Halima Kassim, "Muslim and Missionaries of
Trinidad," Caribbean Muslims, June 10, 2008. Muslim
migration into Trinidad, missionary work and back to India movement.
Missionary Deconverted by Tribe," Unreasonable
Faith, Patheos, April 2009.
University of Pittsburgh professor and missionary to Brazil tribe, Dr.
Daniel Everett, is deconverted. See 10:25
video. Who is Daniel Everett:
Daniel T. Reff, "The 'Predicament of Culture' and Spanish
Missionary Accounts of Tepehuan and Pueblo
Revolts," Ethnohistory, 1995,
pp. 63-90. Ohio State Ethnographer Dr. Reff explored
Spanish missionary perspectives as to Tepehuan (1618)
and Pueblo revolts (1680) and found the accounts laden with "devil"
images as to the natives and Counter-Reformation
theology and philosophy.
Ojibwe, "17th Century Jesuits in New
France," Native American Net Roots, March 12, 2012.
Jesuit missionaries in Canada from a native perspective.
Carol Pogash, "To Some Indians in California, Father Serra
is Far From a Saint," NY Times, January 21, 2015. Pope
Francis call to canonize Father Serra, first missionary in California, received
negative reports from native Californians and others.
Deborah A. Miranda,
"Lying to Children About the California Missions
and the Indians," Zinn Project, posted March 2015. Ms. Miranda commented
on California 4th grade curriculum project about California missions and
Missions and Indians," Indian Country, PBS, March 2015. California
Native perspectives on Mission system and harm done to Native Americans.
California Missions," California State Parks. 21 historic missions
described along the California Mission Trail.
Fred Glass, "Native
Americans in the Mission," Found SF-San Francisco Digital
Archives, March 2015.
Tracy Neal Leavette, University of Creighton, "Native American
Religion in the Early South," Journal of Southern Religion, Issue
14, 2012. Monograph. Discussion of Southern native religion and culture,
Natchez native attempt to convert European missionary which showed native
values of making outsiders into kin and descriptions of European
missionaries in the early South.
Indians," Native American net Roots, February 19, 2011,
posted by Ojibwa. Native American blog post explained history of Quaker
missionary and mission and natives in America.
"Missions and Missionaries," Columbia River Project, Northwest Council,
October 31, 2008. Short article on history of Christian missionaries in early
19th century Northwest.
"In the Beginning
was the Word: The Russian Church and Native Alaskan Cultures,"
Library of Congress. Russian orthodox mission in Alaska and native
reactions. Primary source documents and images. See more from
Library of Congress:
Church: Russia's Alaskan Legacy," Litsite,
University of Alaska, Anchorage. Note point of view as to why the Russian
church was successful in converting natives. Syncretism of Russian
Orthodox priests, many from Siberia, and their respect for nature which allied with
Alaskan native culture.
"Innocent, Veniaminov [Ivan Popov-Veniaminov]
1797-1879," Boston University School of Theology, History of Missiology. Most
famous Alaskan Russian Orthodox missionary who worked in Alaska from 1835-1841.
Peter A. Goddard,
"The Devil in New France: Jesuit Demonology, 1611-50," Canadian
History Review, University of Toronto Press, Vol. 78, No. 1, March 1997.
Many Jesuit missionaries in Canada viewed the native as close to the
Devil. Peter Goddard discussed Jesuit descriptions of natives as demons.
"Native and Christian-A Look at Christianity on Indian Reservations,"
seen in University of California, Berkeley journalism project site. Note
Christian advocate, Julia Roller's point of view on Christian missionaries and missions
on native reservations and see tabs on left side of page for more slim
articles, such as Natives and Mormons, Sweat Lodge, and
"Communicating the Gospel to the Inuit of Nunavut, Canada," North
American Missions, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, November 7, 2008.
Research paper for Dr. David Sills in partial fulfillment for Theological
"From Shamans to Missionaries: The Popular Religiosity of the
Inupiaq Eskimo," Word and World, October 4, 1990. Word
and World is newsletter for Luther Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota.
This article about 1894 Lutheran
missionary, Brevig Memorial Lutheran Church, Brevig Mission, Alaska, Tollef
Larson Brevig's "fight against the Shamanism of
Alaska's Seward Peninsula."
Clarence R. Bolt,
"The Conversion of the Port Simpson Tsimshian: Indian Control or
Missionary Manipulation?" BC Studies, no. 57, Spring 1983.
University of British Columbia article. This monograph seen in Missionaries and
Saskatchewan Library, iPortal, Indigenous Studies
Portal. See other monographs here on
missions, missionaries in Australia and Canada, some open to Library site.
Click on "Google Scholar" tab and you may see the monograph.
T. Max Friesen,
University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, "Kitigaaryuit:
A Portrait of the Mackenzie Inuit in the 1890's based on the Journals of
Isaac O. Stringer," Arctic Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 2,
pp. 222-237, @2004 Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System seen in
Academia. Anglican missionary Issac O. Stringer made
nine trips into Kitigaaryuit "town" of
northern coastal Alaskan Inuit during the beluga whaling season from 1892
through 1909, leaving journals which described these natives from his point of
Religious News Service, "Inuktitut Bible for Inuit Christians," Huffington
Post, Relgion, May 2, 2012. Christian
Bible translated into native Inuit language.
Linda Mugford, "Postcolonialism
from an Inuk Perspective," Academia, 2012. Linda Mugford lives in Nunatsiavut area of Labrador and discussed
Native post-colonial society and effects of European colonialism, especially
German Moravian missionaries and mission schooling, on Inuk culture and
Francis Parkman, "The Works of Francis Parkman: The Jesuits
in North America," Little, Brown, 1897. Parkman's original
work was published in 1867.
Index of Presbyterian Missionaries in North America, Presbyterian Heritage
Center. These American missionaries began native missions as early as
Missionaries," National Women's History Museum.
Spirit," Nebraska Studies, 1800-1849. See the three articles related
to this topic: Moses Merrill, Dunbar and Allis, and The Conversion
"Jain Religion in
America," Pluralism Project, Harvard University. Note Jain
missionaries to America in timeline. Click on "religion" tab at
top of page to see other world religions and their missionary efforts.
Bilal Rana, "Who
Was America's First Muslim Missionary?" Lansing Examiner, June
12, 2010. Dr. Mufti Muhammad Sadiq arrived in
Philadelphia, February 15, 1920.
Susan Neylan, "Shamans, Missionaries and Prophets:
Comparative Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Religious Encounters in
British Columbia," Historical Papers 1994: Canadian Society of
Church History, published in Church History of Canada blog
June 2013. Ms. Neylan attempts to analyze
Christian missionaries and indigenous religious interactions in 1800's British
Reverend Theodore Lafleur, "The Gospel and Romanism in Canada-The Grande
Ligne Mission in Lower Canada," Montreal, 1866,
26 pages. Reverend Lafleur, 1821-1907, wrote
about the threat of Roman Catholicsim from his
Baptist missionary point of view from the 1835 Swiss and French founded Grande Ligne Mission near Montreal, Lower Canada.
Literature," Anti-Slavery Literature website. See juvenile mid-19th
century anti-slavery literature aimed at children in American Sunday
"Inner Space: The Spiritual Frontier," excerpt from "Sisterhood
is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium,"
Washington Square Press, a division of Simon and Shuster, March 2003.
Margot Adler, a Wiccan Priestess since 1973 and contributor to NPR
discussed the importance of gender and female
images in world religions and those images importance in the New Spirituality
of the Feminist movement especially as the 1970's feminist movement rejected
the male symbols of western Christianity.
Melissa Jane Kronfeld, "Prislam:
The Recruitment and Radicalization of Terrorist Operatives in the Prison
System and the Threat to the American Homeland," March 10, 2011, download
to Academia. Ms. Kronfeld was a
reporter for the New York Post (2005-2009), graduate of New York
University and George Washington University working on a PhD in Global Affairs.
Monograph on Missionary recruitment in American prison systems.
"American Buddhism on the Rise," Christian Science Monitor, September
14, 2006. Popularity of Dali Lama and Buddhism in America with 1.5
million adherents making Buddhism the 4th largest religion in US. See update on
Buddhism in America below.
Radhika Abeysekera, "The Appeal of Buddhism in the West,"
Budsas.org. First presented at University of Winnipeg, Canada, updated
for presentation in Sri Lanka, August 2, 2003.
"Buddhists in America," Patheos blog,
July 15, 2011. Three to four million Buddhists in America?
"Buddhism in the
US: Exploring the Digital Face of Buddhism," Dharma Dialogue blog,
November 8, 2012. Top Buddhist websites on the internet. Buddhist
digital missionary and mission in the 21st century.
Institute of Buddhist
Studies website, Berkeley, California. History of the Institute beginning
in 1930 affiliated with the Honpa-Hongwanji branch of
Shinshu Buddhism, a Japanese Pure Land School.
Rebecca Y. Kim,
"Missionaries Coming to America," Oxford University Press, Academic Insights
for the Thinking World blog, February 7, 2015. Rebecca Kim, author of
"The Spirit Moves West-Korean Missionaries in America," gave
reasons for why foreign missionaries come to America.
Tenrikyo in America and Canada, Tenrikyo
8:12 Video, YouTube,
"Knocking," documentary about Jehovah's Witnesses in America, their
outreach and tactics.
Szpakowska, syllabus, "Supernatural Beings and
Demons of Ancient Egypt," Swansea University, Wales, UK, 2013-14.
Seen in Wabash Center, Wabash University.
Dr. Barbette Stanley Spaeth, syllabus, "Magic and the Supernatural in the
Ancient World," Tulane Unversity, Spring 1998. As a continuity over time, all religions use
some form of mystic, magical ritual(s) in their faith and proselytizing that
See Bibliography for
that course: http://www.tulane.edu/~spaeth/magic98/biblio.html
Dr. Bonnie Effrus, syllabus, "Medieval Magic and
Witchcraft," Fall 2011, University of Florida.
Medieval European religious use of magic and witchcraft.
Y. Schur, syllabus, "Religion, Magic and Sorcery
in the Medieval World," University of Pennsylvania, Summer
2015. Course dealt with social, religious, political and economic
functions of the supernatural in medieval Europe, 500-1500 CE.
syllabus, "Religions of the Silk Road," Silk Road Toronto, University
of Toronto, Canada, Fall 2010- Winter 2011.
Syllabus for Studies in
Church and Mission, Department of Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden, last
revised March 11, 2014. Focus on Lutheran Church and mission outreach.
Eckhard J. Schnabel, syllabus, "Mission in the
Early Church," Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, Charlotte, North Carolina
branch, Spring 2013.
Bruce N. Fisk,
"Life and Teachings of Paul," Briercrest
Biblical Seminary, June 3-7, 2002. Course syllabus for Dr. Fisk's course
on Christianity's early missionary. Bruce Fisk is from Westmont College,
Department of Religious Studies.
Dr. Paul D. Numrich, "Missionary Religions," syllabus,
Pontifical College Josephinum, Fall
2005-Spring 2006. Comparative religions approach.
"Missionaries and Empire from 1500-Present," University of Utah.
Note introduction stating that most research agrees that "local
missionaries" (not foreign) do most of the work of spreading religious
"Mission Strategies and Tactics," Southern Nazarene University, Oklahoma
City, Oklahoma. Course resources for missionary and mission strategy and
Dan Mathewson, syllabus,
Evangelicalism, Wofford College, 2011.
Christopher W. Chase,
syllabus, "Religion in America, RELIG 210," Iowa State University, 2013.
Dr. Chase's course covers all forms and examples of American religion
beginning with traditional native religions, Buddhism and Hinduism in America,
and all forms of Christianity in America.
Elias dos Santos Medeiro, syllabus, "History of Missions,"
Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi, Fall
Dr. Shawn Daggett,
syllabus, "History of Missions," Harding University, Arkansas, spring
2013. Focus of this Christian University course was missions from New
Testament, Roman Catholic and Protestant perspective.
Thomas Power, syllabus,
"History of Missions and Development," Wycliffe College, Winter 2014. Christian global mission.
Marjorie Mandelstan Balzer, syllabus,
"Shamans, Priests, Healers," Berkley Center, Georgetown University, Spring 2014. This course studied folk healing, gender,
and missionaries in indigenous societies.
Music/Songs and Art:
Man," Eurythmics, 1986, posted on
Program, May 25, 2013 at Ramakrishna Mission, Aalo.
Chanting and devotional songs.
George J. Tanabe Jr.,
"Music and Buddhism," Academic Room. Article
explaining music, chanting and ritual in Buddhist religious teaching.
Repetition is key to teaching Buddhist religious ideas.
"Wooded Mountain at
Dusk," 1666, by Kuncan (1612-1673), Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of
Art. Kuncan (K'un-Ts'an)
an educated poet-painter, who retreated from urban society to enter a Buddhist
monastery who frequently traveled to paint landscapes, directly from nature
attaching poems to the paintings. The poem is seen in this source. Monk
using art to promote mission. Painting and poem bring together Wang Yangming's (1520's) notion of the unity of the human
and natural world and Li Zhi's (1590's) idea of the
power of the senses.
Song," Shamans of Russian Baikal, 2:34 YouTube video, 2011.
9:58 YouTube Video,
"Yoruba Bata: A Living Drum and Dance Tradition From
Nigeria," 2008. Traditional religious ceremony and importance of the
drum and dance. See background to these religious ceremonies below.
Traditional African Religions," Cazarsivi blog,
September 21, 2012.
Carol L. Rizzolo, "Percussive Speech and the Drums of the Yoruba,"
Carol Rizzolo blog. Importance of the drum in traditional
Yoruba, West African, religious ceremony and dance.
"Arabo-Andalusian Sufi Songs-Ensemble Ibn Arabi," International Archive. See songs on
right side of page.
City of Light website, Islamic Spain TV, The Culture of Al Andalus.
Music in Islam.
"Crusaders," Islamic poem website, December 8, 2006.
Interesting mention, of "missionaries" in this poem in context
of US Iraq War from an Islamic point of view.
Archdiocesan School of
Byzantine Music, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Look to lower
right for two video clips of Byzantine leaders which has music in background.
"Blessed Are the
Peacemakers," Archdiocesan Byzantine Choir, YouTube video 1:40:34 concert,
November 30, 2013.
Rui Oliveira Lopes, University of Lisbon, "The
Reproducibility of Art in the Context of the Jesuit Missions in China-Artistic
Mutual Understanding in the Dialogue between Europe and China,
1601-1666," 2014. See many artistic images of Spanish Jesuit
art displayed in China in 17th century.
Sonia Narang, "The Music of the Missions," Frontline
World, PBS. Spanish and Italian Jesuit missionaries in South America founded
missions called "reducciones" harboring
Paraguay's Guarani Indians who were taught European music. 1986 film
"The Mission" included some of that music. Listen to audio podcasts
of this Mission music.
Laurence Muftah, "Ragheb Moftah-Musical Resurrection," My Coptic Blog, October
2008. Ragheb Moftah,
b. 1898, d. 2001, collected Coptic Music, songs. Laurence Muftah was the librarian at American University, Cairo,
Egypt, librarian. Listen to Coptic music: http://www.copticheritage.org/spiritual_songs
Mission Songs: A
Bibliography of Christian mission songs.
1987 film with English
subtitles, "Sorceress," 1:35:03 YouTube Video posted March 12,
2012. Thirteenth Century Dominican Friar asmissionary
"detective" searching for heretics entered French village and found a
suspect. Young woman who lived in the woods healing people with
herbs and natural medicines became his target. Note comparative to
opening scene as greyhound saves baby from snake and is mistakenly killed by
his master. Film as art.
John Maunu is an AP College Board World History consultant and World History
Connected Digital Resources editor who can be contacted at email@example.com.