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Digital Resources for Travel Writing and Travel Narratives in World History

John Maunu


In his work, The Tao of Travel (2011), famed travel writer Paul Theroux offered a picturesque, yet universal view of travel narratives. He wrote that

"The travel narrative is the oldest in the world, the story the wanderer tells to the folk gathered around the fire after his or her return from a journey. "This is what I saw" — news from the wider world; the odd, the strange, the shocking, tales of beasts or of other people. "They're just like us!" or "They're not like us at all" The traveler's tale is always in the nature of a report. And it is the origin of narrative fiction too, the traveler enlivening a dozing group with invented details, embroidering on experience."

Mary Jane Maxwell, in her introduction to the February 2013 World History Connected Forum on "Travel Writers and Travel Narratives in World History," drew attention to the ancient age of this tradition1 and to the many variations of travel narrative accounts now available. From these sources, it would seem that travel writers and their narratives often fall into five categories. The first category is characterized by ethnocentrists packing their culture's exceptionalism in their knapsacks and upon returning home, viewed the foreign as "other," characterizing them in terms of zoological creatures, performers in a circus, suitability as slaves, or, at worse, enemies to be slaughtered for their land and resources.2 The second category features romantic souls sighing for that which is lacking in their own culture. They see those they encounter, especially when these are inhabitants of desert, rainforest, steppe or forest, as noble savages subsisting in a primitive Eden. Such travelers find that their experience of these cultures highlights or offers a means of accessing the antidote to, the ills of their own societies. In the third category we find propagandists for empire's tourist industry peddling guide books for eager, usually elite, vacationers yearning for a Grand Tour or an "Orient Express" experience. The fourth category features spies, missionaries, diplomats, and merchants, some whom fit into the first two categories, but whose closeness to the people and regions with whom they come into contact has resulted in more sympathetic reportage. In the fifth and last of these categories, we find the curious who attempt a scientific, open-minded study/narrative of who and what they see, smell, eat, and communicate with and desire to translate that knowledge back to their own societies, often to promote both understanding and mutual respect and, hence, peace among the travelers' own and the "encountered" society. Standing somewhat alongside all these categories, yet outside them, are the travel writers visiting, pontificating, and marveling over ruins and monuments, worshipping past events, from the dead, such as Ozymandius,3 or the moa of Easter Island, rather than interacting with the people and cultures that currently live near the sacred funerary monuments and ruins of past civilizations.

What follows is an aid to students and scholars identifying on-line accessible travel writers and travel narrative resources by era. It includes references to magazines and web sites, teaching syllabi, bibliographies, and lesson modules for educators.

Ancient times to 600 CE:
(Attempt to place this section in chronological order. Other periods grouped as to region)
"The Tale of Sinuhe," Egypt, Cradle of Civilization blog, October 8, 2008. Summary of the traveller to Libya then Canaan from 19th-20th century BCE. Classic work of ancient Egypt.
Jill Kamil, "Fiction is Knowledge," Al-Ahram on-line, December 2004. Kamil interviews Czech scholar/archaeologist Miroslav Barta on The Tale of Sinuhe and his work in Egypt seeking evidence for his book, Sinuhe, the Bible and the Patriarchs, Brown 2004. See abstract:
"The Shipwrecked Sailor, c. 2200 BCE," Ancient History Sourcebook: Tales of Ancient Egypt. Paul Halsall Fordham Education Library. Primary source excerpt from this ancient Egyptian account/travel narrative.
Debborah Donnelly MA, "Archaeological and Geographical Evidence for the Voyage of Wenamun," @2004, Hieratic papyrus dated to 1130 BCE indicates that an Egyptian priest could have traveled to Cairo and then across the Mediterranean to Lebanon to buy cedar for the Amun-Ra temple at Karnak. Some say the "story" is fiction or propaganda. See Benjamin Sass (Tel Aviv University), "Wenamun and His Levant-1075 BC or 925 BC?", January 1, 2002:
Camilla Di-Biase-Dyson, "Linguistic Insights into Characterisation. The Case Study of Wenamun," 2009,
Patrick Hunt, "Homer's Odyssey in Art: Sirens from Greek Vases to Waterhouse," Philolog. A discussion with images of Greek art and John Waterhouse painting of the Odyssey.
"The Periplus of Hanno the Navigator," Jerry Norman's From Cave Paintings to the Internet website, History of Information, seen March 12, 2013. Carthaginian sailor and explorer Hanno of Carthage sailed the coast of West Africa around 500 BCE.
Lance Jenott, "The Voyage around the Erythraean Sea," Washington State University, 2004 Silk Road Seattle. Early guide book written by a Greek speaking Egyptian merchant (50 CE). See map of trade routes and monsoon patterns discussed in the Periplus. This travel guide is from a translation by William H. Schoff, 1912. For full commentary see Lionel Casson, "The Periplus Maris Erythraei: Text with Introduction, Translations, and Commentary, Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.
"Guide Book," wiki. Description of first travel guides in Hellenistic world written for tourists and
travelers also referred to in Greek as "periplus" and periegesis or "progress around" was an established literary genre. See a history of guide books beginning with Greeks and Arab world in this short wiki article.
"Tabula Peutingeriana," Cartographic #120. Road map/travel guide of the Roman world used in 300 and 400 CE by early Christians.
Cartographer may be Castorius (300's CE):

Who was Peutinger?

See ancient maps:
(Google Book) Lionel Casson, "Travel in the Ancient World," Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994. See many chapters of Dr. Casson's classic which includes travel narratives as evidence.
Paul Halsall's excellent primary sources on ancient travelers and travel narratives. Fordham Library.
Paul Halsall, "United World Systems," Internet Global History Sourcebook, Fordham University. See sources, links,
to many letters, travel accounts from earliest times to the present focusing on World Systems theory, ie., trade, war, religion, migration, empire, art and music.
"Ancient History Sourcebook: Xenophon: Anabasis, or March Up Country," Fordham Library, Paul Halsall curator. Xenophon (431-355 BCE), a student of Socrates, writes a narrative abput his travels with Persian Prince Cyrus the Younger's expedition against his brother King Artaxerxes II and Cyrus' Greek troops travels through Asia Minor and back home to Greece. See all seven books in this site. More on Xenophon from
Claire vd Heever, "Ancient Angkor: Stories in the Stone," old world wandering website, August 12, 2012. Heever details Hinduism's travels/migration into Angkor beginning in the 1st century CE and Khmer Empire in "sandstone stories" in Mount Meru cliffs.
"Buddhism Spreads East," Silk Road Foundation. Note travel writers and narratives mentioned in this essay.
"Fotudeng," Wikipedia. One of the most effective Buddhist missionaries was Central Asian who claimed that the Buddha had given him special powers to bring rain, cure the sick. Was able to convert a local ruler Shi Le (274-333 CE) who won an important battle in 310 CE and granted Buddhists tax free status and the right to build temples/monasteries in northern China.
Brian Hoffert (North Central College) Buddhist transformation of China. Short listing of Buddhist missionaries in China. Dr. Brian Hoffert home page.
Lian Slayford, "Indian Buddhist Missionary Dharmaksema," Bukisa, June 12, 2010. Dharmaksema's (d. 385 CE) travels from India to China.
Some of the most stunning accounts of ancient India are provided by the visiting foreigners (see also: India though the eyes of foreign travelers): Wikipedia.

Greek Accounts
The Greeks who accompanied Alexander the Great in his Indian campaign recorded their encounters of this mystical, magical land. Although much of these works are now lost, the details have percolated into subsequent Greek literature. Special reference is to be made of the Indica by Megasthenes who lived in the court of Chandragupta Maurya, of Periplus of the Erythrean Sea by an unknown businessman (second half of 1st century A.D) and The
Geography of India by Ptolemy (about 130 A.D.)

Chinese Accounts
After the spread of Buddhism, Chinese travelers came to India in big numbers to collect religious books and to visit the holy places of Buddhism. Works of Fa-Hien (5th century A.D., see Crossing of Indus), Huen-Tsang (7th century A.D.) and I-Tsing (7th century A.D.) are important historical accounts.

Islamic Accounts
Islamic traveler Alberuni who accompanied Sultan Mahmud (1017 A.D.), made a careful study of the social institutions of India and his memoirs (see: Alberuni's India) are a treasure of historical evidence. Marco-Polo passed through some parts of southern India on his way from China to Persia (1292 A.D.) and has left a very interesting narration of social manners and customs of South India. See Also: Travelogues
Florence D'Souza review of Tabish Khair, Martin Leer, Justin Edwards, & Hanna Ziadeh, eds., "Other Routes- 1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing," Signal Books, 2006 (420 pp.) seen in E-rea, Revue electronique d'etudes sur le monde anglophone, 10 mars 2013. D'Souza explains that this book is an anthology of extracts from non-European travel texts by Asians and Africans in English translation from the 5th century to 19th century. The authors, one Indian, two Danish, and one Egyptian, are all attached to Danish academic institute.
Richard E. Strassberg, "Inscribed Landscapes: Travel Writing From Imperial China," 1994. Strassberg has published an anthology of Chinese travelers' impressions of China from first century AD-19th century CE. Note differences in travel accounts (yu-chi) and later the travel diary (jih-chi).
(Google EBook) Alice Albina, "Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River," W.W. Norton, 2010. Alice Albina, travel writer, writes a history of Pakistan.
Jessica Crispin, "Empires of the Indus: The Story of a River," by Alice Albina, 2010 review, PBS, need to know, July 12, 2010. Ms. Crispin lauds Alice Albina patient travel writing as history saying that unlike "Anthony Bourdain who leaps from one place to another, eating his way through city after city," Albina spends time in the region she is researching.
"History of India-Memoirs of Fa-Hein," Kamat's potpourri, April 25, 2001. Chinese scholar Fa-Hein's primary source travel accounts from 399-414 CE of India. See also "India Through Foreign Eyes," Kamat's potpourri, last updated 1/11/2013.
Kamat's potpourri gives primary source accounts from Fa Hien, William Jones, Col. William H. Sleeman, Pietro Della Valle, Persian Muslim Alberuni, and Hiun-Tsing.
Takuji ABE, "The Two Orients for Greek Writers," The Kyoto Journal of Ancient Writers, Vol. 11 (2011). Scylax, Herodotus and Hecataeus works described in this 14 pp. pdf. See Notes and Cited Literature.
"Rambles, Travels, and Maps," Villanova Digital Library seen in Falvey Memorial Library. Note Travels of Anacharsis the Younger included in Jean Jacques Barthelemy's imaginary travel journal. Barthelemy, a highly esteemed classical scholar and Jesuit, published The Travels of Anacharsis the Younger in Greece, initially in French in seven physical volumes. See, also, google e-book, Vol 3:
"Philhellenism," Note reference to Jean Jacques Barthelemy's fantastic The Travels of Anacharsis (a shadowy Scythian philosopher) published in France in 1788 which spurred philhellenism (love of Greek culture) in France and is one of the first historical novels. Anacharsis traveled from Scythia to Greece in 6th century BCE and was known as a forthright and outspoken "barbarian."
"Herodotus Project," Lost Trails website. Herodotus (485-425 BCE) left travel narratives in the fifth century BCE. Herodotus devoted his life to explaining the success of the Persian Empire in "The Histories." Historia in Greek means "inquiry" or investigations. Herodotus completed his travel narratives around 431 BCE.
Herodutus, "Inquiries, Books 1-9," translated by Shlomo Felberbaum, Lost Trails website.
"Polybius," NNDB website history of Greek statesman (200-118 BCE) sent to Rome as hostage from Macedonia. After receiving his freedom Polybius stayed in Rome traveling to Spain and Carthage. His one surviving book, The Rise of the Roman Empire, details his travels but focuses on how Rome acquired its empire. Polybius believed that the historian must do on-site research stating,"I have personally explored the country (Hannibal's Alps), and have crossed the Alps myself to obtain first-hand information and evidence." (Hansen and Curtis, Voyages, Wadsworth/Cengage, 2010, p. 180.)
Marie Parson, "Egypt: A Brief History of Early Travels to Egypt, A Feature Tour Egypt Story," Part I, II, III, Tour Egypt site. Parson begins her brief history of travelers to Egypt with Herodotus (450-440 BCE), Diodorus (60-56 BCE), Strabo (25-19 BCE) and moves on to note others.
J. W. McCrindle, "Megasthenes-Indika," Project South Asia (note original footnotes not included) seen in Greek ambassador Megasthenes (302 BCE) sent to Mauryan court at Pataliputra by Seleucus where he stayed for 14 years producing a travel narrative, Indika.
Laxman Burdak, "Jat clans as described by Megasthenes,", last updated June 27, 2012. See more on northern India/Pakistan Jat clans:
"The Story of India," PBS. Ashoka (268-232 BCE) as travel writer via stone pillars. See resources tab which include Travel writing and guide books:
Ven. S. Dhammika, "The Edicts of King Ashoka," 1993. Seen in Colorado State website. The edicts as travel narrative and propaganda.
John S. Strong, "The Legend of King Ashoka: A Study and translation of the Asokavadana," Dehli 2002, 2008. Published Princeton University Press, 1983. See more on Ashoka:
Lawrence R. Sullivan, "China's First Emperor," Archaeology-Archaeology Institute of America, January 23, 2006. Review of Discovery Channel's television program, "The First Emperor: The Man who made China." One could use Valerie Hansen and Ken Curtis, "Voyages in World History," Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2010, pp.60-62 and pp. 88-90 to draw comparisons between Ashoka's and Shi Huangdi's stone tablets/pillors as travel narrative/propaganda and also see colorful maps of their "travels" on those pages. See more on Prince Zheng:
"On the March Terra Cotta Soldiers, Smithsonian Magazine. See map of Prince Zheng (Shi Huangdi) travels/Imperial tours in China:

File:Qin tours.jpg
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Yuan Chwangs (Xuanzang) Travels in India 629-645 AD, Vol. I,
Vol. II, Travels in India. See map of Xuanzang's Travels to the west (10, 000 miles) in
"History of India-Memoirs of Fa-Hein," Kamat's potpourri, April 25, 2001. Chinese scholar Fa-Hein's primary source travel accounts from 399-414 CE of India. See also "India Through Foreign Eyes," Kamat's potpourri, last updated 1/2/2012. Kamat's potpourri gives primary source accounts from Fa Hien, William Jones, Col. William H. Sleeman, Pietro Della Valle, Persian Muslim Alberuni, and Hiun-Tsing.
"Silk Road Narratives: A Collection of History Texts," University of Washington Silk Road Project, Project Director Dr. Daniel C. Waugh. Travel accounts by Silk Road travelers from 91 BCE-1670's CE.
Kenneth D. Litwak (Azusa Pacific University) review of James A. Metzger, "Consumption and Wealth in Luke's Travel Narrative," Biblical Interpretation 88, Leiden: Brill, 2007.
"Tracing the Steps of the Apostle Paul," Truth in History Christian website. This site explains Paul's travels with Biblical citations as his travel narratives.
Greg Valerio, "Exploring Columban Spirituality," Chasing Columba blogsite. Greg Valerio analyzes "peregrinatio" or Celtic spiritual belief of leaving one's homeland to find puritiy and build monastaries where monks strive to be even more devout and disciplined. Irish monk Columbanus (543-615 CE) developed this traveling spirituality.
"From Jesus to Christ: The Storytellers," PBS documentary as to Christ and the movement of his ideas. Paul of Tarsus born in Tarsus (now modern Turkey) was one of the early "message carriers."
"Early Christian Pilgrimage to the Holy Land," Franciscan Cyberspot, last updated March 29, 1998 and developed by Eugenio Alliata ofm assistant Professor of Christian Archaeology at SBF-Jerusalem. Urged by early Christian thinkers such as Origen to "follow in the footsteps of Christ" many became pilgrims but only a few left travel accounts. This website includes travel narratives of the Anonymous Pilgrim of Bordordeaux (333 AD), Egeria' travel book (female who traveled from Rome to Jerusalem and Egypt to visit the earliest Christian monasteries in 381-384 CE), The Journey of Paula by Jerome (404 AD) and others. Also note Pilgrims of the Crusades and the Madaba Mosaic Map at bottom of this page.
"Writer Travels around globe to tombs of apostles," Catholic Review (Baltimore archdiocese), nd. Catholic Review interview with travel writer Tom Bissell who discusses his new book as to location of the apostles grave sites and tombs. Bissell began to think of this travel narrative when he was in Kyrgystan and found out that St. Matthew's burial site was there.
Keena Baca-Winters, "Priscus," University of California, Irvine. Priscus was Byzantine envoy to Attila 450 CE. Priscus' work survives only in quoted form in other writer's works such as Jordanes the Goth historian. Priscus: Byzantine History, available in the original Greek in Ludwig Dindorf : Historici Graeci Minores (Leipzig, Teubner, 1870) and available online as a translation by J.B. Bury: Priscus at the court of Attila.
J. Vanderspoel, "Jordanes," trans. by Charles C. Mierow, Department of Greek, Latin and Ancient History, University of Calgary, last modified April 22, 1997.
(Google EBook) Arne Soby Christinsen, "Jordanes: The Origin and Deeds of the Goths," Museum Tusculanum Press, 2002.
"A Real Letter From a Roman Soldier," Great Names in History blog, posted November 25, 2009. Young Egyptian recruited in Alexandria, Egypt into Roman army, survives storm as he is shipped to Italy and writes travel letter to family in small town in Egypt seen in James Henry Breasted, Ancient Times: A History of the Early World, Ginn and Company, 1944, p. 708. Note same blog (April 20, 2008) with pictures and information on Roman Travel along Roman roads:
Tziona Grossmark, Travel Narratives in Rabbinic Literature: Voyages to Imaginary Realms," 2010. An anthology of 21 Traveler's Tales examining the Talmudic tales as an inter-cultural phenomenom based on oral traditions. Travelers would tell their audience-family, companions, friends-about the adventure along the trade routes. Voyage Literature comes in two types: 1. Voyage to an imaginary realm, nether world, paradise, bottom of the seas...a fantasy. 2. Tales woven from realistic details where the traveler is on horseback or aboard ship. Rabba bar Bar Hanna would exemplify this type of imaginary Voyage Literature.
Travel writers from ancient through late medieval time,
Indian Travel Writers,
Ancient Silk Road travel writers,
Jonathan Burgess (University of Toronto), " Travel Literature in Antiquity," The Literary Encyclopedia, May 7, 2010. Seen in as an on-line article. This short article is Greco-Roman focused. See bibliography at end of article.
Philip A. Harland, ed., Travel and Religion, Studies in Christianity and Judaism, vol. 21. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2011. Dr. Harland compiles scholars who have authored essays/articles as to how travel and mobility influenced, constrained, and facilitated religious activity and cultural interaction in antiquity, especially in Hellenistic and Roman periods. Ancient travel literature, pilgrimage, etc. are included.

Josephine Shaya (Wooster) Review of Philip A. Harland, Travel and Religion in Antiquity. Studies in Christianity and Judaism/E'tudes sur le christianisme et le judaisme, 21. Waterloo: Wilfred Lauier University Press, 2011. Bryn Mawr Classica Review, November 24, 2011. Shaya notes that Harland describes travel in religious lives of ancient Mesopotamia, Judeans, Greeks including pilgrimages, travel narratives.
Tony Perrottet Q & A, "The Original Roman Holiday," National Geographic Adventure Magazine, March 2003. Travel writer Tony Perrottett explains his retracing of the Roman era Mediterranean "Grand Tour" seen in "Route 66 AD" travel narrative and then published in Pagan Holiday (2003).
"Travel Literature," Note analysis and examples of travel writing, travel journals, narratives, ship logs beginning in 8th century BCE.
Greek Pausanias (115-180 CE), Greek travel writer and guide book author.
William Hutton (College of William and Mary), review of Maria Pretzler, Pausanias: Travel Writing in Ancient Greece. Classical Literature and Society," London: Duckworth, 2007 seen in Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Vol. 2, No. 24, 2009.
Brief comments on early travel writers into ancient Egypt,
"Europe-Persian Image of", Iranica Note Persian historians and travel writers.
"Early Women's Travel Writing," Women on the road blog.
Travel evidence for Mayan King Yax K'u Mo' is part of a lively debate (much like Indo-European "invasion theory" in Indus River Valley?) as to cultural development. Did the residents of Teotihuacan, the successors to the Olmecs, and the Maya people influence each other or develop separately? Some see the Olmecs as a mother culture that gave both the Teotihuacan and Maya peoples their calendar, writing sytem and flat-topped pyramids. These scholars believe that Yax K'uk Mo' traveled to Copan from Teotihuacan in 426 CE and introduced Teotihuacan's ways to the Maya. Others argue that the Olmecs, Teotihuacan, and Maya were neighboring cultures that did not directly influence each other. (Valerie Hansen and Ken Curtis, Voyages in World History, Wadworth Cengage Learning, 2010, pp. 114 ff.) Yax K'uk Mo' Mayan King like Chinese emperor carried for Imperial tours?

600 CE–1450 CE:

Asia/South Asia:
Tansen Sen, "The Travel Records of Chinese Pilgrims Faxian (4th c.), Xuanzang and Yijing (both 7th c.)-Sources for Cross-Cultural Encounters Between Ancient China and Ancient India," Education About Asia, Vol. 11, No. 3, winter 2006. See maps which highlight this 10 pp. pdf article by Dr. Sen.
"The Footsteps of Princess Wen Cheng," Oracle Think Quest, Projects by Students for Students.  Princes Wen Cheng's (625-689 CE) travels into Tibet.
Julie Wilensky, "The Magical Kunlun and 'Devil Slaves': Chinese Perceptions of Dark Skinned People and Africa before 1500," Sino-Platonic Papers, Number 122, July 2002. Sino-Platonic Papers/journal is a product of the Department of East Asian Languages and Civilizations of University of Pennsylvania. Ms. Wilensky (Yale ) with Dr. Valerie Hansen as an advisor uses Chinese histories and travel accounts to analyze Chinese attitudes toward "kunlun" or dark skinned Chinese/Asians and then Africans.
"The Song Dynasty in China," Life in the Song Seen Through a 12th century scroll, Asia For Educators, Columbia University. (Consultants-Patricia Ebrey & Conrad Schirokauer) Note reference to Zhao Rugua who continued the tradition of writing about foreign peoples with "The Description of Foreign Peoples," in 1225. Rugua served as the director of the Department of Overseas Trade in Quanzhou, China's largest international trade port. Not a traveler himself, he combined information from encylopedias with what he learned by speaking to foreign and Chinese traders to describe Vietnam, Korea and Japan. See short biography on Zhao Rugua: "Yi-Jing," I-Tsing 7th century travels and writings from China to India, See I-Tsing's travel route:

YiJingMap2.jpg ‎(450 x 399 pixels, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)
"The Drunken Poetic Genius of Li Po," Guardian, February 1, 2008. Li Po (also known as Li Bai), a Tang Chinese poet, lived from 701-762 and traveled all over China and into Japan writing his Taoist romantic poetry yet yearning to be a Confucianist court official. Li Po chafed at the Confucianist ornate and structured poetics, that is why he found Taoism so interesting. Note a short explanation of Chinese poetry
which outlines that form and mention of Chinese "travel record literature"
exemplified by Fan Chengda and Xu Xiake and seen in Su Shi's "Record of Stone Bell Mountain."
Arthur Waley, "The Poet Li Po," Wikisource. A paper read before the China Society of Oriental Studies, November 21, 1918.
Cross-cultural Exchange: China and India and Buddhism on the Silk Road;
The Pilgrimage of the monk Xuanzang (pronounced "Swanzong"), of Journey to the West (Tale of Monkey)
More Silk Road-related content can be found in the Religion, Philosophy, Thought section, the Economy, Work, Trade, Foreign Relations section, and the Literature section, below.

Xuanzang: The Monk Who Brought Buddhism East [Asia Society]
"The life and adventures of a Chinese monk who made a 17-year journey to bring Buddhist teachings from India to China. Xuanzang subsequently became a main character in the great Chinese epic Journey to the West." Travelers Xuanzang, Faxian, and Yijing links and lessons from
Sally Hovey Wriggins, "Xuanzang on the Silk Road," Mr. Hartman's AP World History website, Patrick Henry High School, Roanoke, Virginia, nd.
Jeffrey Kotyk, "Revisiting Ancient Buddhist India," Huayanzang blog-Flower Ornament Depository, March 29, 2012. Mr. Kotyk discusses Korean monk Hyecho (704-787 CE) who traveled from China to India and back leaving a travel narrative, "Memoir of a Pilgrmage to the Five Indian Kingdoms." He also mentions Faxian, Xuanzang and Yijing.
Kinoshita Toshihiko, "Following the Tracks of Monk Ennin," The Japan Journal, November 2008. Kinoshita Toshihiko interview with Virginia Stibbs Anami who has researched and written about the travelling Japanese Buddhist monk Ennin (794-864 CE) and his 4 volume diary. Toshihiko has also researched Chinese Buddhist monk Jianzhen (688-763 CE).
Hans van Roon (Netherlands), "Hyecho Korea's First Cosmopolitan," Mongols China and the Silk Road blog, December 22, 2010. Korean Buddhist monk Hyecho, b. 704 CE, and his travelogue, "Wang Ocheon chukguk Jeon," or Memoir of the Pilgrimage to the Five Kingdoms of India. Hyecho's narrative is the first overseas travelogue written by a Korean with excellent observations of India's archaeology and anthropology in the 8th century CE.
Ki No Tsurayuki, "The Tosa Diary," (935 CE), Audio podcasts by LibriVox, 1:29:52, July 2012. Tsurayuki was a famous Japanese poet who made a sea trip along Japanese coast and wrote a narrative from a woman's point of view. Some see this as the first Japanese travel narrative.
"Asian Topics in World History/Columbia University," Asia For Educators. Mongols and travel writers to their capital especially Missionaries (travel writers) from Rome. See also "The Mongol as Other critiqued" in Asia for Educators Mongol website:
Marco Polo Odyssey interactive website, National Geographic, 7/1/2001, @National Geographic 2011.
"Chinese Cultural Studies: Marco Polo [1254-1324] Travels in China," from "The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian," translated and ed. by Henry Yule, 3rd ed. revised by Henri Cordier (London: John Murray, 1903) Vol. II. Pp. 185-193, 200-2005, 215-216. Seen in Paul Halsall/Brooklyn College/1996-1999, Core 9 Chinese Culture, Internet East Asian History Sourcebook. Primary source Marco Polo writings as to Polo's view of China-excerpts.
"Marco Polo-Travel Writer Fraud,", 8/12/2011. Gadling blog states that Polo was the father of Travel Writing which has been, as a continuity over time, a collection of stories and fables.
"Crank dat Marco Polo," Travel Studies blogsite, 9/19/2012. First an analysis of Bow Wow and Soulja Boy song "Marco Polo-b" and then a review of Marco Polo: Real or Imposter?"
"William of Rubruck Account of the Mongols," Silk Road Seattle, University of Washington, 2004. Important eye- witness travel account of Mongol society at their peak by William of Rubruck (1215-ca. 1295). See map of his travels from this source:

Rubruck's Route (1253-1255)
Francesco Pegolotti (1310-1347) Florentine merchant, politician who wrote accounts "The Practice of Commerce" instructing Italians how to conduct business in the East. These accounts came at a time when "The Golden Horde" was at it's peak ruling the western Mongol empire. Who is Francesco Pegolotti?
See Chen Cheng (envoy to Persia): Ma Huan and Fei Xin (chronists of Zheng He's Chinese fleet to Persia's Ormuz). See Zheng He:
As a footnote to Chinese travel narratives see 1402 map, the "Kanguido" made in Korea by Ch'an Chin and Li Hui which portrays China's view as being the center of the world.
"Yoktae chewang honil Kangnid or the Kanguido," Monograph 236.
Park Hyunhee, "A Buddhist Woodblock-printed map in 13th century China," Crossroads Studies on the History of Exchange Relations in the East Asian World, Volume 1/2, 2010. Map's Buddhist author adapted a circulating geographic representation of China but shifted it's world view to present China at the eastern edge of the Buddhist world. Also Portuguese Jesuit Bento de Gois (1562-1607) who traveled the same route 180 years later. All noted at end of this brief digplanet selection (above). See more on Bento De Gois in "Famous Foreigners in Chinese History," website, last updated November 15, 2012 and also in next section, 1450-1750 CE:

Chen Cheng's voyages in the context of the Yongle era military and diplomatic activity. Chen Cheng's approximate overland route (as based on the list of destinations in Goodrich & Tay 1976) is in green, along with the maritime route of Zheng He (in black) and the riverine route of Yishiha (in blue).
See more detailed map and routes of Ming dynasty envoy to Persia Chen Cheng, Zheng He's Indian Ocean routes, and Yishiha riverine route. See more on northern Chinese eunuch admiral Yishiha:
Yishiha's 1413-1414 river expeditions left a stele along the Amur River (now housed in Vladivostok museum) which described the expedition and local people in Chinese, Mongol and Jurchen languages.
Wang Tei Peng (MA, historian cum journalist based in Vancouver, Canada), "Zheng He and his Envoys Visits to Cairo 1414 and 1433." Gavin, August, 2011. Note some of envoys have left us with travel accounts of Zhen He's voyages including reference to Ma Huan. (30 pp. pdf.)
"Travels of Sir John Mandeville," (1356) Gutenberg ebook. Mandeville described the imaginary Prester John traveling throughout Asia and his travel account has been labelled as "pure hearsay." This travel chronicle was popular reading and becae a standard account of the East for several centuries. Who was Sir John Mandeville, Knight?
"Anthology of Travel Literature and Texts on the Orient," Paris: 15th century (1410-1412), The European Library.
Nandini Bajpai, "Bodhidharma Went East," Nandinibajpai blogspot, January 17, 2009. Ms. Bajpai discusses Indian traveling monks in early history including South Indian Brahmin Bodhisena (736 CE) who followed the trade routes to east Asia.
Himanshu Prabha Ray (Jawaharlal Nehru University), "Sailing to India-Diverse Narratives of Travel in the western Indian Ocean," New Delhi 110067, The Athens Dialogues: Stories and Histories, Athens 25th-27th November 2010. 20 pp. pdf.
"Muse India" archieve, Issue 25: May-June 2009. Focus: Oriya Medieval Bhakti Poetry and Feature articles: Indian Travel Writing which includes travelogues, poetry, reviews.
Eric Tagliacozzoal (Cornell University) book review of "When Asia Was the World: Traveling Merchants, Scholars, Warriors, and Monks Who Created the 'Riches of the East,'" by Stewart Gordon, Cambridge, Mass.: Da Capo Press, 2008. This review seen in "The Journal of Asian Studies," (2009), 68:1232-1235 Cambridge University Press. Stewart Gordon's book is filled with travel narratives.
"Travel Narratives" thread, Vietnam Study Group a Sub-Committee of SE Asia Council of the Association for Asian Studies, September 2008. Hosted by U. of Washington Library. Note discussion of travel writers and narratives in Vietnamese history.

Middle East:
Paul Zumthor, "The Medieval Travel Narrative," trans. Catherine Peebles. New Literary History, Vol. 25, No. 4, 25th Anniversary Issue (Pt. 2) (Autumn, 1994) pp. 809-24. Publisher: The John Hopkins Press. Stable URL:
Zumthor claims (p. 809) that the "Arab World identified and sometimes taught travel narratives as an autonomous literary genre related to the novel." And that Abu Said of Siraf was the first travel narrative author, 915 CE.
"Ancient Worlds of Anatolia-Recommended Reading for Travelers," Longitude (Smithsonian Journeys). First two recommendations on Turkey.
"The Real Sinbad the Sailor," Silk Road Gourmet account of Abu Said of Siraf, 850-915 CE.
Rabban Bar Sauma, A Nestorian Uighur, born near Beijing, travelled to Europe during the
second half of the 13th c. and wrote an extensive account of Abu Said's journey. See more on Rabban Bar Sauma:
"Ahmad ibn Fadlan," Tutorgigpedia. Fadlan traveled from Baghdad as a refined diplomat to the Volga River Viking court in the 10th century where he observed and wrote about the Viking ship burial ritual.
Usama Ibn Munqidh, Autobiography, excerpts on the Franks, 1175, Medieval Sourcebook Fordham University, Paul Halsall curator. Munqidh (1095-1188) was a chronicler, (professional soldier), poet, diplomat from the Banu Manqidh dynasty of Shaizar in northern Syria, and general for Saladin in the early crusades who dictated his travels and experiences in his Autobiography or "The Book of Contemplation (Kitab al-itibar) at age 90. These are excerpts as to his descriptions of the Frankish crusaders. See a biography of Munqidh in wikipedia:
"Arab Slave Trade," wikipedia. See medieval Arabic sources, many being travel narratives, and European texts (16th-19th c.) and quotes as to Arab views of slaves, esp. African, Zanj.
Hassan al-Amin (Lebanese researcher and historian), "Religious Tourism in Islamic Heritage. Ibn Jubayr-Writer, Historian, and Tourist, Islamic Tourism, Issue 02, Winter 2002. Ibn Jubayr travel chronicle (1183-1185 CE) describes his pilgrimage to Mecca including a view of Saladin's Egypt and Levant and return through Sicily which had been recaptured from the Muslims a century earlier and its diversity. See Ibn Jubayr (Yabar-Ibn Jubair) travel route:

Yabar-IbnJubair.PNG (563 x 229 pixels, file size: 227 KB, MIME type: image/png)
Geoffroy de Villehardouin," Chronicle of the Fourth Crusade and The Conquest of Constantinople," Internet Medieval Source Book, @ Paul Halsall, April 1996. Villehardouin (1160-1213) was one of the leaders and chroniclers of the 4th crusade and sack of Constantinople.
Katherine Blakeny, "Jean De Joinville and his Biography of Saint Louis on the Seventh Crusade," Student Pulse-online academic Student Journal, Vol. 1, No. 12, 2009. See more on de Joinville's chronicle:
Jean de Joinville, French knight and crusader 13th century wrote chronicle of 7th crusade into Egypt. wikipedia.,_2010/matsushita_e.pdf
Elizabeth Matsushita, "Fiction, Ideology, and Identity: Medieval Christian Depictions of the Muslim East," Ex Post Facto, Journal of the History Students at San Francisco State University, Vol. XIX, 2010. Matsushita, in this 15 pp. pdf essay, discusses crusaders and others travel accounts of the Muslim levant.
David Miller, "Richard the Lion Hearted: The Mighty Crusader," Phoenix Illustrated, 2005. See references from web and book description of Richard's travels and narrative accounts in levant crusades.
S. Maqbul Ahmad, "Yaqut Al-Hamawi Al-Rumi, Shiham Aldin Abu Abdallah Yaqut ibn Abd Allah," Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography, 2008, seen in March 4, 2013. Yakut (1179-1229), possibly a Greek slave, born in Byzantium, trained as a merchant and accountant, freed by his Islamic owner which allowed Yaqut to travel central Asia and the Middle East writing Islamic biographies and producing his vast Geographic Dictionary in 1218.
Ibn Jubayr, "Travels of Ibn Jubayr," Leyden, Brill, Internet Archive Ebook. Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) was a courtier from Grenada, Spain who traveled to Saladin controlled Mecca in 1183 CE for Hajj. It is considered a "rihla" or travel account of learning, like Ibn Battuta's travel account.
Summary of Judah al-Harizi's "Tahkemoni" seen on worthpoint ebay site. Rabbi al-Harizi was a medievel poet and traveler who recounted his travels in this narrative written between 1218-1220.
Rina Drory (Tel Aviv University), "Literary Contacts and Where to Find Them: On Arabic Literary Models in Medieval Jewish Literature," Poetics Today, 14:2, 1993, pp. 277-302. Dr. Drory discusses Moses ibn Ezra and travel writer and poet Judah al-Harizi (see link above) contacts with Arabic styles and works. I include this article to emphasize how travel writing and narratives are cross cultural examples of exchange and syncretism, plus giving more information on al-Harizi. See similar analysis from David A. Wacks (University of Oregon) in his Research and Teaching website on Medieval Iberian and Sephardic Culture.
Two posts, October 6, 2011 and February 23, 2011.
G. B. Tibbetts, "A Study of the Arabic Texts Containing Material on South-East Asia," Leiden: E. J. Brill (Royal Asiatic Society, Oriental Translation Fund, n.s., Vol. 44), 1979. Tibbetts' research is in two parts with the 2nd being a review of Arab travelers to southeast Asia. He finds ibn Batutta most reliable as a primary source historian yet cites 9th century works such as Akhbar al-Jin wal-Hind and Aga ib al-Hind (Persian navigator Puzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz wrote these) as suitable primary source travel narratives by geographers and merchants.
"Arabs and the Sea," Saudi Aramco World, 6/1962. The great Arab navigator Ibn Majid and Vasco da Gama. Ibn Majid wrote books on sea trade and navigation plying the entire expanse of the Indian Ocean in the 15th century and cites earlier Arab navigators/sailors who also wrote travel narratives about the Indian Ocean trade route such as Persian navigator Buzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz who wrote about his travels to India (Hind) and China (Sin). Tibbetts also credits the 10th century geography of Abu Zaid which updated 9th c. text of Ibn Khurdadhbih as credible information on southeast Asia.
"al-Buruni-Iranian Muslim Philosopher 973-1048," The Window-Philosophy on the Internet, Trinitiy College post. al-Buruni was a diplomat, scientist and mathematician who spent 20 years traveling in India producing, amongst scientific and mathematics discourses, "Kitab al-Hind" which were his observations of India. See more:
"al-Biruni," Al Shindagah website, United Arab Emirates, January/February 2004.
Tovia Preschel, "Travelers and Explorers," Jewish Virtual Library. Annotated discussion of Jewish travelers and explorers, including their travel narratives, from 9th century through 20th century.
Dr. Avigail Rock, "Great Biblical Exegetes, Lecture # 13: R. Avraham ibn Ezra, Pt. 1," The Israel Koschitzky Virtual Beit Midrash, trans. by Rav Yoseif Bloch. R. Avraham ibn Ezra (1089-1164 CE) was a great Jewish traveler and writer trained in the Spanish Andalusian manner. His most famous travel narrative may have been "Reshit Hokmak.
Douglas Bullis, "The Longest Hajj: The Journeys of Ibn Battuta," Saudi Aramco World, July/August 2000. Note three part article on Ibn Battuta's travels.
"ibn Battuta an Imposter," S. Muhlberger blogspot, 9/2012. German historian's evidence that Battuta was a fake.
Mary Sitzenstatter review of Roxanne L. Euben, "Journeys to the Other Shore: Muslim and Western Travels in Search of Knowledge," Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006 seen in The Ohio State Universities' "Origins" website-Current Events in Historical Perspective, February 2007. "Rihla" is a genre of Islamic travel writing that documents travel in pursuit of knowledge. Ibn Battuta and Egyptian Rifa a Rafi al-Tahtawi are travelers who exemplify this model of travel writing, ie., Rifa a Rafi al-Tahtawi's "Takhlis al-Ibriz ila Talkhis Bariz" or The Extraction of Gold from a Distillation of Paris, 1834.
Houari Touati, "Islam and Travel in the Middle Ages," University of Chicago Press, 2010. Scroll down this google book page to contents of the book, especially "Chronological List of Principal Travel Accounts." Rihla is a key theme in Touati's work.
Ibn Battuta, the animated series. See travel map of Ibn Battuta. Compare with:

The Travels of Ibn Battuta (source: )
"The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma," first published in 1928, University of Washington.
Alan J. Singer, "The Travels of Bar Sauma In Asia and Europe," pdf from course pack, Hofstra University. Bar Sauma was an envoy of the Mongol Khans, a Onggud Turk Nestorian Christian. Traveled with his student Markos Yahbh-Allaha III who bacame Patriarch of Nestorian Church in Asia. Here is Rabban Sauma describing one of the most exotic and dangerous seas in the world: {Thanks to H-World post by Sebastian Stride}

"And he went down to the sea [i.e. embarked on a ship] and came to the
middle thereof, where he saw a mountain from which smoke ascended all the
day long and in the night time fire showed itself on it. And no man is able
to approach the neighbourhood of it because of the stench of sulphur
[proceeding therefrom]. Some people say that there is a great serpent
there. This sea is called the "Sea of Italy." Now it is a terrible sea, and
very many thousands of (54) people have perished therein. And after two
months of toil, and weariness, and exhaustion, RABBAN SAWMA arrived at the
sea-shore, and he landed at the name of which was NAPOLI"
"Medieval Islamic Travel Writers," Thirteen pages of travel writers listed alphabetically with tabs.
"Ghiyath al-din Naqqash," digplanet wiki. Naqqash was envoy of Timurid ruler of Persia and Transoxania to Yongle (Ming dynasty) Emperor of China (1419-1422) and who acted as official court diarist. His diary has been published as a travel narrative.
"Medieval Travel Writing," Adam Matthews Publishing. Collection of digital resources on journeys to the Holy Land, India and China which includes primary sources, supporting materials, maps of routes, and Introductory essays by leading scholars with alphabetical tabs.

"Huneberc of Heidenheim: The Hodoeporican of St. Willibald, 8th Century," Paul Halsall Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University, October 1, 2000. Hunebrec was an Anglo-Saxon nun of Heidenheim. She had taken down the description of Willibald's travels from his own mouth. Willibald was a pilgrim and not a scientist or sociologist, yet the value of his Hodoeporican is it being the only narrative extant of a pilgrimage to the Holy Land in the 8th century forming a bridge between works of Arculfus (670) and Bernardus Morachus (865). This information from C.H. Talbot introduction to primary source (C.H. Talbot, The Anglo-Saxon Missionaries in Germany, Being the Lives of SS. Willibord, Boniface, Leoba and Lebuin together with the Hodeopericon of St. Willibald and a slection from correspondence of St. Boniface, (London and New York: Sheed and Ward, 1954). See more on Medieval Literature:
Wendy Scase, "'Now you see it; now you don't': Nation, Identity, and Otherness," University of Birmingham, nd. Wendy Scase discusses Medieval English travel writing and documenting England and Wales including John Leland in her review of essays in 4th Volume of "New Medieval Literatures."
James P. Carley, ed., De uiris illustribus/On Famous Men-British Writers of the Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, Bodleian Library, Univeristy of Oxford, 2010. Leland is discussed in this excerpt as father of English topography due to his constant travels through England and Wales. The topographical information was derived from his field notes never intended for publication.
"The Saga of Erik the Red," Icelandic Saga Database, 1880, English., transl. J. Sephton, from the original 'Eiriks saaga rauoa'.
"Saga of Thorfinn Karlsefni," 1005 CE from "The Norse Discovery of America," A.M. Reeves, N.L. Beamish and R.B. Anderson [1906], at Karlsefni and his wife Gudrid travel accounts are second only to the Saga of Erik the Red.
"Travel," Medievalist website. Travel narratives focused on medieval European sites.
Karoline Cullen, "Travels in medieval southwest France," Travel Writer's Tales. See photos and guide book to southwest French medieval sites.
Dr. Peter G. Beidler (Lehigh University), "Chapter One of Backgrounds to Chaucer," The ORB: on-line reference Book for Medieval Studies, 2001. Biography information as to Chaucer as travel writer and Canterbury Tales as a travel narrative. Beidler claims, "Boccaccio's wonderful DeCameron probably suggested to Chaucer the idea of a group of travelers entertaining each other while on a journey..."
Arnie Sanders, "Margery Kempe's and Julian of Norwich," Goucher College English Department syllabus, 2012. Dr. Sanders claims Margery Kempe's (1373-1440) was not a travel writer, but her autobiography details her travels as told to three "ghostwriters." Yet today, many argue that Kempe's was a travel writer and her autobiography was an oral travel narrative.
"Early Women's Travel Writing," Women on the Road. Short article, really an ad for Women on the Road book which shows change over time of women's travel writing by Ban Zhao, Endocia Augusta, Sugarawara no Takasue no musume, Gulbadan Bigam who wrote journals and diaries while traveling with their husbands to women like Elizabeth Craven, Marie Catherine le Jumel de Barneville, Mariana Starke, Mary Wollstonecraft, and Mary Crommelin who traveled alone.
"To Russia and Return," an annotated bibliography of travelers' English Language accounts of Russia from the 9th century to the present" compiled by Harry W. Nerhood (c) 1968 Ohio State University Press, Library of Congress Catalogue Card # 67-22737. (thanks to AP European history colleague Steve McCarthy)
"Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo," Wikipedia. Castillian traveler and writer sent to court of Timur from 1403-1405. He died in 1412 and his diary, travel narrative, was published in Spanish in 1582 and in English in 1859.

Abu Ubaydallah al-Bakri, (excerpt) "The Book of Routes and Realms," from Houghton Mifflin Company's History Companion. al-Bakri (d. 1094) travel account from earlier geographic accounts and named informants who had traveled to Ghana. al-Bakri never left his native Andalusian Spain.

1450–1750 CE:

"Ancient Writers," Archaeology Spanish Travel Writers in New World.
Fray Ramon Pan'e: Recording the Taino Customs and Beliefs," Athena Review, Vol. 1, no. 3. Christopher Columbus ordered Father Pan'e to record/investigate the cultural "habits" of the Taino natives.
(Google EBook) Fray Ramon Pane, "An Account of the Antiquities of the Indians: A New Edition, with an Introductory Study, Notes, and Appendices," by Jose Juan Arrom. Fray Ramon Pane traveled with Christopher Columbus on his second voyage (1494) to the Americas and he was assigned to live with the Taino natives and record their beliefs and habits.
"Frontier Trails of America," hosted by atjeu publishing @ 2000. Brief bibliography of "First America Books." Travel narratives. See Fray Ramon Pane's account of the Taino natives on Columbus's second voyage, 1494.
Bartolom'e de las Casas, "A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies," written in 1542, published in 1552, National Humanities Center. de las Casas wrote his indictment of the Spanish in the New World without permission of the Inquisition. He traveled to the Indies early and often, knew Columbus and was editor of the Admiral's Journal.
Karl Young, "The Last Pages of Codex Boturini," @1982 and 1999. The Codex Boturini is a migration history of the Aztec people. See Annenber Learner module on this travel narrative at the end of this article in "Lessons" section.
Peter C. Mancall, editor, "Travel Narratives From The Age of Discovery: An Anthology," Oxford University Press, 2006.
Sebastain Barreveld (Stanford University), "Teaching Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Travel Literature," review of Peter C. Mancall, ed., Travel Narratives From Age of Discovery: An Anthology, New York: Oxford University Press, 2006 first published in H-Travel, February 2007 seen in H-Net online 2007.
"Lusiads by Luiz Vaz de Camoes," Brown University, April 2007. The "shifty" Portuguese poet and travel writer (1597), Camoes, and his work analyzed in this short piece from Brown University. At the time of his travel narratives Portugal was the major seafaring nation on the globe.
"Volume 3: Travel Narratives in Latin America: From Columbus to the New Age," Spanish and Portuguese Studies, University of Colorado, Boulder. Primary sources in Spanish.
Gaspar de Carvajal, Dominican Priest who wrote about an ill-fated journey down the Amazon River in 1542,
Beatriz Carolina Pena, "Images of the New World in Travel Narratives (1599-1607) of friar Diego de Ocana," Ph.D. dissertation, City University of New York, 2007. UMI Pro Quest Dissertations & Theses. Read abstract of paper and then one can order complete dissertation, or if your library subscribes to ProQuest (PWDT) database you may be entitled to free copy, or can read a free 24 pp. pdf Preview in Spanish. Peter C. Mancall, "The Architect of Colonial Desires:  Richard Hakluyt and the English in America," "Common-Place," Ask the Author, Vol. 7, No. 4, July 2007.
Hakluyt Society website with plans to produce Hakluyt's The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Traffiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation (2nd edition 1598-1600). Hakluyt's work is most likely the most important piece of travel writing in English history. See more on Hakluyt Society:
Hakluyt Society.
Hakluyt Society bibliography 1847-2011.
Richard Hakluyt And from an H-World post below: Posted August 7, 2012. From: Guido van Meersbergen University College London

On behalf of the Hakluyt Society, publisher of travel accounts and geographical literature since 1846, I would like to inform you about the Society's latest publication:
Pedro Páez's History of Ethiopia, 1622, ed. Isabel Boavida, Hervé Pennec and Manuel João Ramos, transl. Christopher J. Tribe, 2 vols (Farnham, UK and Burlington, VT, USA, 2011–12). 966pp, 19 b&w illns, ISBN 978-1-908145-02-4 (hbk), £100.00 (Website price: £90.00).
The Historia da Etiópia by the Spanish Jesuit missionary Pedro Páez (1564–1622) offers a rich eyewitness account of early modern Portuguese missions to East Africa. An essential source for the study of Catholic missions to Ethiopia, relations between European religious orders, and ethnographic writing, it also sheds light on the political and territorial administration of Ethiopia and the political geography, ecology, flora and fauna of the Horn of Africa, southern Arabia and the western Indian Ocean region.

This English translation, by Christopher J. Tribe was edited by Isabel Boavida, Hervé Pennec and Manuel João Ramos, the editors of the 2008 Portuguese critical edition upon which the translation is based. The Hakluyt Society's edition makes this important exemplar of seventeenth-century Jesuit writing on Ethiopia available to an international audience. It complements other early accounts of Ethiopia by Ludovico de Varthema, Francisco Alvares, Castanhoso, Bermudez, Arnold von Harff, Manoel de Almeida, Bahrey, Alessandro Zorzi, Jerónimo Lobo and Václav Prutky, all published by the Hakluyt Society.
For further information or to order a copy, visit:

For the Hakluyt Society, see:

With very best wishes,
Guido van Meersbergen (PhD-student at University College London)
"Origins of Modernity-Travel Literature," University of Sydney Library (Australia), 1540-1800 online exhibition from Rare Book Library at University of Sydney. This section on travel literature. See example of Samuel Purchas (1577-1626) English compiler of travel accounts and contemporary of Richard Hakluyt:
"Samuel Purchas," Wikipedia. English compiler, editor of British travel narratives. His third book was an effort to complete Richard Hakluyt works after Hakluyt's death in 1616. Purchas' first volume "Purchas His Pilgramage," 1613 was one of the sources of inspiration for Willliam Taylor Coleridge's "Kubla Khan" poem. See analysis of "Kubla Khan" by Jalal Uddia Khan, "Coleridge's 'Kubal Khan:' a new historicist study," The Free Library, Jan. 1, 2012:
See more on Coleridge in next period-1750-1900 or in Lesson's section at end of this article.
"Betty Wood on the propaganda to settle the New World," Resource Book/Page for PBS documentary "Africans in the New World: The Terrible Transformation," Pt. 1-4 (1450-1865). Oxford University historian, Dr. Wood, helped prepare resources and European travel accounts as to written propaganda to secure investment capital and to persuade people to travel to the dangerous New World. See Teacher's Guide:
Georges Van den Abbeele, "Travel as Metaphor From Montaigne to Rousseau," University of Minnesota Press, 1991. Short description and review of book.
"French Travel Narratives in the Renaissance," Gordon Collection, University of Virginia Library. Jean de Lery, Andre Thevet, Charles Estienne, and Abel Jouan travel narratives can be viewed as digital facsimiles in this portfolio.
"Bernal Diaz," Mariners' Museum section on Travel writers. Diaz accounts of the Spanish colonization of the Americas is titled "The Conquest of New Spain." See other European explorer writers listed on right side of synopsis of Diaz and include Theodore de Bry, Antonio Pigafetta, Gonzalo Fernandez de Oviedo y Valdes amongst others. See "Activities" tab on upper right of this page-teacher lessons. (Also seen in Lessons section of this article below)
Catalina de Eranso (Trans. by Michele Stepto and Gabriel Stepto), "Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World," Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. Catalina de Eranso (1585-1650) travel memoir of a Spanish nun turned battle hardened soldier in the Americas where she was promoted to the rank of lieutenant at Valdiva in the southern Andes. See more:
Catalina de Eranso's Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World," Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. Lessons from Sparknotes.
Google Book-Mary C. Fuller, Voyages in Print: English Travel to America 1576-1624, Cambridge University Press, 1995. Mary Fuller focuses on printed texts which were generated by and helped to generate English entry into American discovery and colonization, specifically from Sir Humphrey Gilbert's Discourse of Discovery to John Smith's Generall Historie.
"Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement: A Digital Library and Learning Center," 2011 Wisconsin Historical Society. Resources and primary documents from the Vikings to Mountain Men explorations and settlement in American history.
"Luis Vaez de Torres," Pacific Explorers Library, Pacific Island Travel website, 2007. Torres Strait named after this explorer who's documents and jounal found after his death.
Oldest American sea farer autobiography edited by Daniel Vickers. 1728 ff. Broad View Press.
Wendy Martin, ed., "Colonial American Travel Narratives," (Google eBook), Penguin, 1994. Four journeys by Mary Rowlandson, Sarah Kemble Knight, William Byrd II, and Dr. Alexander Hamilton recounted as primary source documents detailing the rugged colonial American landscape.
Reuben Gold Thwaites (Wisconsin Historical Society), ed., "The Jesuit relations and allied documents: Travel and explorations of the Jesuit missionaries in New France 1610-1791, Volume 59," Cleveland: the Burrows Brother's Company/Imperial Press, 1900. Full Text seen in Internet Archive. See also "The Jesuit Relations," Athabasca University Library (Canada). The Jesuit Relations were 73 volumes of letters and reports which Jesuit missionaries wrote back to France over a forty year period from New France. The first Jesuit mission was in Acadia in 1611.
See complete The Jesuit Relations link at bottom of this page.
(Google Book) Thomas Joseph Campbell, "The Jesuits 1534-1921: a history of the Society of Jesus from its foundation to the present time,"Encyclopedia Press, 1921, Digitized September 9, 2008, 937 pages.
James P. Millard, "Samuel de Champlain Adventures in New France," America's Historic Lakes-the Lake Champlain and Lake George Historic Site, 2009. See links to Champlain's other volumes within this page. Note Champlain's 16 year old indentured servant, Etienne Brule, experiences living with the Huron recorded by Champlain below.
"Etienne Brule-Life Among the Hurons," Sympatico (Canada). Etienne Brule, the first courreur-de-bois (runner of the woods) lived with the Quebec Hurons in the early 17the century and his verbal accounts were recorded by Samuel Champlain and Jesuits.

Tabish Khair, Martin Leer, Justin Edwards & Hanna Ziadeh, eds., "Other Routes-1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing," Signal Books, 2006. Collection of non-European African and Asian Travel Writing.
"Connie Steel on 'The Anatomy of Blackness," E3W Review of Books, Volume 12, Spring 2012 seen on site.  Review of Andrew Curran, "The Anatomy of Blackness," John Hopkins University Press, 2011.  Curran analyzes the writing of "blackness" or the figure of the 'negre' by canonical authors in the French Enlightenment.
David Northrup, "Africa's Discovery of Europe 1450-1850," Oxford University Press, 2002 review by dannyreviews, Danny Yee's Book Reviews 2008.  Northrup's book includes many travel narratives, especially of Africans and their views of the colonial Europeans.
"African Peoples' Encounters with Others," African Collections-Library of Congress An Illustrated Guide, November 15, 2010.  See many resources, travel accounts of African encounters with Europe and the Americas-1300's ff.
Review by Kathryn Rummell of "Black Atlantic World of the 18th Century:  Living the New Exodus in England and the Americas," ed. by Adam Potkay & Sandra Burr, The Journal of African Travel Writing, Number 1, September 1996, pp. 94-95.
"Slave Trade Journals and Papers," Adam Matthews Publications.  Oversight of these sources by David Richardson, University of Hull (UK).  Slave Journals of Humphrey Morice (1671?-1731) leading British slave trader.
Peter Tyson, "Mysteries of Great Zimbabwe," Nova, PBS, posted February 22, 2000. Note 1552 reference in Portuguese history Da Asia by Joao de Barros, who did not travel to the Shona homeland, but surmised that the edifice was Axuma, one of the cities of the Queen of Sheba.  In 1931, Gertrude Caton-Thompson revealed the truth.
"Portugal and Renaissance Europe-Imperial Portugal and European Printing:  Propaganda, Epics, and the Writing of History," The John Carter Brown Library, Brown University @ 2008.  See reference to Joao de Barros and travel accounts Fernas Lopes de Castanheda's (d. 1559) "History of the Portuguese Discovery and Conquest of India." Castanheda had sailed to Goa in 1528 as a Portuguese scribe returning to Portugal in 1538.  See also Luis de Camoes who served in Portugal India 1553-1570 and who earlier had lost an eye to a splinter fighting in Africa 1546-1549. de Camoes 1570 "Lusiads," was an epic poem combining history, current events, mythology and imagination.
Other travel Portuguese travel accounts in Africa (specifically Mutapa or Shona Kingdom) can be found in Joaodos Santos (1625), Antonio Sequeira and Gaspar Azevedo who write about the "chibadi" or Mutapa men who dress like women.  Also, the early Portuguese "backwoodsmen" or sertanejo who traveled into the interior of the Shona kingdom 1512-1516 are interesting stories also seen in Joao de Barros Da Asia.
Luis de Camoes, "The Collected Lyric Poems of Luis de Camoes," trans. by Landeg White, Princeton University Press, 2008.  Camoes poetry where he describes his travels all over the globe, including 16th century Africa.  See more of "exile" travels of Camoes:,luis_vaz_de.html J.D.M Ford, "Luis Vaz de Camoes," (or Camoens), Catholic City @ 1996-2013 from the Catholic Encyclopedia.
Hicham Safieddine, "Discover the World Through non-European Eyes," Al-Ahram, March 30-April 5, 2006. Review of "Other Routes-1500 Years of African and Asian Travel Writing."
Soma Basu, "Different Journeys and Destinations," The Hindu, February 5, 2006. Review of "Other Routes."
Gomes Eannes de Azurara, The Chronicle of the Discovery and Conquest of Guinea, Vol. I, originally published by the Hakluyt Society, trans. by Charles Raymond Beazley and Edgar Prestage. Published in Portugal for the King 1463. de Azurara spent a year in Guinea studying the scenes of which he would describe as to Portuguese exploration and settlement of Guinea. Gutenberg Book.
"Leo Africanus: Description of Timbuktu from 'The Description of Africa' (1526), El Hasan ben Muhammed el-Wazzan-ez-Zayyati born in Moorish Granda 1485 expelled in 1492 travelled throughout North Africa into sub-Saharan Ghana. Captured by Christian pirates and presented to Renaissance Pope Leo X who freed him to write about Africa.
Jos Damen, "Dutch Letters From Ghana," History Today, August 2012. Willem van Focquenbroch d. 1670 and Jacobus Capitein d. 1747 lived in Dutch colony on Gold Coast (now part of Ghana).
Capitein was black man who supported slavery and attempted to convert Blacks to Christianity. Living in different centuries, Focquenbroch and Capitein leave us travel narratives giving us insight into the Dutch colony on the Gold Coast (now called Ghana) in the 17th and 18th centuries.

South Asia:
"Abdu Razzaq," Abdu Razzaq (1413-1482), Persian Timirud ambassador's chronicles describing his travels to India.
"Accounts of Abdur Razzak," History Blog from the Department of History, Unity Women's College, Manjeri, June 21, 2011. Abdu Razzaq or Abdur Razzak travel accounts of southern India (History of Kerala).
Amitav Ghosh, "Love and War in Afghanistan and Central Asia: The Life of the
Emperor Babur," Amitav Ghosh website, 2002. An Amitav Ghosh essay critiquing and
analyzing Babur's military memoir (travel narrative), "Babarnama." Ghosh ranks Babur's
memoirs along with Xenophon and Julius Caesar's memoirs. See this history at:
"Baburnama in English," Internet Archive. Complete Baburnama memoir in English. First Mughal emperor Babur (1483-1530).
travel%20writing/Visions%20of%20Mughal%20India%20An %20Anthology%20of%20European%20Travel%20Writing.aspx

Michael H. Fisher and William Dalrymple, "Visions of Mughal India: An Anthology of European Travel Writers," I.B. Tauris, 2007. I.B. Tauris website description of Fisher and Dalrymple's ten carefully chosen travel narratives of Renaissance Europeans to Mughal India.
"Giovanni Battista Ramusio," digplanet wiki.  Ramusio (1485-1557) was the editor of travel books, geographer, and a diplomat  representing the Venetian government.
(Google Book) Jerome Randall Barnes, "Giovanni Battista Ramusio and the History of Discoveries:  An Analysis of Ramusio's Commentary, Cartography, and Imagery in 'Delle Navigation Et Viaggi,'" ProQuest, 2007.
Michael H. Fisher, "From India to England and Back: Early Indian Travel Narratives for Indian Readers." Fisher, in this 20+ page pdf essay discusses Indian travel writing since 1600. See India and Asia travel writers and travel accounts in Dr. Fisher's footnotes. Also see more Indian travel writers, such as Dean Mahomet in next section 1750-1900.
Salim Allah Munshi, "A narrative of the transactions in Bengal, during the Soobahdaries of Azeen Us Shah,...Translated from original Persian by Francis Gladwin, Esq. originally published in Calcutta: from the press of Stuart and Cooper, 1788 and more recently Gale ECCO, Print edition, May 28, 2010. Account and ledger book which is primary source record of British East India Company travels and business written by a "munshi" or Persian accountant/interpreter working with the English East India Company. Thus business accounts as travel narrative. See more on the history and workings of a munshi:
Muzaffar Alam & Sanjay Subrahmanyam, "The Making of a Munshi," Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 24:2 (2004).
Natasha Eatan, "Imaging Empire: the trafficking of art and aesthetics in British India c. 1722-c. 1795," PhD thesis for the University of Warwick (UK), 2000, dissertation provided by Warwick Research Archives Portal Repository. Ms. Eatan's thesis paper could be interpreted as "Art as travel narrative" between England and Mughal India in the 18th century. 22247&calcTitle=1
Chloe Houston (University of Reading, UK), ed., "New Worlds Reflected-Travel and Utopia in the Early Modern Period, Asghate, 2010.
Abdulghani and Mirzoev, "Facts of the history of literary contacts between Mawarannahr and India in the second half of the 16th and at the beginnings of the 17th centuries," XXVI International Congress of Orientalists-Papers Presented by the Russian delegation, Moscow: January 1963, seen in the Selected Works website of Rebecca Gould. Poets to India.
Nabil Matar, "In the Lands of the Christians, Routledge, 2002. Arab Travel writing in the 17th century by Christian and Muslim travelers. See reviews and book description.

"Introduction: Eighteenth Century Travel Narratives," eNotes, Literary Criticism (1400-1800), Gale Cengage @2002. See tabs on left for more travel narratives.
Ippolito Desideri, "An Account of Tibet: The Travels of Ippolito Desideri of Pistoia S.J. 1712-1727," Asian Education Services, January 1, 1996. See google book cotents cited quotations. See more on the Jesuit Italian missionary (1684-1733):
Posted by Chris Schmidt, "The Bold and the Beautiful-Early Women Travel Writers," seen in, January 16, 2011. Women travel writers from 1600's.
Nathan Light (Miami University, Oxford, Ohio), "Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives," Silk Road Foundations newsletter, nd. Travel accounts related to formal expeditions are included.
"Last document of the Silk Road by Khataynammeh," Silk Road Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 1.
"Map-EurAsian Trade Routes-1200-1300 AD," China Report website. Large topographical map of Silk Road. See DrBen Home:
Steven D. Carter, "Basho and the Mastery of Poetic Spaces in Oku No Hosomichi," The Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 120, No. 2, April-June 2000, seen in questia in partial form, ie., the beginning of the article. Matsuo Basho (1644-1694) wrote six travel accounts and Carter claims he is the best of Japanese travel writers following in tradition of Ki No Tsurayuki who wrote the Tosa Diary in 735 CE.
"Matsuo Basho," National Geographic Geopedia, June 17, 2008. Introduction by Michelle Harris to series of articles on Japanese Edo period poet (1644-1689) famous for his travels, haiku (hokku) and renku poetry.
Marcia Yonemoto, "Mapping Early Modern Japan: Space, Place, and Culture in the Tokugawa Period, 1603-1868," University of California Press, 2003. See travel writing chapters available as excerpts on
M. Harrigan, "Veiled Encounters. Representing the Orient in 17th Century French Travel Literature," fabula, Rodopi, Collection "Faux Titre," 2010 EAN 13: 9789042024762.
"Bento de Gois S.J., Seeking Cathay he Found Heaven," Good Jesuit Bad Jesuit blog, January 2012. Jesuit de Gois sent to China to see if Marco Polo was telling the truth. See de Gois travel narratives:

Góis, Bento, In Cathay and the Way Thither, Being a Collection of Medieval Notices of China, translated and edited by Henry Yule, 2 vols, 1866 and Góis, Bento, "The Travels of Benedict Goëz, a Portuguese Jesuit"in A General Collection of the Best and Most Interesting Voyages and Travels, edited by John Pinkerton, 1808[-]14: vol. 7.
Francesco Guardiani, "The West Shall Shake the East Awake-Matteo Ricci (1552-1610). A Jesuit in China," University of Toronto Library, nd. Guardiani highlights Ricci's travels in China and comments on his travel writing, ie., Letters, Commentaries,or rather On the Entry of the Society of Jesus and Christendom in China.


(Google Book) Kumkum Chatterjee and Clement Hawes, eds., "Europe Observed: Multiple Gazes in Early Modern Encounters," New Jersey: Associate University Presses @ 2008 by Rosemount Publishing & Printing Company. Chatterjee and Hawes gather multiple perspectives of travelers from outside Europe and their views of c. 1350-1800 Europe. (see selected passages in this google book).
Raingard EBer (University of the West of England, Bristol), "Cultures in Contact: The Representation of the 'Other' in Early Modern German Travel Narratives," July 2003. Dr. EBer's article (17 pp. pdf) is the first chapter of this essay in which he discusses the historiography of 'otherness' in German literature and history and, secondly, analyzes the German agenda on "intercultural research" especially through the collection of travel narratives published by the de Bry family in Frankfurt. The focus in on the 16th and 17th centuries.
Kersten Horn (Department of Anthropology and Language, University of Missouri-St. Louis) review of Elio Brancaforte, "Visions of Persia: Mapping the Travels of Adam Olearius," Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2003. Published on H-German (October 2005) as "The Interplay between Maps, Illustrations, and Texts in the World of Adam Olearius." Adam Olearius was a German author, artist, cartographer, and traveler (1633-1639) who journeyed into the Persian East.
"Significant Scots-John Bell," Account of early eighteenth century traveler John Bell, born in 1691 trained in medicine, and traveller to Russia where he was employed by the Russian court to join expeditions to Central Asia, Siberia and China. His one travel narrative was "Travels from St. Petersburgh in Russia to Various Parts of Asia," 2 Vols., 1763.
Andrew Taylor, "The Songs and Travels of a Tudor Minstrel: Richard Sheale of Tamworth," Boydell & Brewer Ltd., 2012. Taylor examines Richard Sheales' English travel narrative to shed more light on the importance and significance of minstrel singers, ie., he was not a simple busker, beggar or thief. Wikipedia disagrees:

Middle East:
Amanda Wunder (U. of Wisconsin-Madison), "Western Travelers, Eastern Antiquities, and the Image of the Turk in early Modern Europe," seen on Dr. Schmidt's History site, U. of Washington Library.
"The Arab World's Greatest Travel Writer," The Daily Beast, 6/12/2012. Ottoman Turk Evliya Celebi b. 1611, travelled for 45 years writing about his experiences until he dies in Egypt. His travels and writings places him on par with Marco Polo and ibn Battuta.
"The Evliya Celebi Way Project-In the Steps of Historical Long Rider Evliya Celebi," The Long Rider's Guild, 2011. Several scholars and plantsmen followed Celebi's tracks to honor his travels. In 2011 UNESCO honored the Turk traveler naming 2011 the Year of Evliya Celebi. See Evliya Celebi website with excellent map of his route:
Martin van Bruinessen, "Kurdistan in the 16th and 17th centuries, as reflected in Evlija Celebi's 'Seyahatname,'" The Journal of Kurdish Studies 3 (2000), 1-11. References to Sharaf Khan Bidlisi, "Sharafname," travel narrative written 60 years before Celebi's 10 thick volumes, "Book of Travels (Seyahatname)."
See information on Sharaf Khan Bidlisi: Professor M. R. Izady, "Prince Sharaf al-Din Bitlisi,", February 24, 2008. The Sharafname is a collection of dynastic histories and is the single most important surviving text on Kurdistan history and people.
(Book Review) Kanakalatha Mukund, "Travel Encounters," The Hindu, August 19, 2008. Mukund reviews Muzaffer Alam and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, "Indo-Persian Travels in the Age of Discoveries 1400-1800, New Delhi: Cambridge University Press, 2007. The two authors focus on non-Western Travel Literature, especially between Persia and India, which exists in large volume yet is unpublicized.
(Google Ebook) "The Three Brothers: Or, the Travels and Adventures of Sir Anthony, Sir Robert & Sir Thomas Sherley, in Persia, Russia, Turkey, Spain, etc.," Hurst, Robinson, 1825. Digitized May 4, 2010. The Sherley brother's travel accounts were also turned into an early Jacobean era stage play written in 1607 entitled, "The Travels of the Three English Brothers."
The Shirley brothers are referred to as "fortune hunters" in Safavid accounts. See the historical context for Safavid dynasty desire/motivation to hire the Shirley brothers to help modernize their military in 1598 by seeing their military defeats after taking Persia in 1502:
"The Iranian History Era, Safavid Dynasty 1502-1736 AD," Iranian History.
"Middle East Through Foreign Eyes/Antiquity to the Nineteenth Century," Teaching the Middle East: A Resource for Educators @ 2010 The Oriental Institute, the University of Chicago, page updated 12/29/2010. Image of Robert Shirley and his wife in Persia.
"History, Reality and the Ottomans," SEYFETTIN-The Travelogues of a Traveler blogsite, April 12, 2008. Discussion as to European travel writing on the Ottomans and Ottoman territories.

1750–1900 CE:

Middle East:
"Said, Edward (1977) Orientalism, London:  Penguin."  365 pp. pdf. Said's classic analysis of Western views toward the Middle East with much of that perspective shaped by colonial era travel writers and their narrative accounts.
Dr. Robert G. Bedrosian, "Traveller's Accounts: Journeys to the Armenian Highlands and Neighboring Lands in the 17th and early 20th centuries," last updated April 29, 2012.
Linda Colley's, The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh connects Caribbean, Mediterranean, and Indian Ocean shipping through the presence of the British navy and the experience of one family. Marsh (1735-1785) was first women to publish in English from Morocco and also wrote travel narratives from southern India.
Matthew Price, "Around the world with Elizabeth Marsh," NY Sun, August 29, 2007. Price book review of Linda Colley's The Ordeal of Elizabeth Marsh, Harper Perennial, 2008.
(Google EBook) Alba Della Fazia Amoia and Bettina Liebowitz Knapp, eds., "Great Women Travel Writers:  From 1750 to the Present," Continuum International Publishing Group, 2005.
Andrew Bednarski and W. Benson Harer Jr., "The Explorations of Frederic Cailliaud," Saudi Aramco World, Jan/Feb 2013.  Early 19th century French explorer, scientist and popular French journal writer traveled through Egypt, Sudan and Ethiopia.
(Google EBook) Henry Martyn Field, "On the desert: a narrative of travel from Egypt through the wilderness of Sinai to Palestine," T. Nelson, 1887, digitized June 2010.

"Travels and Discoveries in the Years 1822, 1823, and 1824 by Major Denham, F.R.S., Captain Clapperton, and the Late Doctor Oudnay, 2 Vol., London:  John Murray, Albemarle-Street, Internet  Archives digitized book.  Travel narratives of English discoverers in North Africa.
"Leighton and the Middle East. Forgotten Voices of 19th century travel and exploration," Leighton House Museum, London.
Francis Steegmuller, "Flaubert in Egypt:  A sensibility on tour:  a narrative drawn from Gustave Flaubert's travel notes & letters," Academic Chicago Limited, 1979.   Steegmuller's use Flaubert's own notes, letters, etc. to transcribe a travel account of Flaubert's 1849 travels into Egypt, Cairo and the Red Sea.
"Forgotten Voices of 19th century Travel and Exploration," Leighton House Museum (UK). Website tab discussing "forgotten" travel writers visiting Europe and Europeans visiting the Middle East including Turkish woman Zyneb Hanoun, Egyptian male scholar Rifa'a al-Tahtawi and other female travellers.
Naji Oueijan (Notre Dame University, Lebanon), "Perceptions and Misconceptions:  Islam in Nineteenth Century Art and Literature," 10 pp. pdf essay.  Dr. Oueijan discusses images of Islam through European art saying it was not all negative.  Art as travel narrative.
"Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, 'Sheikh Ibrahim,'" h2g2, May 27, 2008, updated June 5, 2008. See quotes from Burckhardt's travel narratives in this article. See also:
Traveler, explorer Johann Ludwig Burckhardt 1784-1817 founded Petra archaeology finds in Jordan and first
non-Muslim to give us eye-witness account of Mecca and the Hajj. Wrote five travel journals
about his trips to Petra, Alleppo, Syria, Cairo, sailed the Nile River several times to Shendy in the Sudan,
Saharan trade route to Timbuktu. Book Rags Research.
Mary Sitzenstatter review, Roxanne L. Euben, "Journeys to the Other Shore Muslim and Western Travelers Search for Knowledge" Princeton:  Princeton University Press, 2006 seen in "Origins" Ohio State University history website, February review 2007.
Roberta Micallef and Sunil Sharma (Boston University), ed., "On the Wonders of Land and Sea," Harvard University Press, May 2013. A comparative study of non-European travel writing in the eastern Islamic or Persianate world from 18th through early 20th century. Each essay investigates a Muslim or Persianate traveler (Parsi/Zoroastrian) both male and female travels to the Hijaz, Iraq, Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Afghanistan, India and Europe.
Rangan Datta, "Parsi (Zoroastrian) Fire Temple, Calcutta, Rangan Datta Travel Writing blog, January 25, 2012.
Louise Tickle, "Early Adventures in Travel Writing," The Guardian, November 2, 2009.  Ms. Tickle discusses research project by Professor Robin Jarvis, University of the West of England, which studies how 18th-19th century European reading public perceived explorer travel narratives.
Elizabeth Oxfeldt, ed., "Journeys From Scandinavia-Travelogues of Africa, Asia and South America, 1840-2000," University of Minnesota Press, 2010.  Oxfeldt exhibits eight Danish and Norwegian authors which display change over time of Scandinavian Travel Writing over two centuries.
Comte Francis de Gobineau, "Three Years in Asia 1855-1858," Athenaeum Library of Philosophy.   One of the fathers of Western Racism was also a traveler who wrote about his travels in Iran.

Central Asia:
Shyam G. Menon, "Walking With Nain Singh," The Hindu, February 2, 2013.  See also:
"Nain Singh's Lost Exploration," PBS Frontline, Dreams of Tibet from "The Pundits: British Exploration of Tibet and Central Asia," by Derek Walter, University Press of Kentucky, 1990. Tibetan guide trained by British in late 19th century to map the region. Nain Singh's diaries seen in Bhatt And Pathak: Himalya ki Peeth Par.
Rassul Galwan, "Servant of the Sahibs: The Rare 19th Century Travel Account as told by a Native of Ladakh," Asian Education Services, 1923. Rassul Galwan's travel narratives of guiding Europeans through central Asia in the late 19th century.
(Google ebook-free) Colonel Alexander Gardner, "Soldier and Traveller:  Memoirs of Alexander Gardner, Colonel of Artillery in the service of Maharaja Ranjit Singh," W. Blackwood, 1898.
"Alexander 'Bokhara' Burnes-Great Game Player," Uzbek Journeys, May 15, 2012. Scot Captain Alexander Burns (1805-1841) recounts his travels through Central Asia in his three volume narrative, "Travels into Bokhma:  A Voyage up the Indus to Lahore and a Journey to Cabool, Tartary and Persia in 1835."
"Arminius Vambery Dervish Spy in Central Asia," Uzbek Journeys,    Vambery was born a poor Hungarian Jew who found he had a gift for languages.  He taught language as a young man, was the first to publish a German- Turkish dictionary in 1858, and was recruited by the British Foreign Office to spy on the Russians in cental Asia as part of the Great Game geopolitical rivalry with Russia. He disguised himself as a dervish and survived to write his travel narrative in 1864, "Travels in Asia."
Sinan Akilli (Hacettepe University Faculty of Letters), "Propaganda Through Travel Writing:  Frederick Burnaby's Contribution to Great Game British Politics,"Edebiyat Fak Itesi Dergisi/Journal of Faculty of Letters Cilt/Volume 26 Say/Number 1 (Haziran/June 2009) seen in @2009 Hacellepe University Faculty of Letters. 1870's British officer, Frederick Burnaby, was pro-Turk, anti-Russian, pro-Imperialist who's writings supported British Disreali Tories' imperialist politics.   Sinan Akilli analyzes Burnaby's travel writings, "Ride to Khiva:  Travels and Adventures in Central Asia (1876) and "On Horseback through Asia Minor (1877)" as imperialist British propaganda in support of British efforts in containing Russian expansion in India and central Asia.
(Google eBook) Henry Danby Seymour, "Russia on the Black Sea and Sea of Azof:  Being a Narrative of Travels in the Crimea and Bordering Provinces with Notices of the Naval, Military, and Commercial Resources of Those Countries," London:  John Murrary, 1855, digitized July 6, 2006.
Ted Solotaroff, "An Act of Remembrance," NY Times Books, August 9, 1981. Solotaroff reviews "The Journey of David Toback," by David Toback as retold by his granddaughter Carole Malkin, New York: Schocken Books. David Toback ended his life as a New York East Side Kosher butcher. He was born in the Ukraine and this book tells of his travels throughout Central Asia and his Jewish faith.
Russian Website dedicated to Vasily Vereshchagin, Russian soldier, artist and traveler (1842-1904).  His artwork of the central steppes is his travel narrative.
"Vasily Vereshchagin: horrors of war through an artist's eyes," Russia and India Report.
Russian artist, writer, peace activist Nicholas Roerich, Roerich Museum (Russia). Art as travel narrative.

South Asia: Muzaffar Alam and Sanjay Subrahmanyam, "Envisioning power:  The Political thought of a late eighteenth-century Mughal prince," Indian Economic Social History Review, 2006, Vol. 43, Issue 2, pages 131-161.  See abstract of paper and free five page preview.  Alam and Subrahmanyam analyze the mindset and "world view" of a Mughal prince who does not win power through the princes' own travel narrative.
"Sayyid Jamal al-Din Muhammad b. Safdar al-Afghani (1838-1897)," Center For Islamic Studies.  More on this religious traveler and father of Islamic Modernism.   See more:
Jamal al Din al Afghani, religious travel writer....pan-Islamist.
"Asians in Britain:  Visitors," British Library for researchers.  Three Indian travelers to Britain with excerpts from their narratives.  Mirza Abu Taleb Khan who traveled to Georgian Ireland and England from 1799-1803 and left impressions of the upper classes, Bhagavat Sinh Jee Thakore Shaheb of Gondal traveled to Britain in 1880's, and Beramji Malabari, Parsi newspaper editor who was shocked at the level of poverty in London's East end.
Mishirul Hasan, "Westward Bound-Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb," Oxford University Press, 2005.  Hasan continues his focus on Indian Muslims with this travel account of Mirza Abu Taleb (1752-1806).  Dr. Hasan details Mirza Abu Taleb's 1799-1803 travels to England, France, Genoa, Malta, Turkey and Baghdad.  See also Mushirul Hasan, ed., "18th-19th Century Travel Writing by Indians Describing Europe," Oxford University Press, 2012.
"This omnibus presents a unique perspective of travel writing by Indians describing Europe during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. This completely unexplored theme provides the missing link in the east-west paradigm. Whereas the other aspect of the western perspective on Indian civilization has been studied for quite sometime, the descriptions of this omnibus invert this image and show Europe in the eyes of the Indian traveller during the arrival of modernity in the subcontinent.  It comprises:
Westward Bound: Travels of Mirza Abu Taleb: Descriptions of the Mirza who travelled to England during 1799-1803. Greatly impressed by late eighteenth century England, he also records his impressions of France, Genoa, Malta, Turkey, and Baghdad.
Seamless Boundaries: Lutfullah's Narrative beyond East and West: Lutfullah's narrative which includes his visit to England in 1844, provides an understanding of events, people, and their culture beyond mere east-west dichotomies.
Travels of Itisamuddin: An account of the travels of Itisamuddin to France and England in 1765. He describes Nantes in France, and London, Oxford and Scotland with details of everyday life of people."
Mona Narain, "Dean Mahomet's Travels, border crossings, and the narrative of alterity," The Free Library, June 22, 2009.  See other travel writing Free Library articles on right side of this page.  Mahomet, who received criticism from Europeans and Indians alike, wrote narratives of his travels throughout India and Europe, specifically England (1794).
Michael H. Fisher, "Early Asian Travelers to the West:  Indians in Britain, c. 1650-c. 1850," World History Connected, Volume 10, No. 1, February 2013.  Fisher focuses on Dean Mahomet in this essay for the World History Connected Forum (pt. 1) on Travel Writers and Travel Narratives in world history. Nile Green, "A Persian Sufi in British India:  The Travels of Mirza Hasan' Ali Shah (1251/1835-1316/1899), published by British Institute of Persian Studies.  Reviewed in Iran, Vol. 42 (2004) pp. 201-218 seen in
"Recurrent Themes in the Representation of South Asia, Pt. IV," South Asia at Chicago Fifty Years of Scholarship, University of Chicago Library.  This summary page of themes (like sati, Hinduism) European travel writers focused on in their travel accounts to India are highlighted.
Uma Mahadevan-Dasgupta review in The Hindu, September 7, 2003 of Sachidananda Mohantz, ed., "Travel Writing and the Empire," Katha, 2003, p. 185. The essays in this book show via travel narration the colonial experience in South Asia from the 18th-early 20th century.'s+Travel+Narratives+and...-a0130463983
Lila Marz Harper, "Solitary Travelers:  Nineteenth Century Women's Travel Narratives and the Scientific Vocation," Cranbury N.J.:  Farleigh Dickinson University Press; London:  Associated University Press, 2001. Harper gives us a look at four women travelers who used the science of natural history in their writings, those being Mary Wollstonecraft, Harriet Martineau, Isabella Bird Bishop, and Mary H. Kingsley.
Amy C. Fahey, "In Search of Knowledge.  The Travel Accounts of Edward William Lane, Sophia Lane-Poole, Rifa 'a al-Tahawi, and Khayr al-Dine al-Tunisi," A Senior Thesis for Bachelor Degree of Arts in History, University of North Carolina at Asheville, April 2008.  Rihla is a genre of Islamic travel writing that documents travel in pursuit of knowledge.  Ms. Fahey describes four 19th century travel writers and their narratives exhibiting rihla.
Brian Yothers, The Romance of the Holy Land in American Literature 1790-1876," Ashgate Publishing (UK), 2007. See selections in google book format and Chapter 1 as Ashgate Publishing sampe pages:
"Chapter 1, Emergence of the Levant in American Literature: Barbary Captivity Narratives, Oriental Romances, and the Holy Land as Protestant Trope." Brian Yothers is critical of American Christian travel writers who journeyed to the Levant and wrote narratives based on their preconceived western Orientalism.

Mungo Park, "Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa," Duke University Press, 2000 edited by Kate Ferguson Marsters. Original travel account published in 1799 and is considered a classic of African travel literature by westerners. Park's mission was to find the Niger River and document its potential as an inland waterway for European trade. Wordsworth, Melville, Conrad, Hemingway and T. Coreghessan Boyle all claim inspiration from Park's account.
"Rene Auguste Caillie and Timbuktu-1828," Ultrapedia, April 4, 2012. Caillie (1799-1838) traveled to Senegal and Guadeloupe at the age of 16 after reading Daniel DeFoe's "Robinson Crusoe." His most famous travels were to Timbuktu which he described in his two volume "Travels Through Central Africa to Timbuctoo," London, 1830.
Jonathan D. Sassi, "Africa in the Quaker Image: Anthony Benezet, African Travel Narratives, and Revolutionary-era Anti-Slavery," Ingenta Connect, Brill publishing, 2006.
"Mary Kingsley.  Women of Discovery:  Mary Kingsley," living on earth blog, PRI's Environmental News Magazine, published August 10, 2012. Short article on Mary Kingsley (1868-1900) with MP3 file download.  Mary Kingsley traveled through West Africa producing two narratives, "West Africa Studies" and "Travels in West Africa."  See Mary Kingsley travel route map:
Often alone, Kingsley traveled the length of the coast of West Africa. (source: Mary Kingsley-
The interesting life of Henry Morton Stanley..."Mr. Livingston I presume..?" Phil Leigh, "The Galvanized Yankee," Opinionator blog, 6/4/2012. Stanley born John Rowland to an English prostitute, came to America, joined the Confederate army, captured, turned Union galvanized soldier, turned seafarer, deserted the Union Navy, journalist, African Explorer, and Belgian Congo freebooter hired by King writer.
"Henry Morton Stanley 1841-1904," Princeton University Library, 2007, exhibition curator John Delany. See images, maps of Stanley's African travels and tabs for more information and sources of African exploration beginning in 1541.
"Women Travelers, Explorers, and Missionaries to Africa," Jarrett Library Search Engine, East Texas Baptist University, @1974-2012 seen in
Jarrett Library digital resources Search Engine for World History, East Texas Baptist U.  See Europe, Americas and Middle East links on left of this page.
Leonard Guelke and Jeanne Kay Guelke (U. of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada), "Imperial Eyes on South Africa: Reassessing Travel Narratives," Journal of History Geography, 2004.
Danielle Venton, "Africa's Past Landscape Revealed in Historical Travel Accounts," Wired, Science, September 15, 2011. European travel narratives from late 19th and early 20th century reveal Africa's environment over a century ago.
Elizabeth Bohls and Ian Duncan, eds., "Travel Writers 1700-1830:  An Anthology (Oxford World Classics) Ebook, 2006.  Download with membership. Seen in redcliff blog, March 11, 2013. See information on two editors:
Elizabeth Bohls profile, University of Oregon.  Note interest in women travel writers seen in Dr. Bohl's "Women Travel Writers and the Language of Aesthetics 1716-1818, 1995.
Joe Lockard's review of Cheryl J. Fish's "Black and White Women's Travel Narratives,"  (2004), Bad Subjects ( website.  Fish's book highlights 19th century Black and White women's travel literature.
Bettina Knapp and Alba Amoia, eds., "Great Women Travel Writers:  From 1750 to Present," Continuum, 2005. See book description and two reviews of book which features 22 women travel writers and their journeys to Africa, India and the Near East.
George S. Rousseau, "Travel Literature:  The New World," glbtq encyclopedia of culture, 2002.  Rousseau describes the development of travel literature in relation to gay and lesbian sensibilty which he feels has been one of the least understood areas of modern culture and anthropology.  Examples from 18th-20th century. See short bibliography at the end of this four page entry.

"Xie Qinggao," The Ricci Institute Library Online Catalog. Xie Qinggao (1765-1821) was lost at sea and picked up by a British or most likely Portuguese trading ship which sailed to America, Europe and Asia. Qinggao lost his sight but recorded his travels orally.
Ronald Chung-yam Po, "(Re)Conceptualizing the World in Eighteenth Century China," World History Connected, Vol. 9, No. 1, February 2012. Chung-yam Po discusses the new Chinese "geohistorians" of the 18th century who encouraged a more positive view of northern frontier tribes and European travelers to Asia. Ethnic and anthropological formal studies under Emperor Qianlong (r. 1736-1795) were written by travelers and frontier writers as Chinese territories expanded.
Dr. Nguyen Hong Thao/Luu Van Loi, "What Chinese historical documents say?", last updated September 6, 2011. This article concerns International law and sovereignty over Hoang Sa (Paracel) and Truong Sa (Spratly) islands as cited in documents and sources from the Three Kingdoms (220-265 CE) to the Qing (1644- 1911). Note some sources are travel documents and accounts.
George Dutton, "Important Sources Relating to the Say Son-18th and 19th century Sources Originally in Chinese," Nguyen Thai Hoc Foundation.
Nurhanis Sahiddan, "Approaches to Travel Writing in Isabella Bird's 'The Golden Cheronese' and The Way Thither,'" paper (7 pp. pdf) for General Studies course, University of Tenga Nasional, Malaysia. Seen in International Journal of Applied Linguistics & English Literature, Volume 1, No. 2, July 2012. A Malaysian university student's analysis of Isabella Bird's Malaysian travel narratives.
Coleridge poems as travel narrative, specifically "Kubla Khan" and "Rime of the Ancient Mariner:"
"Rime of the Ancient Mariner," Cummings Study Guides explains Captain James Cook's voyages ending in 1799 with Cook's death and motivation for"Rime of the Ancient Mariner" first published in 1798. See more on Coleridge's "Kubla Khan" as travel narrative:
"Samuel Purchas," Wikipedia. English compiler, editor of British travel narratives. His third book was an effort to complete Richard Hakluyt works after Hakluyt's death in 1616. Purchas' first volume "Purchas His Pilgramage," 1613 was one of the sources of inspiration for William Taylor Coleridge's poem. See analysis of "Kubla Khan" by Jalal Uddin Khan, "Coleridge's 'Kubal Khan:' a new historicist study," The Free Library, Jan. 1, 2012:
"Narrative Art," Japanese Arts/comics website. See "sets of images of famous places" highlighted link which discuss the popular form of Edo 19th century printmaking that are travelogues.
"The Autobiography of Yukickhi Fukuzawa," Best Memoirs Books.   Review of 19th century samurai turned entrepreneur and Western advocate.   See point of view on Fukuzawa from Robert Ketcherside blog, July 1996:
Robert Fortune, "Three Years' Wanderings in the Northern Provinces of China," London, 1846 seen Internet Archive. Full text available in varied formats. See left of page for options. Fortune also wrote "A Residence Among the Chinese," London, 1857. See free Google book:
Fortune was a biotanical Indiana Jones of the nineteenth century. The British Royal Horticultural Society sent him to China to procure seeds and plants and to steal secrets of tea manufacturing so the British could stop relying on Chinese tea and start plantations in India. See review of Fortune's travels and writing in China by Jeffrey Mather:
Jeffrey Mather (2010): Botanising in a Sinocentric World: Robert Fortune's Travels in China," Studies in Travel Writing, 14:3, 257-270.

North America:
"Thomas Paine," US History. Thomas Paine as travel writer.
Indiana University, Bloomington Library, "Travel Literature," Melissa Van Vuuren website moderator @ 2010.    See Travel Bibliography as to 19th century British travel to foreign countries, Great Britain Women Travel Writers, Anthologies, etc.
Map: Tocqueville's travel route from below.
"The Alexis de Tocqueville Tour-Exploring Democracy in America, May 9, 1997-February 20, 1989," C-Span link celebrating Tocqueville's 9 month travels in America, 1831-1832.  See primary source documents of de Tocqueville's travel narratives and 1:16:56 Video, "A Conversation on Democracy" in Real Player.
"A Review of 'Letters From America,' by Alexis de Tocqueville, translated by Frederick Brown; and Tocqueville's 'Discovery of America,' by Leo Damrosch," Claremont Institute, posted April 18, 2012 by Michael McDonald.
"A Northern View of Southern Slavery, 1821," Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History. Aurelia Hale of Hartford, Connecticut offers her impressions of Southern Life in this primary source document letter to her sister. Hale traveled to Georgia to teach school at the age of 22 and stated that she enjoyed the "manner of living" in the South and that the South was "better that at the North" and found slavery agreeable.
"Slave Narratives,"  Many of the American slave narratives referenced in this article/essay were travel narratives.
Tom Costa and University of Virginia, "The Geography of Slavery," @ 2005. Travel narratives, documents, primary sources, newspaper accounts slaveholder records, Literature and narratives.
Jenn Williamson summary of "The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano, or Gustavas Vasa, the African," Documenting the American South, Library of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 2004. See more: Angelo Costanzo, "Olaudah Equiano (1745-1797)," Georgetown University study guide.
Paulette M. Chaisson, "Campbell, Patrick 1765-1823," Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, University of Toronto, 2000. Campbell was a Scot who served in the military fighting wars in Europe, returning to Scotland as head forester of a provincial realm. He sailed to North America to find the suitability of land for Highland Scots who wished to migrate to Canada. His travels are noted in his journal.
John Goddard, "Exhibit tells story of Mohawk Chief's slave," Toronto Star online (Canada), February 2, 2009. Mohawk Chief Joseph Brant owned a kidnapped black, slave girl, Sarah Pooley. Pooley was born to slave parents in Fishkill, New York in the mid-1760's. She was eventually sold to a Canadian farmer and recounted her travels to Benjamin Drew in an oral narrative, "Refugee: or the Narratives of the Fugitive Slaves in Canada," published in 1856. Sarah Pooley lived to be 90 years old.
Alexander MacKenzie, "Voyages From Montreal Throught the Continent of North America To the Frozen and Pacific Oceans in 1789 and 1793 With An Account of the Rise and State of the Fur Trade," New York: A. S. Barnes & Company, 1903. Gutenberg Project, release date March 2011.
W. Kaye Lamb, "MacKenzie, Sir Alexander," Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online, 2000. Scottish born Alexander MacKenzie was first man to cross continental North America by canoe, 12 years before Lewis and Clark. His travel journal (fur trade account) was published in 1801. Did it inspire President Thomas Jefferson to enlist Lewis and Clark for their trek and purchase of the Louisiania Purchase?
Discovery Lewis and Clark website, Lewis and Clark Fort Mandan Foundation (Washburn, North Dakota), @1998-2009. See journal excerpts from The Journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, 13 Volumes, edited by Gary E. Moulton, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1983-2001.
"Astor, John Jacob, 1763-1848: John Jacob Astor business records, 1784-1812 (inclusive), 1809-1848 (bulk): A Finding Aid," Baker Library, Harvard Business School, October 2009. Fur mogul Astor's business records, property maps, etc. qualify as travel narrative?
"George Copway, Ojibwe," Early Native American Literature website. See video biography. George Copway, born 1818 in Trent River, Canada West (now Ontario) is first Native American writer focused on travel narrative as seen in 1847 Autobiography, "The Life, History, and Travels of Kah-ge-ga-gah-bowh," and first travel book written by a Native American, "Running Sketches of Men and Places," 1851. Copway traveled the Great Lakes and upper Mississippi, the Eastern seaboard and in 1850 traveled to England. Other Native American literature that can be labeled "travel narratives" are Hendrick Aupamut, "A Short Narrative of My Last Journey to the Western Country," 1827 and Black Hawk's account of his "tour" of the East while prisoner of war, "Life of Black Hawk" 1833.
D. Garneau, "Metis Nation of the Northwest-Complete History of the Canadian Metis Culture,", May 15, 2012. See links to history periods 1500 through 2006. See comments: "The Jesuits claimed: 'Not a cape was turned, not a river entered, but a Jesuit led the way." "The People said: The Jesuit (black robes) are damnable liers (liars). Even the most amateur of historians knows the actual explorers of New France (Canada and the American West) were without question the Coureurs and Metis."
"The Metis Origins of the Metis Nation," Canada's First Peoples, 2007. The Metis were offspring of French Canadians involved in the fur trade and First Nation Peoples. Note 19th century paintings (art as travel narrative) of Metis peoples.
Lawrence J. Barkwell, "The People of the Metis Nation: A-C, Metis History Through Biography," Louis Riel Institute, Winnipeg, 2012. See "D-G," etc. biographies on right side of page and travel accounts such as "Sinclair Expedition to the Spokane Country 1854," at bottom of this page.
Tom Bacig, "Metaphors for the People: A Presentation Exploring the Metis and the History of Minnesota," Minnesota Humanities Commission Teacher Institute Seminar: French Legacies in Minnesota-November 10-11, 2000. This website last updated March 1, 2011, University of Minnesota, Duluth.
P. Savard and R. Ouellet, "Exploration and Travel Literature in French," The Canadian Encylopedia. Note last paragraph as a summary of change over time and French point of view as to travel literature in Canada.  See any Metis examples?
Brenda Dyck, "Early Canada Fur Trade,"  Masters Academy and College, Canada, last reviesed April 25, 2005. See esp. "A Cree Boy Visits York Factory" brief travel account.  See more travel accounts from this site:
Neil Woodman, "History and Dating of the Publication of the Philadelphia (1822) and London (1823) editions of Edwin James's Account of an Expedition from Pittsburgh to the Rocky Mountains," Digital Commons @ University of Nebraska, Lincoln, USGS-Published Research US Geological Survey, January 1, 2010.
Historic Travel Writers: Isabella Bird (1870's) and Charles Dickens (1840's), See excerpts of their travel narratives in America-19th century.
"Isabella Bird," Note links to Isabella Bird travel narratives and her natural history references.
(Google Book) Charles Dickens, Pictures From Italy and American Notes, 1867, Harper & Brothers, 1880.
Frank Bures, "Charles Dickens: The First Great Travel Writer," World Hum, May 25, 2010. Does Bures's evidence support his claim?
"Jack London: The American Karl Marx," Literary Traveler, posted December 1, 2001. This article examines the travels and writings of Jack London who is described here as a Socialist.
"The Illustrating Traveller:  Adventure and Illustration in North America and the Caribbean in 1760-1895," Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library Exhibition, Beinecke Library archives Yale University, last revised September 4, 1996. "In the late18th century travel accounts began to increasedly incorporate illustration as a parallel visual text to describe and explain the observations of travelers."
Bob McCracken, "Early Travel Writing Reveals Pahrump Valley's Ranching History," Pahrump Valley Times, January 2013. Bob McCracken tells the story of Thomas W. Brooks, 19th century Georgia travel writer, mining engineer, Civil War and George Custer veteran, and rancher.

Latin America:
(Google book) Monica Szurmuk, "Women in Argentina: Early Travel Narratives," University of Florida Press, 2000. Monica Szurmuk displays and analyzes a hundred years of women's travel writing in Argentina from 1830-1930.

(Google book) Shannon Marie Butler, "Travel Narratives in Dialogue: Contesting Representations of Nineteenth-Century Peru," New York: Peter Lang Publishing, 2008. Ms. Butler quotes Manuel A. Fuentes--Lima: Apuntes historicos descriptivos, estadisticas y costumbres (1867) in the introduction to her book: "If one were to judge a travel book, recently published in Paris, according to its veracity in regards to the various places around the world and regarding Peru itself, one could say that its authors pretend to write a novel whose characters have all the crude mannerisms of a savage." {trans. by Shannon Marie Butler}
Miguel A. Cabanas, The Cultural "Other" in Nineteenth-Century Travel Narratives:  How the United States and Latin Americans Described Each Other,"  Mellen Press, 2008. Book advertisment.  See review in Spanish by Leila Gomez (University of Colorado, Boulder) in "A Journal on Social History and Literature in Latin America," (A Contra corriente) Vol. 7, No. 3, Spring 2010.

(Google book) Angela Perez-Mejia, "A Geography of Hard Times:  Narrative About Travel to South America 1780-1949, trans. by Dick Cluster, 2002, Albanly NY:  State University of New York Press, 2004.
(Google Ebook) Gilbert G. Gonzalez, "Culture of Empire:  American Writers, Mexico, and Mexican Immigrants 1880-1930," University of Texas Press, 2004.  Scroll down page to see chapter on "American Writers Invade Mexico" pp. 46-70 and book review.
June E. Hahner, ed., "Women Through Women's Eyes: Latin America in Nineteenth Century Travel Accounts, Wilmington, DE: S. R. Books, 1998. Seen in Routledge 3 Vol. Travel Literature Encyclopedia.
"Ian Duncan, On Charles Darwin and the Voyage of the Beagle," Branch: Britain, Representation and Nineteeth- Century History. Ed. Dino Franco Felluga. Extension of Romanticism and Victorianism on the Net. Web. [March 28, 2013].
"The Beagle Letters," Darwin Correspondence Project, University of Cambridge, 2013. Letters originally published in volume 1 of the "Correspondence of Charles Darwin," Burkhardt et. al. eds. CUP 1985. Charles Darwin evolution as travel writer.

"South Seas Voyaging and Cross Cultural Encounters in the Pacific (1760-1800), South Seas website, Australia. Wonderful bibliographies and resources as to indigenous histories, Voyaging Accounts, Captain James Cook's journal, European reaction amongst others.
"Captain James Cook," Longitude Books. An annotated listing of links to books about Captain James Cook travels along with his diaries/travel narratives. See more on Captain James Cook (1728-1779):
(Google Ebook) George Forster, "A Voyage Around the World, Vol. I, University of Hawaii Press, 2000. George Forster accompanied his father, Johann Reinhold Forster, on James Cook's second Pacific voyage (1772-1775). Johann Forster was the ship's naturalist and George based his travel account on his father's ship journal as to the geography, science, and ethnographic knowledge uncovered. It is a good example of 18th century travel literature.
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Ian Barber (University of Otago), "Archaeology, Ethnography, and the Record of Maori Cannibalism Before 1815: A Critical Review," The Journal of the Polynesian Society, New Zealand, Vol. 101, No. 3, 1992, pp. 241-292. Ian Barber cites many travel accounts from Captain James Cook and Cook's botanist Joseph Banks as to eyewitness evidence as to Maori cannibalism.
Mark Twain video, Travel Studies, spring 2013, "Innocents Abroad."
Mark Twain, Letters From Hawaii, in Sacramento Union newspaper, 1866.
Mark Twain, Letters From Hawai'i, (Sandwich Islands) study guide with discussion guide,
Charmian London, Jack London and Hawaii, Mills & Boon, 1918, originally from Harvard University Press, Digitized September 22, 2005, 305 pp.
Jack London's books, short stories...note those on Melanesia, Solomons, and Hawai'i.
Shaun Richards, "Travel Narratives in Edgar Allan Poe and Herman Melville-The Escape from Moral Absolutism on the Journey Toward Self-Realization," Yahoo Voices, December 14, 2006.  Melville's Moby Dick.
John Clendenning (California State University, Northridge), "The American Novel-Herman Melville, American Masters," from the World Book Encyclopedia @2007. Summary of Herman Melville as sailor, travel writer and his travel narratives/novels.
Melville's Moby Dick Study guide, Cummings Study Guides.
Jack W. Shear (Binghamton University), RMMLA (Rocky Mountain Modern Language Association) review of "Oliver S. Buckton. Cruising with Robert Louis Stevenson: Travel, Narrative, and the Colonial Body.  Athens:  Ohio University Press, 2007, 344 p.," Rocky Mountain Review, Volume 62, No. 2, Fall 2008. Scotland's Robert Louis Stevenson (1850-1894) travel writings.
Robert Louis Stevenson website.  See more on his travels and map below: In the Footsteps of Robert Louis Stevenson

"To travel hopefully is a better thing than to arrive"
(RLS, "El Dorado" (1878), in Virginibus Puerisque, The Works of Robert Louis Stevenson, Swanston edn,
vol ii [London: Chatto and Windus, 1911], p. 371)
RLS's 1863 Journey through Europe (PDF)
Click here to view the Google Map

Paul Westover, "Necromanticism: Traveling to Meet the Dead, 1750-1860," short review by Robin Jarvis seen in, as part of Paula Kennedy's list of literature, drama, dance blog. Westover has researched literary tourism--reader's compulsions to visit homes, landscapes, and (especially) graves of Romantic writers in the long Romantic period.
Harald Hendrix review of Paul Westover, "Necromanticism: Traveling to Meet the Dead, 1750-1860," Palgrave MacMillian, 2012 seen in Review 19 website, October 5, 2012.
"Voltaire-Francois Marie Arouet," Encyclopedia of the essay, Voltaire biography. Voltaire as travel writer.
Ilya Ovchinniko, "Alexander Ivanovich Herzen," Russian Life, February 29, 2012. Herzen, b. 1812, was a noted revolutionary but foremost a writer. He was a leading Russian emigre in London, 1852, publishing the anti-Romanov, "Russian Free Press" and it's almanac, "The Polar Star" and an anthology of Russian revolutionary writings "Voices From Russia."
"From the Volga to the Mississippi," PRX Radio with Sarah McConnell, With Good Reason show, November 19, 2011. See 0:28:59 audio and transcript (with reenactors) on Russian and American travel writers journeying to each other's country and their narratives which start off friendly, like comments on Russian travels in Mark Twain's "Innocents Abroad", but by 1905, Twain is calling for the assassination of the Russian Czar.
Jane T. Castlow, "Heart-Pine Russia-Walking and Writing the Nineteenth-Century Forest," Cornell University Press, 2012 reviewed in Rocky Mountain Land Library blog, March 2013.  See other travel accounts in this blog including Ian Frazier's "Travels in Siberia."
Jane T. Castlow, "Heart-Pine Russia-Walking and Writing the Nineteenth-Century Forest" description and reviews seen in Cornell Press site.
Joshua Hammer, "Cold Case Files," NY Times Sunday Book Review, October 28, 2010.  Hammer reviews Ian Frazier's, Travels in Siberia, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2010.  See podcast interview with Ian Frazier and excerpts of this travel narrative.
"Russian and American Travel Writers," PRX With Good Reason show, Kelley Libby, November 19, 2011. Audio and transcript 0:02:30. Libby and Sarah McConnell share production of this PRX With Good Reason piece analyzing how Russian and American travel writing grew more hostile even before the Cold War.
Astolphe de Custine, "Letters From Russia," New York Review of Books Classics, April 2002, 672 pages. Introduction by Custine 1996 biographer Anka Muhlstein. Muhlstein says Marquis Custine's "Letters From Russia" (1839) is "brillantly perceptive...a wonderful piece of travel writing." Of course, this is in sharp contrast to emotional criticism from the Czarist and Communist Russians. Scroll down Gutenberg Project "C" page to download Custin(e)'s four volumes in French:
Nina L. Khrushcheva, "The Czar of the French," Project Syndicate, January 7, 2013. Putin, Gerard Depardieu, and respect from the French. Marquis de Custine "Letter From Russia" in 1839 suggested that Russian civilization amounted to little more than the mimicry of monkeys. Russians have been sensitive to French and American disrespect.
Richard Howard, ed., "Henry James Collected Travel Writings: The Continent," including A Little Tour in France, Italian Hours, and Other Travels, The Library of America. See Overview of narratives included in this edition of Henry James' travel writing.
Mary Shelly's "Rambles in Germany and Italy in 1840, 1842, and 1843," Wikipedia. Note other travel narratives and writers mentioned in this Wikipedia essay including Lady Mary Wortley Montagu and her reports on smallpox inoculations in Turkey, Madame de Stael's novel, Corinne, 1807 and Samuel Johnson's advise to Travel Writers in 1742.
"Lord Byron's Grand Tour," Sherwood Times. Romantic English poet as travel writer. See Sherwood Times homepage:
Robin Jarvis, "Romantic Writing and Pedestrian Travel," Macmillan, 1997. Jarvis analyzes the 1790's relationship between walking (pedestrian travel) and writing and its impact on the creativity of major Romantic writers, ie. releasing "restless textual energies." See Philippe Vandenbroeck review and his comparative to Grand Tour traveling and safer middle class domestic "pedestrian walking."
Samuel Johnson's travel narrative to the Western Islands of Scotland, Wikipedia.


South Asia:
"Vikram Seth," Literature Matters newsletter, British Council of Literature. Born in Kolkata, India in 1952, educated in India, US and China, Vikram Seth is a novelist, poet and travel writer with travel narrative, "From Heaven Lake: Travels Through Sinkiang and Tibet" (1983) as his most noted travel writing.
Sakoon N. Singh, "Sakoon N. Singh on 'Travel Writing in India,'" E3W Review of Books, University of Texas, Austin originally seen in "New Directions in South Asian Studies," Vol. 10, Spring 2010. Singh's reveiw of Shobhana Bhattacharji, ed., Travel Writing in India, Sahitya Akademi, 2008.
"The Intersection of the Postcolonial and the Modern Mythology:  Halide Edib's 'Inside India,'" zenfloyd blog, April 14, 2010. Edib's description of 1930's India and comparison with Turkey through her travel writing is analyzed in this blog.
Kirkus review, July 15, 2004, of Suketu Mehta, "Maximum City: Bombay Lost and Found," Knopf, 2004. William Dalrymple, "Home Truths on abroad," The Guardian, September 18, 2009 claims Mehta is one of the great new travel writers. Dalrymple says the new generation of travel writers have, "less to do with heroic adventures and posturing than an intimate knowledge of people and places." Does Dalrymple have a case for comparison? That 19th century travel writing was about "place" or filling the blanks of the map while the best travel writing in the 21st century is almost always about people. In Maximum City Suketu Mehta, a New York writer and transplanted Indian, views the future of urbanization as bleak for people, if Bombay is an exemplar. See more recent example of Mehta's travel writing "critique:"
Suketa Mehta, "India's Speech Impediment," NY Times The Opinion Page, February 5, 2013. India's press censorship ranks it one of worst in the world. Censorship's effect on people.
Jonah Blank, "Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God:  Retracing the Ramayana Through India," Grove Press, 2000.  Note sample chapters in  See editorial review from Publishers Weekly:  Editorial reviews of Arrow of the Blue-Skinned God: Retracing the Ramayana Through India. Publishers Weekly, 1992-07-13:
Jonah Blank, who has reported on Asia for the Dallas Morning News, traveled the length and breadth of India, retracing the footsteps of the god Rama, hero of the ancient Sanskrit epic (portions of which introduce each chapter). Coupling journalistic detachment with piercing lyricism, he samples the subcontinent in all its horrific, multitudinous, overwhelming diversity, from Bombay's Hollywood-style dream factories to Calcutta's leper-filled streets. He ponders the nation's lingering caste divisions, with their ``BMW Brahmins'' and destitute untouchables. He meets Sikh separatists in the Punjab and, in Sri Lanka, tracks down Tamil Tiger guerrillas, young boys carrying AK-47s. He converses with holy men in ashrams and probes the erotic intensity of the Krishna cult. He scuffles with Indian's venal, infuriating bureaucracy. Blank writes beautifully and taps into India's elusive, indestructible soul with a clarity few writers attain, as he ponders the paradoxes of a country where deep-rooted fatalism clashes with Westernization and a new social mobility. (Sept.) (c) Copyright PWxyz, LLC. All rights reserved.
"Arundhati Roy: Jungles of Resistance," Truth out, April 20, 2013. Roy spoke out against Indian government and their war on India's people and received an invitation to meet with Maoist guerrillas in Indian jungles/rain forest from which she wrote a book, "Walking With the Comrades." She has demanded voting rights for the people of Jammu and Kashmir which caused the Indian government to attack her in court.
See Arundhati Roy videos on social activism:

Middle East/Central Asia:
Pakinam Amer, "A Legacy Lost: The Scarcity of Travel Writing," Egypt Today, August 8, 2011 seen in Egypt Today, March 16, 2013. Amer, in a lengthy article, bemoans the lack of good Egyptian travel writing today.
Amine Zidouh, "Travel Writing in a Post Colonial World,", 2013 essay. Short essay summarizing recent intellectuals and writers thoughts on post colonial travel writing.
V.K. McCarty, "Hearing the Call Along the Nile/an early draft of travel notes from Egypt. See excerpts and available download of Ms. McCarty's narrative about the Nile aboard the SS Karim.
Arita Baaijens', Dutch travel writer and desert explorer by camel caravan, travel narrative "Desert Songs: A Woman Explorer in Egypt and Sudan," American University in Cairo Press, 2009. See 25 photo slideshare:
and Mikael Strandberg blog, "Guest Writer # 6 Arita Baaijens on Female Leadership in the Desert," February 15, 2010. (Baaijen notes that "besides every strong woman in the desert stands a gentle man.")
Camels-Ships of the Desert,
Carolyn McIntyre, "Dubai 21st Century Entrepot," Girl Solo in Arabia: In the Footsteps of ibn Battuta blogsite, November 2, 2007. Ms. McIntyre, travel writer, has followed in the footsteps of ibn Battuta and noted her experiences in this blog.
Arthur Blessitt, Evangelical who has traveled 36,000 miles carrying a 70 pound cross and the movie
review, "The Cross":
Erika Eichelberger, "An Expat Dad's Cartoon Adventures in the Holy Land," Mother Jones, May 8, 2012. Review of Guy Delisle, graphic memoirist and writer of autobiographical travelogues, new graphic travelogue, "Jerusalem: Chronicles from the Holy City."
Gloria Emerson, "Riding the Steppes," Smithsonian, 1/2004.  Ms. Emerson reviews Stanley Stewart's 1000 mile travel narrative book, In the Empire of Genghis Khan, Lyons Press, 2002.  See Google Book review comments: "Vivid, hilarious, and compelling, this eagerly awaited book takes its place among the travel classics. It is a thrilling tale of adventure, a comic masterpiece, and an evocative portrait of a medieval land marooned in the modern world. Eight and a half centuries ago, under Genghis Khan, the Mongols burst forth from Central Asia in a series of spectacular conquests that took them from the Danube to the Yellow Sea. Their empire was seen as the final triumph of the nomadic "barbarians."In this remarkable book Stanley Stewart sets off on a pilgrimage across the old empire, from Istanbul to the distant homeland of the Mongol hordes. The heart of his odyssey is a thousand-mile ride, traveling by horse, through trackless land. On a journey full of bizarre characters and unexpected encounters, he crosses the desert and mountains of Central Asia to arrive at the windswept grasslands of the steppes, the birthplace of Genghis Khan. (6 x 9, 288 pages)"
Thomas Wide, "Istalif Pottery," Steppe Magazine. Issue 5, winter 2008.  Travel writer Thomas Wide's short article on the pottery makers of Afghanistan's Istalif region/city and their troubles with British and Taliban.
"Robert Bryron (1905-41)," Robert Bryon was a travel writer, architecture critic, and historian noted especially for his travel narrative, "The Road to Oxiana," 1937. Note tabs for "Images," and "Bryon on Buddhas of Bamiyan." Bamiyan Buddhist sculptures blown up by the Taliban.
"William Dalrymple's Top 10 Afghanistan books," Guardian/books, March 27, 2013. Travel writer and historian William Dalrymple claims "it was a bad idea to invade Afghanistan, but a good idea to write about Afghanistan." See Dalrymple's website and new book, "Return of a King. The Battle for Afghanistan 1839-42," published in India by Bloomsbury December 2012 and in UK February 2013 and in US by Knopf April 2013.
Naomi Duguid and Jeffrey Alford, "Food:  Flatbreads," Steppe Magazine, Issue 3, winter 2007.  Duguid and Alford are travellers, writers, photographers and cooks and in this short article explain the use of tandoor ovens in making flatbreads in central Asia, specifically Afghanistan.
Khaled Al-Quzahy, "The Portrayal of America in Arab Travel Narratives," a paper for the Masters Programme of Sidi Mohammed Bin Abdullah University, 2008/2009.  Perhaps this paper is a raw sample, but the Muslim travel writers described can be of use and the author as a Muslim provides interesting point of view as to analysis of his research.
Daniel Metcalfe, "Out of Steppe:  The Lost Peoples of Central Asia," Hutchinson Publishers, 2009.  See reviews and other books in this genre.  See Daniel Metcalfe's website:
"Langston Hughes African American Writer," Uzbek Journeys, July 24, 2011. American poet and author was also a traveler journeying to central Asia in the early 1930's. Hughes penned a slim travel narrative in 1934, "A Negro Looks at Central Asia." 1500 copies were published by the Cooperative Publishing Society of Foreign Workers in the U.S.S.R. of which there are two left, one in Leningrad and the other at Yale. Hughes wrote "glowing descriptions of USSR as a worker's paradise where people regardless of colour were equal." In 1956 he wrote "I Wonder as I Wander" where his Central Asia sojourn fills 90 pages. See at the end of this article links to Hughes' photographs and an audio and video recording of his poetry readings.
Margalit Fox, "Eric Newby; a master of travel writing and understatement," U-T San Diego, October 29, 2006. Ms. Fox references Erick Newby (1920-2006) as the best British post-WW II travel writer most famous for his acclaimed travel narrative, "A Short Walk in the Hindu Kush," 1958.
"Women as Cultural Emissaries:  Consider 19th/Early 20th century Travellers," Women in World History Curriculum.  Gertrude Bell (Arab world), Mary Kingsley (West Africa), and Mary Seacole (born in Jamaica travelled to Panama, Crimea) are highlighted along with links to their travel narratives.
Caroline Moorehead, "Book Review/Journey through a watery paradise lost: 'A Reed Shaken by the Wind'-Gavin Maxwell:  Eland, 8.99 pounds,"The Independent (UK), May 26, 1994.  The 1991 Shia uprising against Saddam Hussein failed and many took refuge in the alluvial plains of southern Iraq reviving interest in these people allowing Eland to re-publish Gavin Maxwell's 1957 People of the Reeds in 2003 as A Reed Shaken by the Wind  Travel writer Wilfred Thesiger had lived with these "marsh Arabs" for years and Gavin Maxwell (1914-1969) convinced Theisger to take him along on his last journey among the Ma'dan of the Marshes in 1956.  Original travel narrative: Gavin Maxwell, "People of the Reeds," New York: Pyramid Books, 1957.
25 minute Video/Film.  Is Manal Al Sheikh a travel writer, er, blogger?  Push Pull migration theme also. Manal Al Sheikh says it is dangerous for her to be a writer in her hometown of Nineveh, Iraq, so the exiled poet tries to inspire her readers online from Stavanger, Norway. This short film, directed by Roxana Vilk and aired on Al Jazeera English, explores the Middle East through its contemporary poets as they struggle to lead, to interpret, and to inspire.  Seen in USA Africa dialogue list serve posted by Chidi Anthony Opara Feb/March 2013.
Sidonie Smith, "Moving Lives-Twentieth-Century Women Travel Writers," University of Minnesota Press, 2001. Smith has interesting focus on women and their use of 20th century transportation technologies used to narrate their global travel.
"Women of National Geographic," National Geographic 125 Year Celebration, 2013.  Note photos of women scientists, botanists, explorers, all travel writers also.  Click on photo or name to see their travels and work.

North America:
"Native Voices, Black Elk (1863-1950) and John Neidhardt (1881-1973)," American Passages: A Literary Survey, Annenberg Learner site. John Neidhardt, travel poet of the west, documented Black Elk's life and mysticism.
"Hunter Thompson Gonzo Journalist," Road Junky website, June 18, 2011. Hunter Thompson as travel writer.
"Travel Writer Bob Bone-full interview on Hunter S. Thompson," 3News (New Zealand), November 11, 2011. Video and transcript.
Andrew Saikali, "Travel Writing by Train," MM The Millions website, May 4, 2005. Saikali focuses on Paul Theroux and Bill Bryson's train narratives.
Edward C. Goodman, ed., "Writing the Rails: Train Adventures by the World's Best-Loved Writers," New York: Black Dog and Leventhal Publishing, 2001. 101 Train Travel Stories. See four "customer" reviews.;jsessionid=0A8FF11AF37D997564ACD356773C167B.b0f2e0625dec7176eadfd7c795c82976
Steve McCarthy, "Road Trippin':  A Guide to the Best West Coast Trips-Ever!" CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform, 2010.  See four reviews in:
"NASA Astronaut Douglas Wheelock Photos from Space Ship," Author Stream. See 27 slide powerpoint and transcript from Wheelock's twitter photos and travel narrative from space.
Leif Frenzel, "Narrative Patterns in Time Travel Fiction," paper, 2008. For more information on author see:
Ozlem Ezer (York University, Canada), "A Challenge to Travel Literature and Stereotypes by Two Turkish Women: Zayneb Hanoum and Selma Ekrem," Feminisme/s, 4, diciembre 2004, pp. 61-68.  Seen in Rua_ Repositorio Institucional de la Universidad de Alicante.  Early 20th century perspective of the West by two Turkish women travel writers.
Rick Lyman, "A City of Many Pasts Embraces the Future," NY Times Travel, September 25, 2005.  Travel writer Rick Lyman features a travelogue of Istanbul as it enters the 21st century.

Asia/SE ASIA:! Kerry Brown, Asian Review of Books, March 16, 2013 review of John Everard, "Only Beautiful Please: A British Diplomat in North Korea," Asia-Pacific Research Network, June 2012. British ambassador to Pyongyang recounts his 2006-2008 diplomatic assignment in North Korea.
Travel Writing Contest, Transitions Abroad. See 2006-2013 Travel writing place winning narratives.
Artemis Cooper, "Sir Patrick Leigh Fermor: Soldier, Scholar and Celebrated Travel Writer Hailed as Best of his Time," Independent, June 11, 2011.
"Patrick Leigh Fermor," (1915-2011), New York Review of Books. NYRB reviews all of Fermor's travel narratives. To read those reviews click on image of book covers on left of page. Fermor's "The Traveller's Tree" highlighted his late 1940's journey throughout the Caribbean islands.
Justin Marozzi, "The Longest Journey Will Always Lie Ahead," Patrick Leigh Fermor wordpress blog, March 3, 2013, first published in StandPoint July-August 2011. Blog posts honoring Patrick Leigh Fermor.
Rebecca Dorgelo, "Travelling into History: The Travel Writing and Narrative History of William Dalrymple," paper submitted for Doctor of Philosophy degree, University of Tasmania, July 2011, 298 pp. pdf.
"Sir Aurel Stein-proceedings of the British Museum study day, March 2002," British Museum Research publication. Sir Aurel Stein was a British archaeologist active in the first half of the 20th century. See links to download full publication in pdf format.
"An Archeologist Follows His Dreams to Asia," monkey Aurel Stein's travels to the Silk Road and narratives of those missions. Stein felt central Asia and the Silk Road was critical in understanding world history. See Teacher section.
"Stories of Chinese Christians," Biographical Dictionary of Chinese Christianity, @2005-2012. Missionary travel writers share their faith converting Chinese.
Stephen L. Keck, "Picturesque Burma:  British Travel Writing, 1890-1914," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies, October 1, 2004, seen in High Beam Research.
Owen Rutter, "British North Borneo: An Account of Its History, Resources and Native Tribes," Opus Publishing, 2008 seen in Natural History Publications. Originally published in 1922 Rutter's North Borneo travel account along with his 1929 "The Pagans of North Borneo" were the best until K. G. Tregonning's "Under Chartered Company Rule:  North Borneo, 1886-1946" Singapore:  University of Malaya Press, 1958. Rutter has written travel narratives of the legends of Sabah (one of the 13 easternmost states of Malaysia-North Borneo), Taiwan and the court martial of the "MS Bounty."  See interesting comparative of Western plantation system and Sabah (N. Borneo) traditional farming legalities by Amity Doolittle, "Colliding Discourses:  Western Land Laws and Native Customary Rights in Northern Borneo, 1881-1918," Journal of Southeast Asian Studies. 34 (I), pp. 97-126, February 2003.  Printed in the United Kingdom. @2003 The National University of Singapore.
"Ai Wu Journey to the South," The Bamboo Sea blog, April 28, 2011.  Ai Wu, Chinese born 1904, travels through- out Southeast Asia and leaves his travel narrative, Journey to the South, as his experiences.
Andrew X. Pham, "Catfish and Mandala:  A Two-Wheeled Voyage Through the Landscape and Memory of Vietnam," Picador, 2000.  Pham, a Vietnamese-American, travels by bicycle around the Pacific rim back to Vietnam.,9171,436029,00.html
Jamie James, "He Shall Bear Witness," Time Magazine, March 23, 2003 review of "The Gate," memoirs of Francois Bizot, a French scholar of Cambodian Buddhism who may be the only Westerner released from a Khmer Rouge Prison camp. His book tells his point of view as to horrible genocide 1975-1978 of Pol Pot's Khmer Rouge. See more as to Cambodian Literature:
"Cambodian Literature," Heritage Cruise website. Note Early Cambodian Literature to Present with comments on Khmer travel accounts/survivor accounts from France and US.
Marjorie Kehe, "What to Read about the Khmer Rouge," Christian Science Monitor, July 26, 2010.  Note travel narratives and survivor accounts.  See Chanrithy Him, "When Broken Glass Floats," Norton, 2001 and travel writing author who went to Cambodia and found the Khmer Rouge chief executioner, Duch.
"Khmer Survivor, part 1," Travel Blog, published January 31, 2013.  Travel account of Phnom Penh, December 31-January 7, 2013 and descriptions of Cambodia and specifically the Khmer Rouge prison camps.  See part 2:
"Before It's News" website reviews travel writer Tony Parfitt's "Why China Will Never Rule the World: Travels in the Two Chinas," Western Hemisphere Press, 2011, 424 pp., September 14, 2012.

Victor Paul Borg, "Travels Through Libya:  Ancient Wonders," Transitions Abroad, 2009 Narrative Travel Writing Contest Winner, Victor Borg, excerpt on his travels through Libya. PAPER:NEW:9781108010726:42.50#synopses_and_reviews John Roscoe, "The Northern Bantu: An Account of Some African Tribes of the Uganda Protectorate," (Cambridge Library Collection-Travel and Exploration), Cambridge University Press, 2010. John Roscoe (1861-1932) was an ordained Christian minister elected a Fellow of the Royal Anthropological Society in 1912 for his ethnographic writings of Uganda.
Elisabeth Oxfeldt, "Journeys from Scandinavia: Scandanavian Travel Writing in Africa, Asia, and South America-1840-2000, " University of Minnesota Press, 2010. Oxfeldt focuses on Danish and Norwegian travelogues and how they perceive and portray encounters with the non-European other.
Mustapha B. Marrouchi, "Horrors,", January 21, 2008. Marrouchi discusses European travel writing and it's depiction of "Africa and Africans as savages" with details from Bryan Mealer's The River is the Road," 2007, Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness, and others.
Ignacio Schwartz two part review of Ryszard Kapuscinski, "Another Day of Life," Harcourt Brace Javanovich in Ralph Magazine (The Review of Arts, Literature, Philosophy and the Humanities).  Polish born travel writer Kapuscinski's narrative of rebellion in Portuguese Anglo in 1975.
Victoria Brittain, "Ryszard Kapuscinski-obituaries," Guardian (UK).  Born in Pinsk, what is now Belarus, Kapuscinski became a legend writing for the Polish News Agency, died 1975.
Peripatus (New Zealand) review of Peter B. Biddlecombe, "French Lessons in Africa, Travels With My Briefcase Through French Africa," 1993, 2002.  Peripatus finds the 1993 thick paperback the best of Peter Biddlecombe's travel writing in that he writes eloquently of what he sees and doesn't try to be comedic as he is in later travel narratives.
Ed O'Loughlin review (The Telegraph, September 5, 2010) of V.S. Naipaul, "The Masque of Africa:  Glimpses of African Belief," Alfred A. Knopf, 2010.  Naipaul (Nobel Prize in Literature 2001) retraces the footsteps of a number of Euro-American explorers who, in a way, paved the way for colonization of Africans and examines African spirituality.  Beginning in Uganda in 2008 Naipaul sees Christianity and Islam as alien religions and treats African indigenous spirituality with respect.  See also Eliza Griswold NY Times Sunday Book review (November 5, 2010), "The Nobelist and the Pygmies:"
See more point of view as to V.S. Naipaul:
Toyin Agbetu review of interview in London Evening Standard with journalist Geordie Greig and Trinidad's V.S Naipaul about Naipaul's travelogue, The Masque of Africa:  Glimpses of African Belief, seen in ligali a human right and natural justice website.  Agbetu claims The Evening Standard, Greig and V.S. Naipaul are racist and Africa haters.
Girish Karnad, "The Congo Diary:  Why we love to hate V. S. Naipaul," Daily Bhaskar (India), November 6, 2012. Karnad agrees with Toyin Agbetu's argument that V.S. Naipaul is a racist and anti-Islam.
Francis Bok with Edward Tivan, "Escape From Slavery: My Ten Years of Slavery and Escape to America," Macmillan, 2003. In 1986 a 7 yr. old Dinka boy in southern Sudan goes to market and is captured and taken north to work as a slave for ten years on a Sudanese farm plantation. His escape and travel to America is told in this travel narrative. See Google Book:
See more on Francis Bok's modern day slave account:
Francis Bok, "Escape From Slavery," St.Martins' Griffin Study Guide for teachers by Scott Pitcock. And more on "Africa South of the Sahara Slavery" from Stanford University:
Stanford's "Africa south of the Sahara" website. See links to Africa Diaspora.
(Google eBook) Emmanuel Jal and Megan Lloyd Davies, "War Child: A Child Soldier's Story," Macmillian 2009. Sudan child soldier Emmanuel Jal memoir/travel account of his 2 civil wars in southern Sudan and success as an international rap star.
Edith Wharton, "In Morocco," Pt. 1-4 seen in Wharton (1862-1937) classified her travel narrative of French Morocco (1918) as Morocco's first guide book. Wharton, an advocate of French imperialism, also traveled to the WW I front lines and wrote an account of that experience, "Fighting France: From Dunkerque to Belfort."
"Ikbal Ali Shah," Indian/Afghan author, diplomat and travel writer, born in 1894.
Adam Goodheart, "Home of the Brave," NY Times book review, 3/19/2006. Goodheart reviews Ikbal Ali Shah's British travel writing grandson, Tahir Shah's book, The Caliph's House: A Year in Casablanca, Bantam Books, February 2006, which is set in Morocco.
Maytha Alhassen, "The Biographer who Shattered Malcolm X myths," CNN Opinion, April 5, 2011. Alhassen reviews Dr. Manning Marable's "Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention," which includes detailed accounts of Malcolm's three trips to the Middle East and Africa.
Sean Jacobs, "Malcolm X in Africa," Africa Is A Country website, June 27, 2011.
"Malcolm X Travels to Africa to Gain New Insights," AfricaResource, May 5, 2007. Bernice Bass interview with Malcolm X after his trips to Middle East and Africa transcript (5 pp.).
"All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes," Wikipedia. Maya Angelou, "All God's Children Need Traveling Shoes," Random House, 1986 is Angelou's travel narrative of her three years living in Accra, Ghana (1962-65).

Australian Kate Hamilton website with 2004-2013 examples of her travel narratives.
Mau Pius Pialug, Micronesian double canoe skilled sailor re-introduced Oceanic/Hawaiian navigation by stars and seas to modern Oceania. Pialug navigated 2,400 miles from Hawai'i to Tahiti in 1976. See videos and travel accounts:
Ben Finney, "1976 Hawaii to Tahiti and Back," Hawaiian Voyaging Traditions, 1976. In 1980 native Hawaiians made the round trip from Hawaii to Tahiti. He passed on his skills to others before his death as seen in this article by Brian Handwerk, "Pacific Islander Use Stars to Sail Canoes From New Zealand to California," National Geographic New Watch, August 31, 2011:
Martin Kich (Professor of English, Wright State U.-Lake Campus), "Some Notes on the Travel Narrative, with Special Emphasis on Tony Horowitz's "One for the Road:  Hitchhiking Through the Australian Outback," nd. Martin Kich begins this essay explaining the difference between travel narratives and travel guides.
Peter Pierce review ("Island Paradise or Bad Apple?") of Julianne Schultz and Natasha Cica, eds., "Tasmania The Tipping Point?" Griffith Review39 A Quarterly  of New Writing and Ideas seen in The Age (Australia), March 16, 2013.  Tasmania The Tipping Point? includes an anthology of essays written by travel writers and others examining Tasmanian culture, landscape, and history. This is a series of works, lectures and studies of Tasmania done in conjunction with The Griffith Review39 and University of Australia, Sydney.  Listen to 1 hour and 18 minute audio podcast highlighting this series:
Patrick Richardson, "Reports from beyond-A Journey through life to remote places," Ultima Thule Press 2008.  Cook Islands travel. See other Cook Island travel writers: The Cook islands have produced many writers. One of the earliest was Stephen Savage, a New Zealander who arrived in Rarotonga in 1894. A public servant, Savage compiled a dictionary late in the 19th century. The first manuscript was destroyed by fire but he began work again and the Maori to English dictionary was published long after his death. The task of completing the full dictionary awaits some scholar.
Samoa had Robert Louis Stevenson and Tahiti had Paul Gauguin. The Cook Islands had Robert Dean Frisbie, a Californian writer who, in the late 1920s, sought refuge from the hectic world of post-war America and made his home on Pukapuka. Eventually, loneliness, alcohol and disease overcame Frisbie but not before he had written sensitively of the islands in numerous magazine articles and books.
His grave is in the CICC churchyard in Avarua, Rarotonga. His eldest daughter, Johnny, now living on Rarotonga, is also a writer and has produced a biography of her family titled "The Frisbies of the South Seas".
Another fugitive from the metropolis of London was Ronald Syme, founder of the pineapple canning enterprise on Mangaia and author of "Isles of the Frigate Bird" and "The Lagoon is Lonely Now".
In similar vein, an English expatriate who lived on Mauke, Julian Dashwood, wrote "South Seas Paradise" under the pseudonym, Julian Hillas.
Sir Tom Davis (deceased), an ex-Prime Minister and renowned ocean sailor, knew his island history and had an exhaustive knowledge of ancient Polynesian navigational techniques. His autobiography, "Island Boy", details his career. As well as being president of the Cook Islands Oceangoing Vaka Association, he wrote an historical novel "Vaka" which is the story of a Polynesian ocean voyage.

Latin America/Caribbean:
Mia Waliszewski, "The Role of Travel Writing in Reconstructing History of Latin America," Center for Latin America and Caribbean Studies, Brown University.
JP Spicer-Escalante (Utah State University), "Ernesto 'Che Guevara, Reminiscences of the Cuban Revolutionary War, and the Politics of Guerrilla Travel Writing," Studies in Travel Writing, Vol. 15, No. 4, December 2011, pp. 393-405 seen in
Claire Lindsay, "Contemporary Travel Writers of Latin America," Routledge 2009. Summary seen in Powell Books ad. Ms. Lindsay examines domestic journey narratives that have been produced by travellers from the continent itself and largely in Spanish. She focuses on travel writers who have been to Patagonia, the Andes, Mexico, and the Mexican-US border.  Anthony Campbell, "Peter Fleming "Brazilian Adventure," Anthony Campbell Book Reviews blogsite (UK), November 4, 2008.  Campbell analyzes Peter Flemings travel adventure in 1932 Brazil in this short review.
Annette Haddad and Scott Doggetti, editors, "True Stories of Life on the Road," June 2004 seen in Traveler's Tales catalog site.  Los Angeles Times journalists put together travel writer's perspectives of 20th century Brazil.
(Book review) Chambi Chachage, "Being Black in Latin America," UDADISI blog, March 14, 2013. Chambi Chachage reviews Henry Louis Gates Jr. travelogue, "Black in Latin America," NY University Press, 2011. Dr. Gates travels to six Latin American countries (Brazil, Mexico, Peru, Dominican Republic, Haiti, and Cuba) beginning in February 2010 for research and filming for PBS April 19, 2011 TV program "Blacks in Latin America" series.
Gates' thesis might be to analyze "the many ways in which race and racism are configured differently in Latin America than they have been in the US."
Allie Baker, "An Interview With Travel Writer David Lansing: Following the Hemingway Trail," The Hemingway Project, February 17, 2010. David Lansing, himself a travel writer, has followed Hemingway's travel route world-wide and discusses those trips.
"The Old Man and the Sea," Spark Notes lesson plan to help teach Hemingway's classic tale set in Cuba.
Karen Bowerman, "The World's Last Great Wilderness," BBC slideshow, December 7, 2012. AntarcticaTravel writing. Who is Karen Bowerman:
Georgia Brown, "Blistering Barnacles, Tintin, it's the rose-red city!" Guardian (UK), October 19, 2010.  Belgian graphic (cartoonist) artist Herge develops comic hero Tintin after Carter's archaeological digs in Egypt (1922) and French author Jules Verne.  Cartoonist as travel writer of guidebooks?
Laura Allsop, "Comic Book Hero Tintin archaeological escapades," CNN World/Europe, October 28, 2011. Tintin II seen in Stephen Spielberg movie
Tavis Smiley video podcast interview with Travel Writer Paul Theroux, PBS, May 26, 2011. (13 min. 13 sec.)

Douglas Ivison (Lakehead University, Alberta, Canada), "Travel Writing at the End of Empire:  A Pom Named Bruce and the Mad White Giant."  Ivison focuses on "two white male British travel writers, Bruce Chatwin and Benedict Allen in light of decline of British empire."  Dr. Ivison begins his essay by stating that, "The practice of travel writing, and that of reading travel books, was inextricably intertwined with the creation and maintenance of European imperialism."
Roy Stevenson, "Honoring America's Fallen Soldiers in Normandy," yourlifeisatrip website, nd. Travel writer Roy Stevenson's tribute to fallen Americans at Normandy in WW II.
Roy Stevenson travel writing website.
"Prisoner of War accounts WW II," Everything World War website.
Rebecca West, "Black Lambs and Grey Falcon:  A Journey Through Yugoslavia, Pt. 1" The Atlantic Monthly, January 1941.  Rebecca West's travel book about her travels in Yugoslavia seen in five installments.  Ms. West was eager to explore the Balkans due to WW I and how it had affected her generation.  Her 1150 pages is a travelogue based on her travels from 1936-1938 and a vivid account of the violent history of the Balkans.  She became an admirer of the Serbs.   See more:
"Featured Author:  Rebecca West," NY Times on the Web, 1999.  Reviews of all Rebecca West books.
Ruth Pierce, "Trapped in 'Black Russia': Letters June-November 1915," Boston and New York: Houghton Mifflin Co./Riverside Press Cambridge, 1918. Seen in Gutenberg Project, release date: April 3, 2008. Read Chapter three of Pierce's letters, after her arrest by Czarist officials:
John Reed's "10 days that shook the world" is basically a story of his travel to Russia. Here is Eisenstein movie of the account. Classic early soviet cinema. Youtube.
Biju Sukumaran, "Tinker, Tailor, Soldier....Travel Writer?" The Lone Writer blog, January 21, 2013. Sukumaran posts this article on Hungarian Eugene Fodor, talented guide book author, hired by the OSS as a spy. Fodor might be one who encouraged travelers to experience people, food and drink as opposed to slogging from ancient monument to ancient monument.  See more:
Leanne Italie, "Eugene Fodor feted as the spy who loved travel," Desert News, Salt Lake City, Utah, March 22, 2011.
Sarah Hall, "Norfolk-based author Bill Bryson Fears Britain is Becoming Greedy," EDP24, UK, May 31 2010. This is not an Onion article, but a comment on travel writer Bill Bryson's change over time analysis of England 1970's  to 2010.
"PJ O'Rourke:  Politics in the US is bland compared to Europe," Metro (UK), November 7, 2011.  Metro interview with American travel writer P. J. O'Rourke.  O'Rourke's "Holidays in Hell" is humorous travel book.
"PJ O'Rourke Picks His Favorite Travel Books," The Daily Beast, November 12, 2011.  "Aleister Crowley," Hermetic.  Satanist, occultist....and travel writer.  Who was Aleister Crowley? (d. 1947). And why was he considered a bad boy?
Criticism of contemporary travel narratives to 2003, Contemporary Literary Criticism, @ 2005 Gale Cengage seen in Examples from this short essay: "Stephen Kohl believes travel writing is autobiographical revealing the author's personality. Patrick Holland and Graham Huggan warns of travel writing's spread of ethnocentrism and cultural superiority yet is good to introduce the middle class to the world. Scholar Paul Fussell claims that travel writing is "haven for second-rate [literary] talents."'
Fiona J. Doloughan (University of Surrey), "Narrative of Travel and the Travelling Concept of of Narrative: Genre Blending and the Art of Transformation,"  seen in Collegium, Matti Hyvarinen, Anu Korhonen & Juri Mykkanen (eds.) The Travel Concept of Narrative.  Studies across Disciplines in the Humanities and Social Sciences/.  Helsinki:  Helsinki Collegium for Advanced  Studies, 2006, 134-144.
Bernard Starr, "Wandering Jews of the Diaspora:  Where Are They?" Huffington Post Religion Blog, February 12, 2013.  Travel writer Bernard Starr began a journey to 89 Jewish diaspora sites beginning in 1964.
Robert Goldblum, Obit. "Jewish Week Travel Writer Gabe Levenson, 98," The New York Jewish Week, September 11, 2012.


Laphams' Quarterly-2009 Travel edition

Sample Primary sources:  Oregon Trail 1846
Tomis 1st century
Fodors Travel Guide on-line originated in Hungary by Eugene Fodor in the 1930's.  Fodor encouraged meeting the people, experiencing the food and drink of the land visited  as opposed to hiking from ancient ruin to ancient ruin.  Fodor's reputation has been enhanced by his work as an OSS and CIA spy.  See articles on the Travel Guide spy in the 1900-Present section above.
"Best Travel Books, Films and Music," A Little Adrift.  Note tabs and links for countries or regions.
Steppe Magazine, a subsidiary of The Christian Science Monitor, has wonderful articles by travel writers, photographers describing far regions of the world.
Grand Tour magazine for travel writing produced on-line by Georgraphia.
Black Travel Writers Association.  See on-line journal:
Nathan Lump, "Required Reading/Steppe Magazine," T magazine blog, NY Times Travel, July 28, 2009.  Mr. Lump briefly reviews Steppe Magazine.
RALPH Magazine website, editor Lolita Lark, The Review of Arts, Literature, Philosophy and the Humanities.  Many travel accounts within this site's articles.
"RES ANTIQUITATIS," Journal of Ancient History, ed. Francisco Carmelo. Website for this journal and note emphasis on cultural otherness, example, Orientalism. Note reference to Travel accounts.
World Hum, Internet journal on modern travel writers and travel narratives.  See example of interview with travel writer Pico Iyer:
Matthew Davis, "Pico Iyer:  On Travel and Travel Writing," WorldHum-The Best Travel Stories on the Internet, November 4, 2006.
Professor Steve Hutkins "Travel Studies" website, 2013, including syllabus, assignments, research, travel narratives for his New York University Gallatin School of Individualized Study course.  Who is Professor Hutkins?
H-Travel, online Network of the History of Travel, Transport, and Tourism, H-Net Michigan State University.
Society of American Travel Writers website.
"Travel Writers Guidelines," Fee Lance Writing, last updated February 16, 2013.  See an exhaustive listing of Travel magazines and their websites.
"Articles in the Travel Category," Travel Outward website.  Note these travel articles from Travel Outward site are stories from all over the globe from 2000-2007.
"Travel Literature Reviews and Recommendations," {paperback travelers] website @ 2008-2009.  Note many travel writers and their books/travel narratives.
Asia Book Room website with annotated links to Asian books including many travel narratives and accounts.
Carl Parkes Travel Writers blogspot, first one could find this site not impressive, but clicking on past "issues" on the right can be  fruitful as to  travel writing resources.
Travel Writer's Journey website., Don George, ed., "The Adventurous Traveler Blog."  See four part "Into Africa" accounts by Don George.
"Travel Writers," Writers Net website/list serve for writers, Editors, Agents, Publishers.
Adam Williams, "Two Types of Travel Writing,", July 12, 2008.  Mr. Williams breaks down travel writing into two categories, narratives and guide books and supplies examples of each in this short article.
Travel Writers Tales website.  See Canadian travel writing links.
"Transitions Abroad" website with many links on travel writing.
Iain Manley and Claire vd. Heever "old world wandering" Travel Abroad website.
Silk Road Foundation Home page.  See Travel resources tabs on left side of page.  Tabs for Trade routes, Travel routes, Maps for Marco Polo, Rubruck, Fa-hsien, and Xuanzang.

Paul Halsall, editor, "Traveler's Accounts," Internet History Sourcebooks Project, Fordham University Library, page created February 24, 2001, updated March 20, 2007.  Contents include links to Ancient Travelers, Greek, Roman, Medieval, Early Modern, Modern European, Jewish, Muslim, Chinese, Japanese, Printed Primary Sources, and Secondary Literature.
"Travel from Europe and the Middle East-Ancient and Medieval Travel:  Epic Heroes, Pilgrims, and Merchants, Renaissance Travel:  Exploration and Empire,"  Bibliography of sources.
"Rare, antiquarian, used & out-of-print books on Asia, & Asia travel including China, Japan, Southeast Asia, India, Siberia, Russia, Middle East, Arabia, Persia, Himalaya, Mountaineering for sale at Horizon Books." nd. See "How to Order" link at bottom of this extensive list.
"A Vision of Britain Through Time: Travel Writing," University of Portsmouth and others, 2009. This may be the largest collection of British travel writers on the web beginning with Gerald of Wales 1188 and 1190's narratives of Gerald's travels through Wales.
"A Brief History of Travel Writing," Euro-centric slim essay on history and travel writing, Petrarch to Robert Louis Stevenson's "Travels with a Donkey," a satirical look at travel writing.
"Travel Literature,"  Excellent bibliography of travel literature over time.
Jennifer Speake, ed., "Literature of Travel and Exploration-An Encyclopedia," 3 Vols., Routledge, 2003.  List of all entries in alphabetical order.  See introduction:
See Jesuit travel narratives:
Jennifer Speake, ed., "Literature of Travel and Exploration-An Encyclopedia," 3 Vols. Routledge, 2003.  Jesuit narratives.
"Native American Studies Research Guide," Michigan State Library resources, last update April 26, 2013.  See travel narratives/accounts.
"Travel Literature Resources," Special Collection and Archives at James B. Duke Library, Furman University, Greenville, S.C..  Mostly early modern/modern travel writer resources links listed by country and period.
Donald F. Lach, "Asia In the Eyes of Europe Sixteenth-Eighteenth Centuries," University of Chicago Library 1991. 1000 catalogues for this University of Chicago Exhibition were produced including a Preface, Introduction, and Bibliography of sources.
"Travel Literature," Indiana University, Bloomington Library bibliography of 19th century British travel literature. Scroll down to see short list of Anthologies which include 19th century British travel literature. See 172 pp. of annotated bibliography for Travel Accounts 1700-1900 CE, Indiana University Library, updated 9/29/2007 below: [DOC]

Both Serials Databases - Indiana University
Presents an English translation of portions of the travel account of ... that is printed here in translation.  And more:  keyword "travel literature" 1700H OR 1800H AHL/HA * 9 ... DOC file
"Travel Literature China," Special Collection and Archives at James B. Duke Library, Furman Univeristy, Greenville, S.C.  Europeans to China 18th-21st centuries.
Western Travel Accounts of China prior to 1912. Large number of sources. "Understanding China website."
"Southeast Asia Visions," John M. Echols Collection, Cornell University Library. A collection of 350 travel narratives of Southeast Asia.
"Silk Road Travelers,"  See bibliography:, Bibliography for Ancient Silk Road Travelers.
"Books to Read Before Traveling to Ghana, Burkina Faso, Togo, Benin," Transafrica.  Many of the books listed with annotations are travel narratives.

"Biblio-Pilot Series-Travel Writing:  A Selective Bibliography," The Mariners' Museum Library, compiled by Lisa DuVernay, February 2004.

"Travel Narrative Resources Annotated Bibliography," World History Sources, Unpacking Primary Sources, George Mason University.
"Travel Accounts Resources-Travel  Narratives on-line," World History Sources, Unpacking Primary Sources, George Mason University.
Travel Narratives book list (bibliography) from St. Charles, Illinois public Library.
Studying Latin America through Travelogues Home site for Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, Brown University, Dr. James N. Green lead instructor for site.  Note Bibliography link on left of page developed by Mia Waliszewski:
"Narrative Travel Writers Contest Winners and Latin American Volunteering, Travel, Study, Work and Living," Transitions Abroad website-TAzine the Transitions Abroad Webzine.  2011 Winners travel narratives from around the globe on left side of website with Latin American examples on right side of site.
Jordana Dyn, Bibliography for course, "Travel Writers and Travel Liars in Latin America: 1500-1900." Skidmore
College, 2002.
Tim Leffel, "The Travel Writer's Guide," Transitions Abroad website.   See resources, lists of best travel books, interviews with travel writers (American and European).
Volke Poeizl, "Top 8 Travel Narratives," Transitions Abroad Webzine, November 2008. (no link) Robert R. Hubach and John C. Dann, "Early Midwestern Travel Narratives:  An Annotated Bibliography, 1634-1850, first published in 1961, hardcover Wayne State University Press, 1998 Early Midwestern Travel Narratives records and describes first-person records of journeys in the frontier and early settlement periods which survive in both manuscript and print. Geographically, it deals with the states once part of the Old Northwest Territory -- Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Minnesota -- and with Missouri, Iowa, Kansas, and Nebraska. Robert Hubach arranged the narratives in chronological order and makes the distinction among diaries (private records, with contemporaneously dated entries), journals (non-private records with contemporaneously dated entries), and "accounts", which are of more literary, descriptive nature. Early Midwestern Travel Narratives remains to this day a unique comprehensive work that fills a long existing need for a bibliography, summary, and interpretation of these early Midwestern travel narratives.
Robert R. Hubach, "They Saw the Early Midwest/A Bibliography of Travel Narratives, 1722-1850," Digital Library Northern Illinois Unversity, 1953 pdf (7 pp.).
"Travel Accounts American Women," The Library of Congress.  Women travel accounts short bibliography and links to travel on the American frontier.
"American Journeys--Eyewitness Accounts of Early American Exploration and Settlement:  A Digital Library and Learning Center," Wisconisn History Society.  Click on tabs at the top to see bibliography of sources.
"Fur Trade Bibliography," Primary Sources reproduced with permission of Dr. Gerhard J. Ens (PhD, Alberta, Canada). Many travel writers and travel narratives within these North American fur trade primary sources.
Bill Buxton, "Books on the Early History of Canada, First Nations, the Fur Traders, and the Canoe," Bill Buxton website, last updated March 24, 2013.  Many travel writers and narratives included.  See also Central Asia tabs for bibliographies on climbing and travel to that region.
Martha A. Kallstrom, "A bibliography of North American dissertations on travel (1995-2002)," The Free Library, January 1, 2003.  Kallstrom continues the biblographic work of Risa K. Nystrom who compiled bibliographies of North American dissertations from 1961-1995.  These dissertations are from US and Canadian universities. %3Davg%26hsimp%3Dyhs-ifm1%26p%3Drisa%2Bk.%2Bnystrom%2Bbibliography%2B
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Carlo Salzani and Steven Totosy de Zepetrek, "Bibliographies for Work in Travel Studies," Purdue University Press, November 25, 2012.  Salzani and de Zepetrek have researched three decades (1980-2012) of bibliographies of bibliographies.  Also seen at
University of Minnesota English Department Conference on American and British Travel Writing, 1997.  Click on "day" to see links to summaries of speaker's topics.  Introductory page:
See example:  Edward van de Bilt (Leiden University), "Subversive Transference:  Mark Twain and the end of Orientalism."
Berkeley Conference-Dutch Studies on Colonial and Post colonial connections in Dutch literature....This itinerary for the September 2011 conference at U. of California, Berkeley is included in Bibliography section due to the many annotated resources/books (with abstracts) included at the end of this conference schedule. Some travel writers and travel narratives cited.
"86 Greatest Travel Books of all Time," Longtitude, September 2007.
"Afghanistan," Reading and Travel Guide, Longitutde, nd. List of books one should read before traveling to Afghanistan, some being travel narratives.
"Top Ten Travel Narratives," Reader Buzz blog, January 24, 2012.
Shane Dayton, "Top 10 Great Travel Narratives," Listverse Ultimate Top Ten Lists, May 12, 2008. Focused on American travel writers.

Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of Eastern ...
Nathan Light (Miami U., Oxford, Ohio), "Annotated Bibliography of the History and Culture of E. Turkistan, Jungharia/Zungaria/Dzungaria, Chinese Central Asia, and Sinkiang/Xinjiang (for the 16th-20th centuries CE, excluding most travel narratives)" Silk Road Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 1.  Note that travel accounts related to formal expeditions are included.
"Last document of the Silk Road by Khataynammeh," Silk Road Newsletter, Vol. 3, No. 1.
Daniel Waugh (U. of Washington) and Adela Lee (Silk Road Foundation), Travelers on the Silk Road, Silk Road Foundation @ 1997-2000.  An annotated list of all important travelers on the Silk Road with links to further readings and bibliography.
"Travel Classics and Guidebooks on the Himalayas, Nepal, Tibet, India and Central Asia," Pilgrim Publishing, Varanasi, India and Pilgrim Books House, Kathmandu, Nepal.  Annotated list of travel classics and guidebooks.
Dr. Michael H. Fisher, Oberlin College History faculty CV. Note publications and reviews by Dr. Fisher many travel accounts of India and Indian perspectives of the world.
Katie Stammwitz (TU Chemnitz), "'Telescope in the Other Direction: Four Interviews with Post Colonial Travel Writers. Pico Iyer, Frank Delaney, Dan Jacobson, and Dervla Murphy," EESE, January 1999. See travel books mentioned for each travel writer interviewed.
Bibliography of British Mughal India and Sufi historian Simon Digby which includes many travel accounts, Scholar google search.
"Travel and Exploration Narratives and Guide Books," Penn Library @ University of Pennsylvania, last updated March 31, 2010.  See more on University of Pennsylvania Online Books database:
and more University of Penn resources:
"18th century Voyages and Travels" bibliography,Online Library, University of Pennsylvania. See Jules Verne and Rudyard Kipling travel books, etc. al. One may use this browser to search for any topic. Home page:
"Russian Memoirs/Travel Resources," annotated bibliography, University of Illinois Library.
"Russia-Travel," Xerxes Books bibliography of Russian travel narratives.
"Narratives of Travel Writers and Architectural History," Nomad Seminar Ankara 2012 held at Middle East Technological University-Ankara.  Abstracts of papers presented at this seminar posted on nomadankara blog Jan. 14, 2013.  Modern travel writers 19th-20th century and their descriptions of architecture mostly in Middle East.
"travel narrative (travel log) (Writers)," In Depth Tutorials and Information, nd.  Short list of travel narratives and writers with links to other world historical writers and poets.
Philip Harland, Angela Brkich, (Concordia University), "Travel and Religion in Antiquity:  A Preliminary Classified Bibliography," June 10, 2005, 30 pp. pdf.  See at the end of this bibliography Christian Liberature and archaeology- Travel, geography and Travel motifs and Travel Writers and cultural encounters.
Stephen Balbach, "Cool Reading 2007," A reading journal with annotated reviews and links to books, many travel accounts.   See links to 2004-2013 reviews.
"Travel Literature,"  See listing of travel literature over time.  Also here:
"Chinese Travel Writers," Wikipedia.  See names of Chinese travel writers over time as tabs to brief biographies and their travel accounts.
Josh Y. Washington, "The Importance of Connecting With Travel Writing Throughout History," madtadore network, November 11, 2009.  Writing website which has a short euro-centric travel writing list at the end of their short article except for Ibn Battuta, Che Guevarra, and Matsuo Basho.
William Dalrymple, "Home Truths on Abroad," The Guardian, September 18, 2009.  Dalyrmple's delicious analysis of past and present euro-centric travel writing discusses what is to become of travel writing now that the world is smaller.  Who are the successors to Bruce Chatwin, Norman Lewis and Wilfred Thesiger?  He names a new generation of travel writers who have less to do with heroic adventures and posturing than an intimate knowledge of people and places even in the face of the "flattening" processes of globalization.
"My favourite travel book, by the World's greatest travel writers," Guardian, September 16, 2011.
Powells' books travel writing narratives.
John Williams, "Peter Whitfield Talks About the History of Travel Literature," NY Times Arts Beat, March 14, 2012. Williams interviews Peter Whitfield who discusses his book "Travel:  A Literary History," and other travel writers, mainly modern.
Rolf Potts, Vagabonding blogsite.  Travel writer, Rolf Potts, shows an anthology of edited books which include his modern day travel narrative articles and essays.
Bibliography of British travel writer Colin Thubron's (b. 1939 London) travel narratives and fiction, British Council of Literature newsletter, "Literature Matters," 2013.  Thubron travel narratives chronicle Siberia, Russia, Syria, China, Jerusalem, and Lebanon (The Hills of Adonis:  A Quest in Lebanon, 1968).
"Travel," Danny Yee's Book Reviews, nd.  See list of travel narratives linked to a book review of that book.
"Best Travel Books, Films and Music," A Little Adrift.  Note tabs and links for books, etc. for individual countries or Region.
"Journal of Folklore Research," last updated 2010.  Large list of Folklore, music, fairy tales some being travel accounts. Peter Hulme and Tim Youngs, ed., "The Cambridge Companion to Travel Writing," 2002.  Hulme and Youngs include English language travel narratives from 1500 to the Present.  See also a review and bibliography, actually, examples of many othe Travel writing and travel narratives as one scrolls down the Amazon page.
"Origins of Modernity-Travel Literature," University of Sydney Library (Australia), 1540-1800 online exhibition from Rare Book Library at University of Sydney. This section on travel literature. Nicholas Thomas, "In Oceania:  Visions, Artifacts, Histories," Duke University Press, 1997.  Nicholas Thomas displays explorers, missionaries, fiction and travel writers, and Peoples of the Pacific to illustrate and examine Oceanic identities over time. 17th-18th Centuries African American Studies Primary Sources, Yale University Library.  Includes Slavery and Slave Trade, slave narratives. "African History Primary Sources Guide," Yale University Library.  See especially on right side of page primary sources, travel accounts, diaries, journals of British soldiers serving in the Boer War, South Africa. Bibliography of primary sources, travel narratives on the Atlantic World--African, Western European, and the Americas. Powells' Books.
Paul Theroux travel books listed with notes on each one from
"Riding the Rails-Books on Unique Train Rides Worldwide," Escape Artists website, @1999-2013.
"Poems About:  Travel," Poem Hunter website.   See hundreds of poems with Travel as their theme.
"Poets and Writers" website search for Travel narratives.  See annotated list which includes travel writing narratives.
"Travelers' Tales Guide to the Best Adventure Travel Books,"  Travelers' Tales bibliography.
"Classic Travel Books," A Division of the Long Rider's Guild Press. See also The Classic "John Murray" Travel Collection after you click to enter site on left of page.
Equistarian Travel Writers sources, the
Historical novels website with 5000 novels and 500 book reviews, many with travels as a theme.  See tabs on left of page for time periods. Sources included in "The Orient Express," Wikipedia: In popular cultureThe glamour and rich history of the Orient Express has frequently lent itself to the plot of books and films and as the subject of television documentaries. Literature:

The following sources are replies from H-World listserve (February 16-17, 2012) answering my plea for assistance as to non-Western travel writers/travel literature.  Thank you to all the professors and professionals who helped.  John Maunu To: H-WORLD@H-NET.MSU.EDU

From: Wynn Gadkar-Wilcox
Western Connecticut State University

I've always enjoyed Niccolao Manucci's firsthand account of Agra in the age of Shah
Jahan, among many other topics. If "History of the Mogul Dynasty in India," his main work, is too dense, you can also enjoy the abridged version, "A Pepys of Mogul India." The longer version is out of copyright and available as a free google ebook.

From: Kevin C. Young

Although this is a western source (British journalist accompanying military
expedition to Tibet in 1904), it is a primary source and really interesting: although written "in the long afternoon of Empire," this work is noteworthy not least because the author freely admits the "profound ignorance" of the English with regard to Tibet and China, despite the fact that the journalist author was "entirely at home in Asia." It is also an early and clear apology for the politics of empire. This is not your ordinary travel journal.

Edmund Candler, "The Unveiling of Lhasa" (Berkeley CA: Snow Lion Graphics, 1987).

Originally published by Edward Arnold, London in 1905, re-issued 1931.

From: Kevin C. Young (February 21, 2012)

The earliest written records of travel, or evidence of it, that I have found are contained in "Enki and Ninhursaja" ETCSL Translation t.1.1.1. (Oxford, UK: The ETCSL Project, Faculty of Oriental Studies, University of Oxford, 2006). The Uruk tablets, dated to ca. 3100-2900 BCE provide solid evidence of cultural interaction from the Mediterranean, across southern Anatolia to the Caspian Sea region, south throughout the Tigris-Euphrates basin, various sites along the northern and southern coasts of the Persian Gulf, and as far as Aratta, possibly Harappa in the Indus region. The royal city Dilmun was at the heart of riverine and sea-based trade that received tribute and traded in commodities, the descriptions of which provide clues as to their far-flung origins.
Travel records dating to the third and fourth millennia BCE, while not classed as travel journals, are easily deduced from these and other important sources, including Egyptian records and the Hebrew Bible.

In "Enmerkar and the lord of Aratta" verses 69-104 (ETCSL Translation t., we see parallels to the early Columbian "exploration" attested to by de las Casas and what motivated them: economic gain. This is not intended to denigrate the bravery of Mediterranean or Iberian explorers, rather to suggest that the motivation of traders, merchants, and the wealthy who funded such missions were also seeking economic gain. This concept was not European in origin, but abounds in Middle Eastern and Asian records. Compare Enmerkar to Ferdinand and Isabela: Enmerkar's broad goal was to unite five kingdoms and their various principalities "so the speech of mankind is truly one." An urban king demanded tribute in the form of luxury goods and human labor; the alternative
to voluntary subordination was warfare, threatened destruction, and enslavement. Enmerkar sought to expand his power and influence, and justified his conquest by his claim of divinely decreed superior ideology and culture. If this was not political exploitation for economic gain, and the imposition of cultural homogeneity for assimilation of other groups, then what? I can see no difference between what Enmerkar or Charles V were doing apart from cultural contexts. From: Daniel

European University Institute, Italy

We can add to the list Al-Hajari's account (1637) in which he describes his embassy on behalf of the Moroccan sultan to France and the Netherlands:

Ibn Qasim Al-Hajari, Ahmad, The Supporter of Religion against the Infidel, P S. Van Koningsveld, Q. al-Samarrai, and G. A. Wiegers, Translation and edition, Madrid, CSIC, 1997.

And the collection of texts assembled by Nabil Matar: Europe through Arab Eyes, 1578-1727 (Columbia UP, 20

From: Pete Burkholder
Fairleigh Dickinson Univ

One source I haven't seen mentioned yet is that of Benjamin of Tudela, a
Spanish Jew who traveled throughout the Mediterranean in the central Middle Ages.

The 1907 translation (by Marcus Adler) of his itinerary is readily available via Google Book

From: Lincoln Paine
Maritime Historian

Some mostly non-western primary sources.

Abu Zayd Hasan ibn Yazid al-Sirafi. *Concerning the Voyage to the Indies and China*. In* Ancient Accounts of India and China by Two Mohammedan Travellers, Who Went to those Parts in the 9th Century*. Trans. Eusebius Renaudot. 1733. Reprint, New Delhi: Asian Education Services, 1995.

Agatharchides of Cnidus. *On the Erythraean Sea.* Trans. by Stanley M. Burstein. London: Hakluyt Society, 1989.

Avienus, Rufus Festus. *Ora Maritima: or, Description of the Seacoast from Brittany Round to Massilia. *Trans. by J.P. Murphy. Chicago: Ares, 1977.**

Bately, Janet. "Text and Translation." In *Ohthere's Voyages: A Late 9th-century Account of Voyages along the Coasts of Norway and Denmark and Its Cultural Context*, edited by Janet Bately and Anton Englert, 40-50. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2007.

Bately, Janet. "Wulfstan's Voyage and His Description of *Estland*: The Text and the Language of the Text." In *Wulfstan's Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard*, ed. by Englert Anton and Athena Trakadas, 14-28. Roskilde: Viking Ship Museum, 2009.

Benjamin of Tudela. *The Itinerary of Benjamin of Tudela: Travels in the Middle Ages.* Intro. Michael A. Signer, M.N. Adler and A. Asher. Malibu: J. Simon, 1983.

Buzurg ibn Shahriyar of Ramhormuz. *The Book of the Wonders of India: Mainland, Sea and Islands*. Trans. G.S.P. Freeman-Grenville. London: East-West, 1981.

Casson, Lionel, trans. *The Periplus Maris Erythraei* [The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea]. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1989.

Chang, Chun-shu, and Joan Smythe. *South China in the Twelfth Century: A Translation of Lu Yu's Travel Diaries, July 3-December 6, 1170.* Hong Kong: Chinese Univ. Press, 1981.

Chau Ju-kua [Zhao Rugua], edited by Friedrich Hirth and W.W. Rockhill. *Chau Ju-kua: His Work on the Chinese and Arab Trade in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Centuries entitled Chu-fan-chi*. Reprint Amsterdam: Oriental Press, 1966.

Cosmas Indicopleustes. *The Christian Topography of Cosmas, An Egyptian Monk *. Trans. J.W. McCrindle. London: Hakluyt Society, 1897.

Cowell, Edward B., trans. *The Jataka; Or, Stories of the Buddha's Former Births*. 1895-1907. Reprint, London and Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1973. In particular the "Suparaga-Jataka," "Samkha-Jataka" and "Mahajana-Jataka."

Cunliffe, Barry W. *The Extraordinary Voyage of Pytheas the Greek. *New York: Walker, 2002.

Ennin. *Ennin's Diary: The Record of a Pilgrimage to China in Search of the Law*. New York: Ronald Press, 1955.

Ibn Battuta. *The Travels of Ibn Battuta, a.d. 1325-1354*. 5 vols. Trans. H.A.R. Gibb. London: Hakluyt Society, 1958-2000.

Ibn Jubayr. *The Travels of Ibn Jubayr.* Trans. R.J.C. Broadhurst. London: Jonathan Cape, 1952.

Ma Huan. *Ying-yai Sheng-lan, The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores [1433]*. Trans. J.V.G. Mills. 1970. Reprint, Bangkok: White Lotus, 1997.

al-Muqaddasi. *The Best Divisions for Knowledge of the Regions (Ahsan al-Taqasim fi Ma'rifat al-Aqalim)*. Reading, Eng.: Garnet, 2001.

Nederhof, Mark-Jan, trans. *Punt Expedition of Queen Hatshepsut*.

Odoric of Pordenone. *The Travels of Friar Odoric*. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans, 2002.

Polo, Marco. *The Travels*. Trans. Ronald Latham. New York: Penguin, 1958.

Simpson, William Kelly, ed. *The Literature of Ancient Egypt: An Anthology of Stories, Instructions and Poetry. *Trans. R.O. Faulkner et al. New ed. New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 2003. "The Shipwrecked Sailor." "The Report of Wenamun."

Sulayman al-Tajir. *Account of India and China. *In *Arabic Classical Accounts of India and China*, trans. S. Maqbul Ahmad*. *Shimla: Indian Institute of Advanced Study in association with Rddhi-India, Calcutta, 1989.

Xuanzang. *Si-yu-ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World. *Trans. Samuel Beal. 1884. Reprint, Delhi: Oriental Books, 1969. Faxian, *The Travels of Fa-hian.*

Yijing [I-Tsing]. *A Record of the Buddhist Religion as Practised in India and the Malay Archipelago (A.D. 671-695)*. Trans. Junjiro Takakusu. 1896. Reprint, Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal, 1966

From: Sam Gellens
 Regarding Mr. Maunu's query and Mr. Fisher's response, the Muqqadimah, which was the introduction to a much larger general history, Kitab al-'Ibar, was authored by Ibn Khaldun (1332-1406), the famous Tunisian philosopher who some have compared to Machiavelli. There is yet debate regarding the truth of some portions of Ibn Battuta's account, e.g. whether or not he really visited China. Two relevant secondary works, among many: Mary B. Campbell, The Witness and the Other World: Exotic European Travel Writing, 400-1600 (1988) . Dale F. Eickelman and
James Piscatori, Editors. Muslim Travellers: Pilgrimage, Migration, and the

Religious Imagination (1990).

From: Mary Jane Maxwell
Green Mountain College
For primary sources, a good internet site is

For Silk Road primary accounts, see Dan Waugh's website

For some good recent anthologies, see
Michael H. Fisher (ed), Visions of Mughal India: An Anthology of European Travel
Writing (2007)

Peter C. Mancall (ed), Travel Narratives from the Age of Discovery. OUP, 2006

If you'd like a good reader for the world history classroom, see Schlesinger, Blackwell,
Meyer, Watrous-Schlesinger (eds), Global Passages: Sources in World History Houghton Mifflin

You can see ALL the Hakluyt titles at the Cambridge University Press website at

From: Alan Fisher
Michigan State University

From the Islamic world, two excellent sources:

Robert Dankoff and Sooyong Kim (eds), *An Ottoman Traveller: Selections from the Book of Travels of Evliya Celebi*, 2010. Evliya Celebi traveled into every province and district of the Ottoman Empire in the mid-17th century, and wrote a 10-volume travelogue. It was later published in the mid-19th century in Istanbul. These are selections.

Ross E. Dunn (ed), *The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the Fourteenth Century* - a retelling of some of his accounts, published 2004.

The full English translation of Ibn Battuta: H. A. R. Gibb, ed and translator: *The Travels of Ibn Battuta: A.D. 1325-1354*, Cambridge Univ Press for the Hakluyt Society in 5 volumes, 1958-2000.

Alan Fisher

From: Rajesh Kochhar
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Mohali

There is very interesting diary written by Mirza Itesmaddin who went to Britain in the late 1760s a representative of the titular Mughal King .

Alexander, James Edward (tr.) (1827) Shigruf Namah-I-Velayat. of Itesmaddin (London: Parbury, Allen & Co.).

From: Kaveh Hemmat
University of Chicago

Here's a quick list of travel accounts that involve Asia, all translated into English--some of which I'm sure are familiar:

- Ibn Battutah's travelogue, trans. by H.A.R. Gibb
- Afanasii Nikitin (or I've seen it spelled Nikitich), available in a digitized book called "India in the fifteenth century: being a collection of narratives..." by the Royal Hakluyt Society, 1857
- Ghiyath al-Din Naqqash, court painter, wrote an account of an embassy from the court of Shahrukh to the Yongle Emperor (this is translated into English)
- Babur's Memoir, the Baburnameh, also translated by W.M. Thackston
- Muḥammad Rabīʻ ibn Muḥammad Ibrāhīm, The ship of Sulaimān, trans. John O'Kane.
- an account of a Persian ambassador to the court of Siam (Thailand), which has a nice combination of ethnographic and political information
- The Travels of Ibn Jubayr, which includes some observations of the Crusades (there are a couple of English editions)
- Naser-e Khosraw's Book of Travels trans. by W.M. Thackston (he traveled around the Middle East in the 11th c.)

I would be remiss if I didn't mention my own article on the most substantial late Medieval description of China, the Khataynameh. The article is "Children of Cain in the Land of Error" in Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa, and the Middle East 30:3, 2010. Unfortunately, this book hasn't been translated into English yet, but I'm told that an English translation will be published in the next couple years.

Another H-World post on Non-Western authors commenting on Westerners:

From: Adam McKeown
List Editor: whitney howarth <>
Editor's Subject: Non-western authors commenting on westerners
Author's Subject: Non-western authors commenting on westerners
Date Written: May 17, 2001
Date Posted: Fri, 17 May 2001 18:32:07 -0400

Northeastern University,

As far as I know, there are not many accounts in English by Chinese who traveled abroad before the 20th century:
Yung Wing.<My Life in China and America> New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1909. Yung accompanied the first Chinese educational mission toConnecticut. Originally written in English. Wu Tingfang.<America, Through the Spectacles of an Oriental Diplomat> New York: Frederick A. Stokes, 1914. Wu was born in Singapore, but was the Chinese ambassador to US, Spain/Cuba and Peru for several years in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Originally written in English. Leo Lee and David Arkush, eds. <Land Without Ghosts>, is an anthology of translated Chinese writings about experiences in the US in the 19th and 20th centuries.
Ong Tae-hae, <The Chinaman Abroad>, trans. W. Medhurst, is an account by a Chinese living in the Dutch Indies in the 18c.

"Travel Narratives as Historical Sources," World History Study Group 2012-2013, Drew School in San Francisco.  Sponsored by ORIAS, the Center for Middle East Studies, the Center for SE Asian Studies, the Institute of East Asian Studies, International and Area Studies Teaching Program, U.C. Berkeley.  Co-sponsored by World Savvy.
Dr. Srilata Ravi, Department of English Language and English Literature, National University of Singapore, syllabus for "Travel Literature Through The Ages," semester 1, 2001-2002 seen on Postcolonial website originally developed by Dr. George Landow (to 2009) and now moderated by Dr. Leon Yew, National University of Singapore.
Rebecca Gould (assistant professor Yale and Singapore University) syllbus for "Persian Autobiography," Humanities University.  Premodern to contemporary Iran autobiographical writing from first days of Islam, travel literature, and perceptions of "otherness."
Jeffrey Auerback, "Research Seminar in Modern European History:  Europe from the Periphery," California State University, Northridge, Fall 2010.
Jeffrey Auerback, "Proseminar:  The Empire Writes Back," California State University,  Northridge, Fall 2011. Indians traveling to British Isles in late 19th century and "their" perceptions of England as an "outsider."
"Travel Writers:  India, England and US," Amardeep Singh blogsite, November 22, 2005.  Dr. Singh (Lehigh University) was developing a class, "Travel Writers:  India, England and US," and notes some of the travel narratives he would like to use and asks for narratives from Southeast Asia travelers to the West.  Note sources suggested via replies and lower right of page links to more sources such as Punjabi settlers in California.
Dr. Karyn Hollis, "Vivid Voyages:  Travel Writing Theory and Practice," Spring 2005.  Syllabus for English 2041 Villanova University.
Dr. J. Battenburg (Cal Poly), The American Travel Narrative, English 449, summer 2007 syllabus.  See Books tab on left of page which features Bill Bryson resources.
Jordana Dyn, "Travel Writers and Travel Liars in Latin America," Skidmore College syllabus, 2002.
Jordana Dyn Introduction Skidmore College 2002 course: "Travel Writers and Travel Liars in Latin America: 1500-1900."
Jordana Dyn Course schedule, Travel Writers and Travel Liars in Latin America: 1500-1900."
Jordana Dyn, Student Resources Latin American History, Skidmore college.
Bibliography, Jordana Dyn, "Travel Writers and Travel Liars in Latin America: 1500-1900."
Kit Belgum, "Ger 392: Literature and Travel," syllabus.  University of Texas, Spring 2010.
Alisha Laramee (University of Vermont), "Writing About Your Study Abroad a.k.a. Beyond Sightseeing and Journaling: Techniques and Thoughts on Writing about Travel," UVM, 2012. Dr. Laramee includes global resources for her students to read and discuss.
Professor Mary Fuller, "World Literatures-Travel Writing," MITOPENCOURSEWARE, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Fall 2008 course syllabus, quizzes, assignments.
Angelo Costanzo-contributing editor, "Olaudah Equiano," Georgetown University. This course uses Equiano's autobiography (travel narrative) as an introduction to American slave narrative literature and its effect on Black writers from Richard Wright to Toni Morrison.
Professor Keat Murray, "American Literature Through a Traveler's Eyes," Eng 057A, Swarthmore College, Spring 2012. See first two weeks readings--first contact narratives.
Dr. Robin Jarvis, "Teaching Travel Literature," University of the West of England, May 2001. This is not a syllabus but "advice" from Dr. Jarvis's experiences of teaching Travel Writing modules and courses. He does share some of his preferred readings for his past courses which are euro-centric.
"Travel Writing-week 9," Department of English, The University of Hong Kong.  Descriptions of V.S. Naipaul, "An Area of Darkness" (1964), Caryl Phillips, "The European Tribe," (1987), and Amitav Ghosh, "In An Antique Land" (1992) with study questions at the end.  Caryl Phillips born in St. Kitts and raised in England is an Afro- Caribbean travel writer.

Rocio Abascal-Mena and Erick Lopez-Ornelas, "Exploring the Narrative Communication:  Representing Visual Information from Digital Travel Stories," World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, 42, 2010.  Technology experts explain how to use images, maps, geography to understand travel narratives.
"The Odyssey," Sparknotes Lesson plans for Homer's classic travel narrative.
Homer's Odyssey Lesson plan, Teacher Vision.
Carole Richardson, "The Illiad," Core Know website, 2001. A 6th grade 15-20 Days Module covering seven lessons on Homer's Illiad. 27 pp. pdf.
Nicholas Dollak, "Create Your Own 'Greek style' Myth," December 2, 2000. For Ancient Greek college course aimed at 6th-8th graders.
Homer's Odyssey Lesson plans geared to middle school to college,
Jennifer Barborek, "Ancient China-First Emperor," Boston University, spring 2007.  Ms. Barborek, a sophmore at Boston University in 2007 created this interactive website for a sixth grade class she was observing.  Note tab "First Emperor" -- 221 BCE the first emperor of the Qin dynasty who went on five different expeditions erecting a stone tablet on peaks of mountains.  A comparative to Ashoka's stone pillars?  See more on Prince Zheng in first section "Ancient times to 600 CE" of this article. Lesson Plan + DBQs Religions along the Silk Roads >> Xuanzang's Pilgrimage to India [PDF] [China Institute]
Unit Q from the curriculum guide From Silk to Oil: Cross-cultural Connections along the Silk Roads, which provides a comprehensive view of the Silk Roads from the second century BCE to the contemporary period. In this lesson "students will travel with the pilgrim-monk Xuanzang (c. 596-664) and share some of the hardships of his journey. They will learn about religious pilgrimage from a Buddhist point of view."
Lorrie Jackson, "A Travel Journal For Homer's Odyssey," Education World.  A Lesson Plan using Homer's Odyssey as a primary source from which students create their own travel journal.
"The Travels of Bar Sauma," Activities for students using Bar Sauma (1220-1294) travel narrative primary sources, specifically Sauma's 1287-1288 trip to Europe from Patricia Kellogg, Marco Polo in China
Posted by Alan J. Singer in his Hofstra coursepack.
Mrs. M. Marino (JFK High School, New York City), "Social Issues in Chaucer's The Canterbury Tales and in The Metro Tales."  Lesson plan involving building a frame story with travel writer Chaucer as exemplar. Lessons for Coleridge poems as travel narrative, specifically "Kubla Khan" and "Rime of the Ancient Mariner:"
"Rime of the Ancient Mariner," Cummings Study Guides explains Captain James Cook's voyages ending in 1799 with Cook's death and motivation for"Rime of the Ancient Mariner" first published in 1798.
Jalal Uddin Khan, "Coleridge's 'Kubla Khan:'  a new historicism study," The Free Library, January 1, 2012. Excellent analysis of historical context in Coleridges's Romantic era poem, "Kubla Khan."
Travel Narratives Lesson using and analyzing sources, George Mason University.
Jerry Bentley, "Unpacking Evidence:  Travel Narratives," George Mason University, 2004.  A wonderful step by step Travel narrative lesson module by the great Jerry Bentley.
"John R. Watt, "Qianlong Meets Macartney-Collision of Two World Views," Education About Asia, Vol. 5, No. 3, winter 2000. Background:
"The Lion and the Dragon-Britain's First Embassy to China," Online Gallery, British Library. In 1792 England sent seasoned diplomat Lord George Macartney to China (Macartney Mission). Note travel narratives and sections describing that history, including Sir George Leonard Staunton's "An Authentic Account of an Embassy, 1797."
Timothy Sexton, "How Lord McCartney's Mission to China Resembles the Lack of Cultural Awareness of the Bush Administration," Yahoo Voices, June 22, 2007. A comparative exercise-George to George?
"2. Exploring Borderlands: Context Activities-Writing Without Words: A Native American View of Culture and Conquest," Annenberg Learner. Another Collision of Cultures as in "Qianlong Meets Macartney-China." This Annenberg activity compares and contrasts Spanish and Aztec point of view as to "conquest." An Aztec travel account would be the Codex Boturini which narrates the Aztec migration legend.
Fukuzawa Yukichi primary source documents with questions for students to answer after reading the documents. Asia for Educators, Columbia University website. Yukichi (1835-1901) was a prime ingredient in moving Japan toward the west. See more:
"Life of Fukuzawa Yukichi," (1835-1901).
An example of "unpacking evidence:"  Bernal Diaz, "The True History of the Conquest of New Spain," 1560's.  Jerry Bentley develops this primary source lesson using Diaz's history seen through his travels in the Americas.  Also see companion lesson by Edward Osowski (University of Northern Iowa), The Conquest of New Spain:
Catalina de Eranso's Lieutenant Nun: Memoir of a Basque Transvestite in the New World," Boston: Beacon Press, 1996. Lessons from Sparknotes.  Ms. de Eranso (1585-1650) was a European nun turned Spanish battle hardened soldier in the Americas even promoted to lieutenant for heroism.
Tom Ewing, "Travel Narratives-Questions:  "What we can learn from travel narratives," George Mason University. See two minute audio podcast and John Ledyard's Travel Journal as a framework for a primary source module on travel narratives.
New sources in travel writing scholarship in world history, George Mason University.
Note Edsitement travelers Lessons.  Examples:
"George Orwell's Essay on His Life in Burma:  'Shooting An Elephant,'" Edsitement lesson plan.
"Marco Polo on the Road to China," Edsitement lesson plan. Grades 3-5.
Joan Brodsky Schur, "Indian Ocean Travelers in the Medieval Era:  Networks of Exchange Across the Hemisphere,"  Lesson plan utilizing Susan Douglass's Indian Ocean in World History website
Indian Ocean trade simulation to accompany and supplement Joan Brodsky Schur's lesson and Susan Douglass's Indian Ocean website seen above.
Rebecca Wenrich Wheeler, "Contemporary North Africa:  A Sociological Perspective," Southeast Raleigh Magnet High School, Wake County Schools lesson plan with students as travel writers investigating and reporting on contemporary African history.  Seen in University of North Carolina "Learning About Africa" site.
Corey Ledoux, "The Experience of the Foreign in 19th Century US Travel Literature," ConneXions website, last edited April 14, 2011.  Mr. Ledoux's lesson module uses George Dunham's travel journey to Brazil (1853) in relation to other 19th century US travel accounts.  See other Travel History lesson modules from the ConneXions website:
Mark Twain, Letters From Hawaii, in Sacramento Union newspaper, 1866.
Mark Twain, Letters From Hawai'i, (Sandwich Islands) study guide with discussion guide.,
"Mark Twain and the American West," Lesson Plan 8-12th grades, PBS New Perspectives on THE WEST website and lessons (see more on the left side of this page, especially "Writings of the West") to supplement the PBS documentary The American West.
eNotes lesson plan to assist in teaching Rebecca West, "Black Lamb and Grey Falcon:  A Journey Through Yugoslavia," 1941.  West's travelogue and Balkan history is 1150 pages narrating her Balkan journey from 1936-1938.  (See more information on this book in 1900 to the Present section above)
Francis Bok, "Escape From Slavery," Bedford St.Martins' Study Guide for teachers by Scott Pitcock. (See more information on this book in 1900 to the Present section)
N. Chrystine Olson, "Use Hemingway to Improve Your Travel Writing-The Iceberg Model," Matador Network, December 10, 2009.  A short lesson, actually annotated tips, on making one's travel writing lean.
"On the Road," by Jack Kerouac chapter summaries, etc., Sparknotes.
Drew Schrader (Bloomington, Indiana), "Beyond 'What I Did on Vacation':  Exploring the Genre of Travel Writing," classroom resource website, @2013.  Lesson Plan involving four 50 minute sessions.

A Teaching powerpoint on the Travel Narrative: Dr. Brenda Cornell, Central Texas College for English 2333. [PPT]

Travel Narratives: Literary Characteristics - Central Texas College
Microsoft Powerpoint Travel Narratives: Literary Characteristics A Presentation for English 2333 ... Homer's Odyssey (c. 8th cent. BCE) while other works, ...
Note Ryba L. Epstein created DBQ (Documents Based Essay Question) dealing with Travel Narratives
and the people they encountered--The OTHER:

Ryba L. Epstein 2011. Permission granted for classroom use with acknowledgement. 1

Note to teachers: choose 6-8 of the following documents for a timed essay. All may be used for an out-of-class practice DBQ. (maunu aside: or use all of the docs. YOUR choice)
Travel narratives and the "Other" DBQ

Instructions to students:
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
• Has a relevant thesis that does more than simply restate the question.
• Supports the thesis with evidence from the documents.
• Uses all of the documents.
• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible and explaining the reason for the groups [group implies at least two documents]. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.
• Interprets the meaning of the documents correctly.
• Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors' points of view.
• Notes what additional information or documents would be useful to answer the question and explains why that document would be useful in answering the question.

Using the documents listed below from the time period of 600 BCE to 1500 CE, analyze the various reactions of travelers and the people whom they encountered to the "other" and speculate on the reasons for these reactions. Be sure to explain what specific additional sources might change your interpretation of the question.

Document 1
Hanno, a Carthaginian admiral, on a voyage along the west coast of Africa, around 425 B.C.E., searching for sites for new settlements:
"Passing on from there we came to the large river Lixos, flowing from Libya, besides which nomads called Lixitae pastured there flocks. We stayed some time with them and became friends. . . . Inland from there dwelt inhospitable Ethiopians in land ridden with wild beasts and hemmed in by great mountains. . . . [Further along the journey, probably up the Senegal River] . . . we came to the end of the lake, overhung by some very high mountains crowded with savages clad in the skins of wild beasts, who stoned us and beat us off and prevented us from disembarking."

Document 2
Priscus, c. 450 C.E., official sent to Attila the Hun by the Eastern Roman Empire:
"A lavish meal, served on silver trenchers, was prepared for us and the other barbarians, but Attila just had meat on a wooden platter, for this was one aspect of his self-discipline.
For instance, gold or silver cups were presented to the others diners, but his own goblet was made of wood. His clothes, too, were simple, and no trouble was taken except to have them clean."

Document 3
Ibn Fadlun, circa 920 C.E., ambassador of the Caliph of Baghdad to the Bulgar Khaganate:
"I saw the Rus when they arrived on their trading mission and anchored at the River Atul [Volga]. Never had I seen people of more perfect physique; they are tall as date-palms, and reddish in color. They wear neither coat nor mantle, but each man carries a cape which covers one half of his body, leaving one hand free. Their swords are Frankish in pattern, broad, flat, and fluted. Each man has [tattooed upon him] trees, figures, and the like from the fingernails to the neck. . . . They are the filthiest of God's creatures. They do not wash after discharging their natural functions, neither do they wash their hands after meals. They are as donkeys."

Document 4
From Travels of Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and explorer, describing the capital of the Yuan dynasty in China c. 1280-90 C.E.:
"The people are idolaters; and since they were conquered by the Great Khan* they use paper money. [Both men and women are fair and comely, and for the most part clothe themselves in silk, so vast is the supply of that material, both from the whole district of Kinsay, and from the imports by traders from other provinces.]
And you must know they eat every kind of flesh, even that of dogs and other unclean beasts, which nothing would induce a Christian to eat."
*Kublai, grandson of Genghis Khan

Document 5
Usama Ibn Munqidh, Syrian Muslim soldier and chronicler, 12th century:
"Everyone who is a fresh immigrant from the Frankish lands is ruder in character than those who have been acclimatized and have held long associations with the Muslims. . . .
we came to the house of one of the old knights who came with the first expedition. This man had retired from the army and was living on the income of the property he owned in Antioch.
He had a fine table brought out, spread with a splendid selection of appetizing food. He saw that I was not eating, and said: 'Don't worry, please; eat what you like, for I don't eat Frankish food. I have Egyptian cooks and only eat what they serve. No pig's flesh ever comes into my house.' So I ate, although cautiously, and then we left."

Document 6
Ibn Battuta, from Travels in Asia and Africa, 14th century:
". . . I met the qadi of Mali, Abd al-Rahman, who came to see me: he is a black, has been on the pilgrimage [to Mecca], and is a noble person with good qualities and character.
He sent me a cow as his hospitality gift. I met the interpreter Dugha, a noble black and a leader of theirs. He sent me a bull. . . . They performed their duty towards me [as a guest] most perfectly; may God bless and reward them for their good deeds!"

Document 7
Bertrandon de La Brocquière, from his book The Journey to Outre-Mer, French pilgrim to the Middle East, around 1433 CE:
"They [the Turks] are a tolerably handsome race, with long beards, but of moderate size and strength. I know well that it is a common expression to say 'as strong as a Turk', nevertheless I have seen an infinity of Christians excel them when strength was necessary, . . . They are diligent, willingly rise early, and live on little, being satisfied with bread badly baked, raw meat dried in the sun, milk curdled or not, honey, cheese, grapes, fruit, herbs, and even a handful of flour with which they make a soup sufficient to feed six or eight for a day. . . . Their horses are good, cost little in food, gallop well and for a long time. They keep them on short allowances, never feeding them but at night and then giving them only five or six handfuls of barley with double the quantity of chopped straw, the whole put into a bag which hangs from the horse's ears. . . . I must own that in my various experiences I have always found the Turks frank and loyal, and when it was necessary to show courage, they have never failed . . . "

Document 8
Sultan Bayezid II, ruler of the Ottoman empire (1481-1512):
"You know very well the unwashed [Christians] and their ways and manners, which certainly are not fine. They are indolent, sleepy, easily shocked, inactive; they like to drink much and to eat much; . . . They keep horses only to ride while hunting with their dogs; if one of them wishes to have a good war-horse, he sends to buy it from us. . . .They let women follow them in the campaigns, and at their dinners give them the upper places; and they always want to have warm dishes. In short, there is no good in them."

Document 9
Christopher Columbus, from his log dated October 12, 1492:
"I want the natives to develop a friendly attitude toward us because I know that they are a people who can be made free and converted to our Holy Faith more by love than by force. I therefore gave red caps to some and glass beads to others. . . . And they took great pleasure in this and became so friendly that it was a marvel. They traded and gave everything they had in good will, but it seems to me that they have very little and are poor in everything. I warned my men to take nothing from the people without giving something in exchange."

Document 10
From Book 12 of "The Florentine Codex," a history of the Spanish conquest of Mexico written by Friar Bernardino de Sahagún in collaboration with Aztec men who were former students, late 16th century:
"They gave [the Spaniards] emblems of gold, banners of quetzal plumes, and golden necklaces. And when they gave them these, the Spaniards' faces grinned; they were delighted, they were overjoyed. They snatched up the gold like monkeys. . . . They were swollen with greed; . . . they hungered for that gold like wild pigs. . . . They babbled in a barbarous language; everything they said was in a savage tongue. . . ."

John Maunu is an AP College Board World History consultant, co-Moderator of the AP College Board World History Teacher community (new list serve), Digital Resources Editor for "World History Connected," AP History mentor for Grosse Ile and Cranbrook/Kingswood schools, Michigan, veteran AP World History workshop leader and Reader/Table Leader.  He can be reached at  or


1 For the oldest source Maxwell referenced, see

2 See: Digital Resources: The Other in World History, World History Connected, Vol. 9, No. 3, October 2012.

3 See

4 See travel writing that slogs from ancient monument to ancient monument, for example: versus change over time among people, food and drink as encouraged by Eugene Fodor (page 2 of this article):


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