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Jesuits and World History


Introduction to the Forum on Jesuits in World History: Scholarly Approaches and Classroom Resources

Tom Taylor


     On 27 September 1540, Pope Paul III issued a papal bull sanctioning the establishment of a new Catholic religious order, The Society of Jesus, or the Jesuits as they became more commonly known. Founded by Ignatius of Loyola (1491–1556), a Spanish aristocrat and former soldier who experienced a religious conversion, the order was dedicated to serving the Pope wherever and whenever needed. Europe was aflame with religious unrest and the Pope had urgent need for aid in stemming the tide of Protestantism. Europeans were also traveling around the world, establishing trading enclaves and carving out colonial empires, and there was a need for priests to tend to the spiritual needs of the colonizers and to bring the colonized into the Catholic fold. The Jesuits, anxious to serve, volunteered "to go anywhere His Holiness will order, whether among the faithful or the infidels, without pleading an excuse and without requesting any expenses for the journey for the sake of matters pertaining to the worship of God and the welfare of the Christian religion."1

     The Pope enthusiastically accepted their offer and even before the Order was officially established, Francis Xavier (1506–1552), one of the founding members of the Order, was on his way to India. Over the next decade he traveled throughout South Asia and the India Ocean. He spent almost two years in Japan, from 1549–1551, where he laid the foundation for what has been called "Japan's Jesuit Century" during which some 300,000 Japanese converted to Christianity. The Jesuits and these converts played a key role in the ongoing political struggles that eventually led to the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the early seventeenth century. Xavier left Japan and eventually traveled to the southern shores of China where he died in 1552 trying to open the doors of the Ming Empire in order to spread western and Christian influence. His successors, the most famous being the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci (1552–1610), eventually succeeded in fulfilling Xavier's dream and the Jesuits eventually became prominent figures in Beijing elite circles during the late Ming and early Qing Dynasties.

     Other early Jesuits traveled to Ireland and Central Europe. Their companions soon followed to Ethiopia, Brazil, Central and North America. Jesuit missionaries made forays into Tibet and Central Asia. They debated theology at the court of the Mughal Emperor and became embroiled in the territorial struggles of the Portuguese and Spanish in South America. By the middle of the seventeenth century there was hardly a place in the world that the Jesuits had not traveled.

     The Jesuits did more than travel. They engaged and studied the populations that sought to convert and they wrote extensively about their experiences. They studied the writings and cultural customs of these peoples in the hopes of finding avenues to explain their Catholic faith. In North America Jesuits traveling along the routes established by French fur traders provided in-depth descriptions of the Native peoples. It was the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci who first translated the works of Confucius into Latin and introduced them to the West. These writings have become essential sources for any world historian. (See section on primary sources below.) Also, as part of their missionary portfolio, the Jesuits carried European works of science and technology as a way to convince those they met of the superiority of western ideas. Ricci translated Euclid's geometry into Chinese and this work influenced intellectuals throughout the East. His successors, Adam Schall (1592–1666) and Ferdinand Verbiest (1623–1688) became court astronomers, which was a key position in any Chinese court. Other Jesuits helped Qing rulers negotiate treaties with the Russians. As one historian summarized it, "The Jesuits were THE most important organization in the early modern world."

     The Jesuits were, and remain, a controversial order. For many, especially non-Catholics, the Jesuits vow of obedience to the Pope raised questions about their loyalty to the king and state. Rumors the "Black Legends" of scheming Jesuits swirled from their very founding and remain rich fodder for blogging conspiracy theorists today. The French anti-clerical writer, Voltaire, often aimed his vitriolic pen at the Jesuits even while relying on their writings for many of his insights into politics and global affairs. The recent appointment of the first Jesuit Pope, Francis I, has confirmed for some that the Jesuits' secret mission to control the world is at hand.

     Ironically, the Jesuits invoked controversy because of their independent streak. As a Jesuit friend of mine recently quipped, "If you have seen one Jesuit you have seen one Jesuit." Francis Xavier, despite the fact that King John III of Portugal was a critical supporter of his mission in the Indian Ocean world, wrote several letters to the King deriding his officers' treatment of indigenous peoples in Sri Lanka and Indonesia and even implied that the King was risking his eternal salvation. "You will see yourself deprived of your kingdom. . . and, may God avert it,. . . excluded from paradise."2 Xavier often found himself struggling between his loyalties to the Portuguese king who helped fund his work and the indigenous people he had brought to his faith who were often mistreated by the king's empire builders. In South America Jesuit missionaries, working with the Guarani Indians, found themselves caught between the expanding interests of Portuguese and Spanish empires and participants in the wars between the indigenous peoples and European slavers. The Chinese Rites Controversy, as this became known, was one reason why Pope Clement XIII later banned the Jesuits in 1773.

     Once they received papal approval to reestablish themselves in 1814, the Jesuits turned their attention to education and put less focus on missionary work. As one Jesuit historian asked, "was it a restoration or did a new Jesuit order emerge in 1814?" Today there are more than 160 Jesuit institutions of post-primary school education in the world and there are 28 Jesuit colleges and universities in the United States. The Jesuits remain the largest religious congregation in the Catholic Church with about 18,000 brothers and priests still serving in almost every country in the world.

Introduction to the Articles in this Forum

The articles included in this volume were chosen to highlight four particular aspects of this rich history of the Jesuits in the early modern world. First, they demonstrate the truly global reach and impact of the Jesuits. While world history textbooks regularly include sections on the Jesuits in East Asia and while many world history teachers may have seen the movie The Mission about the Jesuits encounters with the Guaraní Indians in Paraguay or read portions of the Jesuit reports on the native peoples of North America few are aware of the critical role that the Jesuits played in shaping global encounters in many other parts of the early modern world. As Matteo Salvadore's piece illustrates, the Jesuits were key in shaping Europe's encounters with the Christian kings of Ethiopia. Daniel Watkins and Frederik Vermonte tell different stories about Jesuit travels and encounters across Eurasia including forays into Tibet and Central Asia. Franklin Rausch explores the influence of Jesuit on Korean culture. Cynthia Wiecko studies the role of the Jesuits in the history of Guam and Mark Lentz looks at Jesuits' involvement in the remote jungles of the Yucatan in colonial Mexico.

     Second, these articles explore the complex and varied ways that Jesuits encountered peoples around the world. Most often the Jesuits have been examined as travelers and missionaries, and while that characterization is absolutely correct, they were, as Cynthia's piece on Guam argues, also agents of Europe's imperial efforts. In the Yucatan their role was more as teachers than missionaries. As Franklin Rausch's article demonstrated Jesuit writings on science and technology, obtained during Korean tribute missions to Beijing, strongly influenced Korean culture in the early modern world even though the Jesuits never traveled into the kingdom until much later.

     Three, each of these articles contributes to World History Connected's teaching mission. The WHC is committed to the integration of teaching and scholarship and to the collaboration among secondary and university teachers. These articles, through their analysis of the Jesuits as historical actors and through their discussion of Jesuit sources provide essential tools for teachers interested in integrating the history of the Jesuits into their world history classes. Daniel's analysis of Jesuit travels in Central Asia, for example, shows how Jesuit writings can be used to explore international trade along the Silk Roads. Frederik Vermonte's story of the failed efforts of the Jesuit missionary Philipe Avril's to get to China in the late seventeenth century discusses how he uses this story to highlight key themes in his world history class. Moreover, his use of quantitative evidence is a great example of how historians can use numbers to tell important stories. Matteo Salvadore's article on the Jesuits in Ethiopia includes the copies of the originals of three key letters written by the founder of the Jesuits, Ignatius of Loyola so that teachers can show students how challenging working with primary sources can be. He also translates those texts so that teachers can use these documents to help students learn how to dissect historical sources. Mark Lentz and Cynthia Wiecko discuss how teachers can use their case studies to counter and contextualize more frequently used resources such as the writings of Matteo Ricci or the movie The Mission to enrich their classes.

     Finally these articles make original contributions to the scholarship of world history. Each article is grounded in primary sources and most are based on extensive archival research. Each demonstrates the integration of Jesuit sources and a wide variety or other primary materials to highlight the way that Jesuit history is an integral sub-field of world history.

Additional Resources for Teaching and Studying the Jesuits in World History

The following works are useful and accessible introductions to the Jesuits in the early modern world. They are chosen not only to provide background reading for teachers looking to develop their expertise on the Jesuits in world history but also to highlight some of the new trends in Jesuit scholarship.

M. Antoni J. Ueceler, "The Jesuit Enterprise in sixteenth-and seventeenth century Japan," in Thomas Worcester, ed., The Cambridge Companion to the Jesuits (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008), 153–169.

     Francis Xavier, one of the founding members of the Jesuits, landed in Kagoshima Japan in 1549. He arrived having heard reports about the immense opportunities to convert Japanese to Christianity. He landed in a country that was in the midst of an on-going civil war. Japan's instability provided an opportunity for the Jesuits to use their connections to Portuguese arms traders and their access to new ideas and innovations to gain converts. For a half of a century the Jesuits gained enormous influence and as many as 300,000 Japanese became Christians. When the military shogun, Togukawa Ieyasu (r. 1598–1616), eventually succeeding in consolidating power he began to see the Jesuits more as a foreign threat than an opportunity. Beginning in 1612 he issued a series of bans outlawing the Jesuits in Japan. Ueceler's contribution to this volume succinctly summaries this "Jesuit century in Japan."

John O'Malley, The First Jesuits (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993).

     The best work still available on the founding and early history of the Jesuits. Focusing on the crucial first twenty-five years of the Society's history O'Malley provides an essential introduction to the theology, philosophy and organization of the Order as it launched its global mission.

John Patrick Donnelly, Ignatius of Loyola: Founder of the Jesuits (New York: Pearson/Longman Press, 2004).

     Donnelly's biography of St. Ignatius is a concise and well-written introduction to the founder and spiritual leader of the Society of Jesus. It traces Loyola's life from the Basque region of Spain where he lived the life of a soldier and courtier, to his religious conversion while convalescing from a serious battle wound, to his life as a student in Paris where he began to attract the companionship of others enthused by his spiritual message, to the founding of the Jesuits as a religious order and his final years as the Society's first Superior General when he helped launched the Jesuits global mission.

R. Po-Chia Hsia, A Jesuit in the Forbidden City: Matteo Ricci, 1552–1610 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010).

     While Jonathan Spence's Memory Palace of Matteo Ricci (1984) remains a magisterial introduction to the life of the famous Jesuit missionary to China Hsia's biography broadens and deepens our understanding of Matteo Ricci by drawing significantly on both Jesuit sources and Chinese sources. Ricci went to China as a young Jesuit in 1682 and spent the rest of his life, until his death in 1610, tirelessly working to lay the foundations of missionary success. Hsia's biography not only shows in rich detail Ricci's efforts to gain influence in China but also how the Chinese responded to him. This dialogue between Jesuit and Chinese sources is a model for other studies on the Jesuits in world history.

Liam Matthew Brockey, Journey to the East: The Jesuit Mission to China, 1579–1724 (Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: 2007).

     While much of the scholarship on the early Jesuits has been biographies about key missionaries, Brockey's work tells the story of the Jesuit mission in China. The shift in focus opens up valuable insights into the Jesuits' missionary enterprise. He demonstrates that the Jesuit mission in China was not simply focused on elite interactions and conversions, as studies on the life and writings of Matteo Ricci usually argue, but that the Jesuits had a much greater impact on commoners. By 1700, he notes, there were some 200,000 Christina converts in Qing China, mostly in rural areas.

Luke Clossey, Salvation and Globalization in the Early Jesuit Missions (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008).

     Clossey's work is a pioneering study in Jesuit history. Rather than looking at regional missionary efforts, as many studies have done, Clossey examines the global organizational structures, the recruiting practices, the financial, informational and spiritual networks of the early Jesuits. By taking this global perspective the diversity of the challenges facing the Jesuits in establishing a global missionary order become much clearer. A chapter on "missionary motivation" helps explain the mindset of many of the early Jesuit missionaries and provides a useful context to consider the early writings of the Jesuit listed below in the primary source section.

Recommended Primary Sources for Teaching and Studying the Jesuits in World History

Jesuit missionaries were prolific writers. They wrote long and detailed letters about their missionary experiences to their Jesuit colleagues. While often deeply personal, these letters also serve as records about the local cultures and societies with which the missionaries worked. While indigenous religious and belief systems were the primary subject of many of these letters, notes on everything from language and politics, to culinary and sartorial tastes, were also included. These missionary letters are invaluable sources of information on peoples in many parts of the early modern world.

     Early Jesuit missionaries also wrote treatises for a wide variety of audiences that are also of great value to world historians. As a young Catholic order in the sixteenth century, and one that had taken a vow of poverty the Jesuits were always anxious to find patrons for their global endeavors. One way to attract the attention and favor of Europe's wealthy was to produce treatises, often dedicated to the patron, about the peoples and societies they met. These works might analyze Indian literary traditions or study Chinese astronomy. The Jesuits wrote and then produced them in Europe as a way to say "we are out there, finding new knowledge, support us!" The seventeenth-century Jesuit, Nicholas Trigault's compendium of early Jesuit writings on China, The China that Was: China as Discovered by the Jesuits in the Sixteenth-Century is a good example of this tradition.

     Most Jesuit intellectual treatises were written for European audiences, however, particularly in East Asia, where the Jesuits thought there was a longer and more sophisticated intellectual tradition they also produced works of science and philosophy for local elites as a way to convince those they were trying to convert that they should be taken seriously. The Italian Jesuit to China in the late sixteenth century, Matteo Ricci, reflected this tradition in his famous map of the world discussed below.

     Many Jesuits (not all as we shall see in Cynthia Wiecko's examination of the Jesuit missions on Guam included in this volume) adopted a missionary philosophy known as Accommodation. As articulated by the Jesuit Duarte de Sande it argued that "among these nations that are so distant from ours, and have laws and customs so different it is necessary to enter with theirs to come out with ours, accommodating ourselves to them in what our Holy Faith permits, in this way to divulge and teach our holy doctrine, which they would receive in no other way." Simplified, it meant that the Jesuits tried to understand indigenous cultures and adapt Christian practices to each unique culture as much as possible without undermining Catholic doctrine. (Many Catholics thought this heresy and accommodation was a principle reason the Jesuits were banned as a Catholic religious order in the late eighteenth century.) In reality, accommodation meant that the Jesuits intensely studied the religions and cultures around the world as a way to legitimize their missionary efforts.

     Jesuit sources are particularly valuable for world historians from 1540, when the Jesuits were founded, until they were banned as a religious order in 1773. During this period Jesuit missions flourished in many parts of the world and their writings were some of the only sources we have about peoples, and encounters between Europeans and non-Europeans.

     As valuable as they are, it should not go without saying that Jesuit sources do pose significant methodological challenges for world historians. The Jesuits were after all missionaries, and their primary goal was converting peoples to Catholicism. Their writings often reflect their missionary eye on particular groups ripe for conversion or particular religious and social traditions they deemed compatible with their own religious values. For instance, Jesuits often write very positively about those peoples who accepted Catholicism and tended to be more critical and dismissive of cultures that rejected their faith so their accounts have to be read with the biases of the authors in mind. This, however, can and should be said about any historical primary source and especially those dealing with cross-cultural encounters in the early modern world.

     The compilation of Jesuit primary sources below are both representative of the wide ranges of sources available and the idiosyncratic nature of Jesuit materials that I have used at different times when I teach my introductory modern world history course. My hope is that world historians reading this volume will add to this list through further on-going discussions in World History Connected and/or H-World.

Ignatius of Loyola, The Autobiography of St. Ignatius Loyola With Related Documents, translated by Joseph F. O'Callaghan and edited with introduction and notes by John C. Olin, New York, Harper Torchbooks, 1974.

     Later in his life Ignatius related the story of his early life and religious conversion to a Jesuit colleague. It was intended to serve as a "testament and paternal instruction" to the other members of the fledgling order. For world historians this short autobiography sets the religious and political contexts that shaped Ignatius life and provide insights into the core values that shape the Order still today.

Francis Xavier, The Letters and Instructions of Francis Xavier, translated and introduced by M. Joseph Costelloe, S.J., St. Louis, MO: Institute for Jesuit Sources, 1992.

     This collection includes letters from Francis Xavier to his Jesuit colleagues and to King John III, his Portuguese benefactor, and instructions to Xavier from Jesuit leaders about the construction of the Jesuit missions in Asia. It is a rich source for any world historian. They provide unique insights into the mindset of a global missionary and Francis Xavier is arguably one of the two or three most important missionaries in the early modern world. The letters also detail his relationship with Portuguese officials and traders and thus exploring the complex and often conflicting relationship between religion and empire in the early modern world. Xavier's travels as a missionary from Goa on the west coast of India, to the southern coasts of India, the Indonesian archipelago and then Japan where he traveled for almost two years during the tumultuous era of the samurai civil wars of the mid-sixteenth century, provide critical insights to the peoples and cultures of these lands filtered through a missionary perspective.

L.J. Gallagher, S.J., translated, from the Latin of Nicholas Trigault, S.J., China in the Sixteenth Century: The Journals of Matteo Ricci, New York, Random House: 1942.

     Although subtitled The Journals of Matteo Ricci this book is more a history of the first Jesuit missions to China in the early seventeenth century. The work is divided into two main sections. (The first half, books One and Two were published separately under the title The China That Was: China as Discovered by the Jesuits in the Sixteenth-Century, (Milwaukee, WI: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1942.)) Part One is part missionary primer for future Jesuits, outlining the key structures and customs of the Ming Empire, and part advertising brochure highlighting the successes of these early Jesuits and spiritual and commercial opportunities for Europeans who would support their work. The second half is a history of the early Jesuit missions that Ricci wrote later in his life and recounts his own experiences and journeys in China as well as highlighting the activities of other Jesuits on these first missions.

John Correia-Afonso, S.J., Letters from the Mughal Court: The First Jesuit Mission to Akbar (1580–1583) St. Louis, MO: Institute for Jesuit Sources, 1981.

     In 1578 the Mughal Emperor Akbar invited three Jesuits from their missionary home in Goa to come to his newly constructed palace of Fatephur Sikri outside of Agra. There he had had a special room built for religious and philosophical disputations and the Jesuits were invited to debate Muslim, Hindu and other scholars. The letters the Jesuits wrote about these three years are the first western sources we have about the Mughal court and serve as a window into Akbar's thinking about religion and empire at a time when the Mughal Empire was arguably the most powerful empire in the world.

Antonio Ruiz de Montoya, S.J. The Spiritual Conquest: A Personal Account of the Founding and Early Years of the Jesuit Paraguay Reductions, St. Louis, MO: Institute for Jesuit Sources, 1993.

     Antonio Ruiz de Montoya was a wealthy Peruvian who became a Jesuit and spent most of his life as a missionary among the Guarani Indians of Paraguay. His account, written in 1639, Montoya details his own spiritual conversion and his missionary life. It documents, from a Jesuit's perspective, the controversial decisions of the Jesuits to settle the Guarani in agricultural and artisanal communities and their decision to support militarily the Guaraní in their struggles against Portuguese and Spanish slavers. World historians will likely be more familiar with the story of these missions through the film, The Mission. (See review below.) It should be noted, however, that the movie tells the story of these missions in the mid-eighteenth century when the historical circumstances of the missions and the Jesuits were much different. Nonetheless one can use Montoya's account as an accompaniment to the movie as a way to consider how both portray the Jesuits as missionaries and the Guarani people.

Allan Greer, Edited and Introduced, The Jesuit Relations: Natives and Missionaries in Seventeenth-Century North America, Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000.

     "The Jesuit Relations," notes Alan Greer, the editor of a volume on these sources for the Bedford Series in History and Culture, "constitute the most important sect of documentary materials on the seventeenth-century encounter of Europeans and native North Americans." Written by French Jesuits these sources detail the lives and cultures of the Huron, the Mohawk and other native peoples of Northwestern North America at the critical time of their first sustained contact with Europeans. Along with the rich vein of ethnographic material, these documents also chronicle the impact of European diseases, and the role that European religion and politics had on these indigenous cultures. These works can serve as a useful accompaniment and counterpoint to the movie, The Black Robe (1991), about the Jesuits in New France. (See notes on movie below.)

Matteo Ricci's Map of the Ten Thousand Countries of the Earth, James Ford Bell Library, (accessed May 5, 2013).

     As part of his efforts to open the doors of Ming China to Catholicism the Jesuit missionary Matteo Ricci tried to impress the Chinese elite with the sophistication of western science and technology in the hopes that they would then take western theology more seriously. To that end he brought clocks and astronomical instruments as gifts. He translated Euclid into Chinese and he produced a map of the world that was drawn to show the Chinese that Europe and China were literally linked together. Moreover the map was intended to show the Chinese that there was a larger world than they had previously thought. Ricci's map, for example, is the oldest Chinese map that shows the Americas. Ricci hoped and expected that by showing the Chinese a wider world than they had previously encountered that they would also consider that the Catholic views of the spiritual world may also be correct. There are many web links to images of Matteo Ricci's map. This link is for one of the best sites to use to explore the map in class. It provides an excellent introduction to the construction of the map, features to allow detail viewing of various sections and English translations of key passages from the various regions Ricci described.

Figure 1
  Figure 1: (Source: Author's Picture, 6th Floor Lemieux Library, Seattle University)  


The Mission (1986); James Schofield Saeger, "The Mission and Historical Missions: Film and the Writing of History," in Donald F. Stevens, ed., Based on a True Story: Latin American History and the Movies, (Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, 1997), 63–84.

     Directed by Roland Joffe, The Mission (1986), has long been a staple of world history classes. A beautifully filmed epic, starring Jeremy Irons and Robert DeNiro, it roughly tells the story of the Jesuit missions in Paraguay in the eighteenth century. Located in the jungles and the borderlands between Spanish and Portuguese territories these missions erupted in war between the indigenous peoples, the Guarani, and European slavers in the 1750s. In the movie the Jesuits become heroic leaders of the Guarani against the brutal and rapacious Europeans. James Schofield Saeger, in his review of the movie, is very critical of its historicity emphasizing that it not only elevates the heroic character of the European Jesuits it also ignores the agency of the Guarani in their own fate.

Black Robe (1991); James Axtell, "Black Robe," in Mark C. Carnes, ed., Past Imperfect: History According to the Movies, (New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1995), 78–81.

     Bruce Beresford, director of the movie Black Robe, took "great pains," according to reviewer James Axtell, "to recapture the spirit of the time, the place and the cultural clash" of the first encounters between the Jesuits and the Native American tribes of the Great Lakes regions. Overall, Axtell concludes, he succeeded and Black Robe is significantly true in spirit to the complicated and conflicted relationships between missionaries and indigenous peoples although, he also points out, there are some scenes clearly included to enhance to appeal of the movie for audiences. A sexual encounter between the main Jesuit character and a young Indian woman and gratuitous scenes of native violence were, he notes, two prime examples of this audience pandering. Despite such issues, however, teachers would find the Black Robe a worthwhile movie to use along with selections from the Jesuit Relations in a unit on early American peoples.

Japan: Memoirs of a Secret Empire (2003)

     While not specifically about the Jesuits this PBS documentary, which is part of their Empires Series, relies extensively on the memoirs of the early Jesuits to Japan to set the stage for the background to the country's civil wars of the sixteenth century and the eventual emergence of the Tokugawa Shogunate in the early seventeenth century. Helpful to help understand the role that Portuguese traders played in bringing guns and the Jesuits to this war-torn land and how the coming of these westerners influenced this significant period in Japanese history.

Classroom Simulation

Colleen Kyle, "Should They Stay or Should They Go? The Jesuits, The Qing, and the Chinese Rites Controversy," World History Bulletin XXVIII, no. 2 (Fall 2012): 69–71

     Kyle's classroom simulation of the debates in Qing China around what became known as the Chinese Rites Controversy (see above) won the 2012 World History Association Teaching Prize. It combines an overview of the key issues surrounding the controversy, an introduction into key primary documents and debate into a lively class activity that addresses some of the key issues the Jesuits faced in their missionary pursuits.

Tom Taylor is an Associate Professor and Chair of the History Department at Seattle University. He also directs the College of Arts and Sciences Global Awareness Program and currently holds the College's Gaffney Endowed Chair in Jesuit Studies. He is completing a comprehensive world history text that uses traveler's narratives to highlight central themes in world history. His most recent article, co-authored with Gabrielle Porter, "The Impractical Scheme of a Visionary:" Thomas Stevens and the Quest to Travel Round the World on a Bicycle," appeared in the June 2013 volume of World History Connected. Tom can be reached at


1 The Constitutions of the Society of Jesus and their Complementary Norms (St. Louis, MO: The Institute of Jesuit Sources, 1996), p. 25

2 Francis Xavier, "To John III, King of Portugal," in Francis Xavier, The Letters and Instructions of Francis Xavier, translated and introduced by M. Joseph Costelloe, (S.J., St. Louis, MO: Institute for Jesuit Sources, 1992) 257.

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