World History Connected Home
Home List journal issues Table of contents
Printer-friendly formatArticle citation

Select Digital Resources for Migration in World History

John Maunu

     Migration is a core theme in world historical studies. It is an expansive term that often embraces or crosses over to emigration, immigration, and diaspora studies.1

     Its place in world history owes much to the work of Patrick Manning at the World History Center at the University of Pittsburgh. Manning was a contributor to a landmark work in this field: Jan Lucassen, Leo Lucassen and Patrick Manning, Migration History in World History: Multidisciplinary Approaches Studies in Global Societies History, 3, (Leiden: Brill, 2010), which divided migration research intofour areas, history, biological/population genetics, linguistics and anthropology. As this work pointed out, traditionally, most historians concentrated their studies on human population movements after 1750, due to the availability of written records. However, in what has been called the "new synthesis: anthropologists, archaeologists,geneticists, linguists, and biologists are acting in concert are facilitating migration research as far back as 80, 000 years ago.2. Some online examples of relatively light-hearted exploration of the "new synthesis" as "history" can be found in Jan Vansina's "Historians, Are Archaeologist Your Siblings?" and Peter Robert Shaw's response, "Sibling Rivalry? The Intersection of Archaeology and History."3

     However, well apart from problems of definition and the place of the new synthesis in migration research, are far more fascinating issues for research and classroom discussion, such as migration "stories," or myths or theories that are used in nationalistic discourse or identity politics, such as The Aryan Invasion Theory, Manifest Destiny, Zionist and Arab migration histories into the Levant, and the "Empty Land" theory that sparked European migrations into Africa. These and other issues are included in this annotated list of digital resources on migration designed to assist researchers and classroom instructors engaging in world historical analysis.

     The following digital resources are organized along the following lines: Getting Started-- introductory guides, websites, book reviews and articles, monographs, foundation papers, slide shares, video/film, lesson plans, bibliographies, syllabi and resources presented via a regional breakdown.

Getting Started--introductory Guides

As with almost any subject of historical research today, there are a host of digital resources migration. These are so numerous that it is well to begin with a short list of key works. However, novices in the field require a means of choosing among even these. Fortunately, there are several key books of the printed variety that have been the subject of exceptionally detailed reviews, available digitally, that constitute a shortcut to grasping the essentials of the field. There are also exceptional websites that offer a general introduction to migration studies and related themes examined in the websites and other digital resources to follow:

General Introductions
Five star rating reviews of Manning's foundational short introduction, Migration in World History (Florence. KY: Routledge, 2012). Fully revised and updated, this second edition "traces the connections among regions brought about by the movement of people, diseases, crops, technology and ideas."
David Christian's review of Patrick Manning, "Navigating World History: Historians Create a Global Past," New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003" onH-World, February 2004. David Christianhighlights, concisely, Manning's vision of a new world history with "connections within the global community" asit's center.
Scott Fitzpatrick's review of Peter Bellwood, "First Migrants: Ancient Migrants in Global Perspective," Wiley/Blackwell, 2013.

Migrations as Encounter
H-Net reviews by Craig Lockard and Heather Streets-Slater of Jon Thares Davidann and

Marc Jason Gilbert, Cross-Cultural Encounters in Modern World History. New York: 2013, Pearson, 2013. Uses the causes and effects of migration as the fulcrum of studies of the encounter between, among others, Europeans and Ameridians, Polynesians and the West, and European-African relations from the slave trade to the current tensions between populist/nativist movements and recent migrants from Africa and the Middle East. Each chapter includes study questions for students.
Timothy Nicholson, SUNY Delhi, review of Aran MacKinnon and Elaine MacKinnon, "Places of Encounter: Time, Place and Connectivity in World History, Volume I and II.Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 2012, in World History Connected, Vol. 11, No. 2, July 2014. The MacKinnons' two volume paperback portrays29 historical urban centers over the past 3 million years, from Nagasaki to Dubai. Not a specific work on Migrations, but addresses movements of people.

Teaching Resources:
"Unit 3: Human Migrations," Bridging World History, Annenberg Learning, 2013. See learning resources and video segments on "Out of Africa," "Peopling the Pacific and Americas," and "Linguistic Clues: Bantu Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa" along with a Jerry H. Bentley brief audio clip on "Urumchi mummies of western China."

See lesson activity for Unit 3: Human Migrations-Click view the video segment, lower left corner of site and do same for the other migration topics and regions: and
"Human Migration," National Geographic Education, 1994-2014. Large number of resources, activities, lessons on human migration in world history. See tabs at top of page for resources and scroll down to see instructions as to filtering by Type, Grades and Ages, Intended Audience, Subjects, Downloadable.

AP® World History Course book, Migration in World History, helpful in preparing for the student critiques. A free pdf. See also section on slide shows.
"Human Journey: Migration Routes," Genographic Project, National Geographic, 2014.

"Journey of Mankind-The Peopling of the World," Bradshaw Foundation. Professor Stephen Oppenheimer's documentary film about history of human migrations. Oppenheimer is Oxford University-based DNA archaeologist.
"Migration," Pleistocene Project, last updated February 25, 2012. See summaries of Homo Sapien migrations out of Africa and into other regions during the Pleistocene era. See short 53 minute Migration video clip showing Migration of humans out of Africa to visual the migration summaries.
"History of International Migration," University of Leiden website moderated by Dr. Marlou Schrover, last updated January 25, 2007. See tabs at top of this page for specific dates for migration histories.

Dr. Nicola Yeates, "Meet the Immigrants: Migration Maps," Open Learn, Open University, last updated April 8,2008. Interactive map showing world migrants, where they came from and where they go.

Bamber Gascoigne, History of Human Migrations, History World website. See examples of earliest human migrations. Also, here:
International Organization for Migration, Geneva, Switzerland. IOM was born in 1951 after WW II European displacement of peoples and has grown into a foundation to assist people forced to migrate from conflict zones.
"Migration History," International Institute of Social History website, Institute of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences, Amsterdam. This website is focused on European Global Labour History and looks at migration of labor.
Migration Education in Europe website. Free online resources for migration into Europe.
Forced Migration online website. See article on reproductive health for refugee women, last updated August 17, 2011. See home page:
"Issues in Depth: Migration," Globalization 101, SUNY, Student University of New York project, Levin Institute. See resources for Globalization and Migration in world history via tabs on left side of this Home Page.
"Religion and Humanitarianism," Forced Migration Online, a world of information on human displacement, website last updated April 3, 2013. Religious organizations which aid people fleeing conflict world-wide.
"Jews Around the Globe," My Jewish Learning website. Highlights Jewish migration.
"Immigration," American history, Best History sites, 2013. Websites and related websites for immigration and migration in US History.
Moving Here-Migration Histories, National Archives, UK. See Caribbean, Jewish, Irish and South Asian histories and migration stories highlighting their migration to Britain. Site no longer updated and archived in UK National Archives since 2013.
"Where We're From," International Organization For Migration, World Bank, 2010. Interactive app and map for migration from any country and migration to any country in the world.
"Immigration and Migration," LANIC, Latin America Network Information Center, University of Texas, Austin. Resources,links for Latin American migration and immigration.
Centre for Middle Eastern and Islamic Studies, University of Bergen Research Project descriptions. Note projects surrounding cultures around the Indian Ocean and migration.
MPI , Migration Policy Institute website, Washington DC think tank dedicated to sharing resources, articles on world-wide migrations.
Center for Migration Studies, CMS, New York. This website focuses on international migration, encouraging understanding betweenImmigrants and receiving communities, and safeguarding the rights and dignity of migrants. Site established in 1964 by St. Charles Scalabrinians an international community of Catholic priests, nuns and lay people.
Fred Pearce, "Arrival City: How the Largest Migration in History is Reshaping Our Worldby Doug Saunders," The Guardian Book Review, September 17, 2010. Fred Pearce summarized and compared Saunders' work on migration of rural pastoralists to urban centers to other books and claimed Saunders' book is a positive approach to that history.
Mark L. Clifford review of Tom Miller, "China's Urban Billion: The Story Behind the Biggest Migration in Human History," Zed Books, Ltd, November 2013, The Asian Review of Books, 013.
Thomas Goodrich review of R. M. Douglas, "Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans After the Second World War," New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2012, seen in Counter Currents Book Reviews, January 2013. Counter Currents Publishing defines themselves as The New Right.
Jonathan Dresner, Pittsburgh State University, Kansas, Review of Ian Goldin, Geoffrey Cameron and Meera Balarajan, "Exceptional People: How Migration Shaped Our World and Will Define Our Future," Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012, 371 pp. seen in World History Connected, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2013, Forum on Travelers and Travel Writers, Pt. 2.
"Book Review: Exodus: How Migration is Changing Our World," by Paul Collier, Oxford University Press, October 2013. Review by Dalibor Rohac, The London School of Economics and Political Science, Review of Books, August 5, 2013. See other Migration book reviews at bottom of Dalibor Rohac's review.
Dr. Esme Cleall, review (no. 1597) of Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson, "Empire, Migration and Identity in the British World," Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 2013, 336 pp. seen in Reviews in History, UK, accessed September 5, 2014.
University of Illinois, "New Ideas About Human Migration from Asia to Americas,"Science Daily, October 29, 2007. See "Related Stories" on right side of this page.
Guy Gugliotta, "The Great Human Migration,"Smithsonian Magazine, July 2008. Five page article on why humans left their African homeland 80,000 years ago to colonize
the world.
Briwnys, "Myths of 19th Century Science: The Indo-European Invasions," News Vine, September 17, 2008. Article explaining "scientific" origins of Aryan and Indo-European Invasions/Expansions/Migrations.
Donald K. Grayson and David J. Meltzer, "A Requiem for North American Overkill," Journal of Archaeological Sciences,30, 2003, pp. 585-503. Grayson and Meltzer give burial rites to Paul S. Martin's "overkill hypothesis" which was the correct historiography as to extinction of Pleistocee megafauna. That would be that human hunters migrated throughout regions killing animals. This article stated that there needs to be more research as to this incorrect theory for North America.
Kirkus Reviews, Felipe Fernandez-Armesto, "Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States,"Norton, January 2014. Kirkus called Armesto'sOur America"a welcome corrective to Anglocentric versions of American history..." Armesto details the settlement, evolution of the United States from the perspective of Hispanic explorers, settlers, migrants and native residents across the Southwest and Florida. He also discussed modern day migrations of Latin people and culture across the United States.
Dr. Esme Cleall, review (no. 1597) of Kent Fedorowich and Andrew S. Thompson, "Empire, Migration and Identity in the BritishWorld," Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2013, 336 pp., seen in Reviews in History, UK, accessedSeptember 5, 2014.

See Stanford University student citing Paul S. Martin theory as to extinction of Pleistocene Megafauna. Robin Gibbons, "Examining the Extinction of the Pleistocene Megafauna,"Anthropological Sciences, Stanford University, Spring 2004, pp. 22-27.
F.E.G. Cox, "History of Human Parasitology,"Clinical Microbiology Reviews,American Association for Microbiology, Vol. 15, No. 4, October 2002. See especially early section on Human Evolution, Migrations, Civilization and Parasitic Infections.
Adam McKeown, "Global Migrations, 1846-1940,"Journal of World History, Vol. 15, No. 2 (2004) by University of Hawai'i Press, seen in Project Muse.
Adam McKeown, "Global Migrations and Regionalization, 1840-1940," Paper for conference on Mapping Global Inequality, Santa Cruz, California, December 13, 2007.
Stephanka Korytova-Magstadt, "In Search of Causes: Historiography of Migration, 1910-1990," ACTA Universitatis Carolinae Studia Territorialia V, 2003. The author stated in introduction of this monograph that key concepts used in modern migration scholarship will be demonstrated, including the basic questions as to why people left, who left and how many left which increasingly has used the sciences of sociology, statistics, geography, psychology andanthropology.
Michael J. Greenwood, University of Colorado, Boulder and Gary L. Hunt, University of Maine, Orono, "The Early History of Migration Research Revisited,", Spring Economics Course, originally published in International Regional Science Review, Vol. 26, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 3-37. This paper/monographwas a scientific study of United States migration beginning with a look at the 1880's research by Ravenstein, D. S. Thomas1930's work and a gravity model, 1930's-1940's, discussion.
Susan Stanford Friedman, University of Wisconsin-Madison,"Migrations, Diasporas, and Borders," Introduction to Scholarship in the Modern Languageand Literature, Nicholas David, ed., New York: MLA Publications, 2007.
Susan Stanford Friedman, "The 'New Migration': Clashes, Connections and Diasporic Women's Writings,"Contemporary Women's Writing,Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2009, pp. 6-27. Global diasporas into Canada and UnitedStates from women writer's points of view.

Foundation papers:
"Migration and History, Section 1.3," International Organization for Migration, Essentials of Migration Management, Vol. One: Migration Management Foundation, 2004. This paper from theIOM leads readers/policy makers to think about developing Migration policies in their region or locale. Topics includedas background are "Migration in World History," "Migration in Recent Times," and "Developments and Challenges" with Learning objectives and GuidedQuestions. See also definitions for different types of immigrants/migrants.
Frank Laczko, ed.-in-Chief, Ilse Pinto-Dobernig, ed., "Migration, Development and Poverty Reduction in Asia," IOM, International Organization for Migration and Peoples Republic of China Foreign Ministry, 2005. Paper analyzing migration, development and poverty reduction in China, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan and Viet Nam.
Osvaldo Muniz, Wei Li, and Yvonne Schleicher, "Migration-Conceptual Framework: Why do people move to work in another place or country?" AAG Center for Global Geography Education. A learning module or conceptual framework.
P. Nick Kardulias, The College of Wooster, and Thomas D. Hall, DePauw University, "A World-Systems View of Historical Migration Past and Present: Providing a General Model for Understanding the Movement of People," Forum on Public Policy, 2006. As an introduction Kardulias and Hall quote Lillian Trager, "Most of those engaged in Policy Debates continue to make a number of assumptions about migration, assumptions that are contradicted by much of the recent research." (2005)

Slide Shares/PowerPoints:
Dr. Cora Cagatucci, "Maps 2: History-Ancient Period," for Humanities 213-Historical Overview, Central OregonCommunity College, last updated April 13, 2011. Not really a slide share but could be used as one or developed into a Map power point on ancientcivilizations. These many clean color maps are supplements to teaching migration history. See maps 3 at bottomof this site.
Pamela Hammond, "Migration as a Theme in History." 30 frame slide share.
Dr. Henry Yu, St. John's College, University of British Columbia, "The Cantonese Pacific: Migration, Historiography, and Unsettling Settlers," American Studies, Princeton University presentation, November 11, 2013. Dr. Henry Yu extensive power point on Cantonese/Chinese migration into Canada and North America and reaction by whites.
"The Road to Refuge," BBC Special Report, 2001. See slideshow and photo diary of refugees in Tanzania. This BBC Special Report seen in: See more resources, videos, audio podcasts, novels, film.

"Science Bulletins: Early Migration for Modern Humans," Human News, American Museum of Natural History, uploaded January 10, 2013. 2:01 video showing evidence that human migrations into Europe occurred 1000 years earlier than previously thought.
"Tribute to Paul S. Martin, Pleistocene Ecologist (1928-2010)," The Great Story blog, assembled by Connie Barlow. See numerous audio and video clips with Dr. Martin. Paul S.Martin focused on the "overkill hypothesis" for extinction of large animals by migrating human hunter gatherersand Ms. Barlow is a fan, yet does present some evidence which can question Paul Martin's hypothesis.
"The Americas: Migration From Asia to Americas," The Incredible Human Journey, BBC, published on YouTube, 58:29,February 25, 2014. Anthropologist and medical doctor Alice Roberts traces early human migration from Asia to the Americas.
"From Jesus to Christ," PBS Frontline documentary video, WGHB Educational Foundation, 1994-2014. Much on migration in the story of Jesus, the Jews, and Christianity.
Thomas C. Mountain, "Africans Uprising Against Slavery: The Zanj Revolt, 869-883 CE," YouTube 4:16 video, published November 12, 2013. ThomasMountain, independent Western journalist in Horn of Africa, specifically in Eritrea since 2006, recounted the forced migrations of east Africans to Basra, Iraq to work as slaves in the humid, hot salt marshes.
"Patrick Manning World History and the African Migration Simulation," Digital History. Dr. Manning explained his African Migration simulation in five short video segments.
"The Oregon Trail: Westward Migration to the Pacific Ocean," Education Portal. See video and quiz, transcript, and timeline prepared and narrated by Alexandra Lutz. Some sections of this resource will ask for 5 day free trial access, but this video can be seen free. Seealso Texas expansion/migration problems (video) on upper right side of page. These materials suited for middle and high school students.
"Westward Expansion," See short video clips (2-3 minutes) on history of American westward migration.
The Mexican-American War, PBS, seen in YouTube, 1:28:52 video documentary, published March 4, 2013. History of the Mexican-American war in the mid-19th century was a result of romanticized migration called Manifest Destiny?
"Best Immigration Documentaries, Pt. 1-History and Global Context," Color Line, The Society Pages website/blog, January 26, 2011.Professor's blog for his The Sociology of Immigration courses which allows one to watch his favorite global immigrationdocumentaries. See part 2 and 3 of three part series:
Pt. 2 seen in Asian Nation blog, January 2011. Unauthorized Immigration.
Best Immigration Documentaries, Pt. 3, Assimilation and Integration.
Full Film, "Hester Street," 1975, 89 minute color film set in 1896, New York City's Lower East Side where a Russian Jew, Jake, has assimilated to America. He meets his wife and family who have migrated from Russia and his wife has more problems with assimilating to American culture. See study guide for this film in Lessons section.
"Twice A Stranger (doc)," Anemon Films, Greece. See trailer and comments on documentary showing the population exchange between Greece and Turkey in 1922-1924. See interview with Turkish women who was part of this migration as a little girl by Brittney Nadler in the Daily Illini and also on right side of page see comments on Hindu-Muslim and German-Polish migrations:
John Green, "Growth, Cities, and Immigration: Crash Course US History #25," 12 minute video on growth of American cities after 1900. Immigration as a reason begins at the three minute mark of the video.
Matthew Roberts, "On the Road Again," [wide angle] Window Into Global History, Migration lesson plan utilizing five video clips which focus on Africa and China migration in early 21st century. Based on PBS Wide Angle documentaries "Border Jumpers," 2005 Africa and "To Have and Have Not," 2002 Chinese rural to urban migration.
Documentary Films on Migration, Culture Unplugged. See example below, "Maid in Lebanon:"
Carol Mansour, Film, "Maid in Lebanon," Culture Unplugged. Migrant workers to Lebanon, 25:00 video documentary.
Migration Documentary Films, MacArthur Foundation Media. See modern migration documentary films.
"Faith and Fate," History of the Jews in the 20th century, 1:07:09 YouTube video documentary, uploaded April 21, 2009. Much of 20th century Jewish history involves migration.
"After Words: Felipe Fernandez-Armesto,Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States,"Book TV, C-Span 2, hosted by Tanzina Vega of theNew York Times. 1:03:41 Video interview. Dr. Armesto discussed his book which explained the settlement and evolution of the United States from the perspective of Hispanic, explorers, settlers, migrants and native residents across the Southwest and Florida. "Our America" also discussed modern day migrations of Latin people and cultures across America.
"New Diaspora" website featuring short documentaries/videos on modern Greeks who migrate. Copyright 2014.

Lesson Plans:
Peter M. Scheidler, Kenwood Academy High, Chicago, Illinois, "The Question of Identity: Ethnicity, Language, Religion and Gender Before Islam-Mesopotamia." Lesson Plan 2, Migration into Ancient Mesopotamia, a Mapping Lesson, The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago. Jenny Meyers administrative leader.
BBC The Incredible Human Journey, Ancient World History, Foundations Page. See tabs at top of page esp. "Late Pleistocene" for Map Exercise on global migrations and 59:05 video. See Introduction here:
"Migrations and Militarism Across Afroeurasia," World History for Us All, San Diego State University. What caused pastoral nomads tomigrate into settled areas between 2000-1000 BCE is question at the heart of this lesson. Primary authors areSusan Douglass and Jean Johnson. See Lesson pdf:
World History For Us All, San Diego State University website, Migration lessons and resources. Results of World History for Us All search for resourcesdealing with Migration in world history.
Indian Ocean in World History website, Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center, Lessons Director Susan Douglass, 2009, updated 2010 and 2011. Materials andlessons to supplement Migration history in the Indian Ocean. See review ofthat website by AP World History student and teacher:

Bryan Scheiber and John Maunu, "Featured Review of Indian Ocean in World History Websites,"World History Connected,Vol. 8, No.1, February 2011.
Exploring Africa Lessons, Bantu Migrations, Activity 5, Michigan State University matrix website.
Our Shared Past in the Mediterranean, Curriculum Project For Educators, published by Ali Vural Ak Center forGlobal Islamic Studies, George Mason University, 2014. See 6 Lesson modules dealing with history and culture of the Mediterranean region many dealing with migration
Amy S. Valerio, "Pastoralists and Agrarians: Identifying Connections Between Historical and Contemporary Migrations," University of North Carolina education Lesson Plans. Amy Valerio, Ravenscroft Schools, Raleigh, North Carolina designed a lesson plan comparing Aryan migrations into northern South Asia and contemporary Sudan, Africa. When teaching the Indo-Aryan migrations one has to be aware of the controversies involved, esp. with the Aryan Invasion theories. See full text of Edwin E. Bryant and Laurie L. Patton, eds., "Indo-Aryan Evidence and Inference in Indian History,"New Yorkand London: Routledge, 2005:,

See 535 slide share of Bryant and Patton, eds., book:
"Human Migration," National Geographic Education, 1994-2014. Large number of resources, activities, lessons on human migration in world history. See tabs at top of page for resources and scroll down to see instructions as to filtering by Type, Grades and Ages, Intended Audience, Subjects, Downloadable.
"Human Migration: The Story of a Community's Culture," Xpeditions Lesson Archive,National Geographic. American migration lessons.
Liz Stinson, "An Infograhic that Maps 2,600 Years of Culture in 5 Minutes,", August 7, 2014. Infographic created at University of Texas, Dallas showing how creative minds/artists moved/migrated, as a change over time, to art hubs. Examples mentioned are Greece, Rome, Paris, Berlin, and Hollywood. Even though Eurocentric this could be used as a change over time exerciseto highlight types of arts/artists at each hub city, why the urban site became an art hub and why it may have declined.

Also, one could add any world historical context swirling around that city or how that city and it's art effected thesurrounding regions, also world historical context.

Seeing that this infographic is Eurocentric, one could also research what sites prior to Greece were art/intellectual hubs, such as Babylon, early AbbasidBaghdad, Andalusian Spain or even Bollywood today and what allowed these "hubs" to create art, intellectual, technological advances and why they declined.
Brendan Smyth, "Early European Imperial Colonization in the New World," Gilder Lehrman Institute lesson and resources. You may have subscribe to this site to access resources. Free subscription. European migrationsor colonization of Americas lessons.
"Exploring Modern Human Migrations," National Geographic Education, 1996-2014. Activity includes research assignments for students on Romani migrations in Europe since 1400, African-Americans after WW II, Jews to Palestine, Vietnam Boat People and Afghan migrations during 1979 Soviet invasion.
"Background Lessons for Journey North,", Journey North lessons. Human migration is indeed the topic of migrations in world history, but early humans had to understand, to survive and adapt, animal, bird, fish migration patterns which in many cases they followed. Here are some resources and lessons to help in that study if one so wishes.
"Interactive Maps-World History: Ancient Civilizations," Houghton Mifflin. See Bantu, Aryan migrations, Jewish Diaspora,spread of Christianity, Invasions into Roman Empire maps.
Margaret Beale and Sloan Lynch, "Push Pull Factors of Migration," National Council for the Social Studies, Vermont Scholar website.
Migration Lesson Plans, World Vision, Australia, 2014. See six lesson plans on migration including push pull factors.
US-Mexican War, PBS, Lessons for educators. See other digital resources for this war, Migration and Manifest Destiny in NorthAmerican section towards end of this article.
"Three Perspectives on Native American Removal and Westward Expansion," Teaching History website. Primary source lesson plan on Cherokee removal, 1830's, utilizing documents, letters, stories and speeches.
"Hester StreetStudy Guide," Teaching With Movies. "Hester Street," 1975, 89 minute color film about New York City's Lower East Side, 1896, and a Russian Jewish family and their problems assimilating to American Life after migrating from Russia. See full film:
Migration in world history teaching modules, Global REM, University of Minnesota, last modified August 27, 2012. See manyexamples of migration teaching lessons for University and Post-Secondary students. See example of modern Muslim migrations to Europe and Gender, Culture and Migration lesson modules below.
"Muslim Migration to Europe," University of Minnesota teaching modules. Resources and teaching module for understanding waves of modern Muslim migrations to Europe from mid-twentieth century to present.
"Gender, Culture and Migration," Global REM, University of Minnesota teaching modules.
Hollie Nyseth Brehm, "American Immigration," The Society Pages, University of Minnesota. Hollie Nyseth Brehm included two "articles" within The Society Pages website. Immigration in the 2012 Election, November 18, 2012, and Teaching Race, Ethnicity, and Migrations from University REM research site, December 7, 2012. Both of these articles include lesson ideas, resources, and note a "Quiz" on Immigration.
"May is Asian Pacific American heritage Month,"Scholastic.Lessons and activities highlighting Asian Pacific migration to America for grades pre-K through 12th.
Transatlantic Teaching Training Resources, Migration Resources on the Web, June 2004 Workshop for Teachers, University of Wisconsin, Madison. See resources for general migration history, German immigration to the US/ Wisconsin and Immigration to Germany, plus Lesson plans for teaching Migration in world and US history.
Two migration lessons explaining how geography and the environment effect migration of peoples, The Geographic Advantage, An AAG (Association of American Geographers) Companion Website for "Understanding the Changing Planet, 2013. See "Understanding the Changing Planet:"
Osvaldo Muniz (Texas State University), Wei Li (Arizona State University) and Yvonne Schleicher (University of Education-Weingarten, Germany), Conceptual Framework: Why do people move to work in another place or country?" AAG (Association of American Geographers) Center for Global Education. Detailed Migration lesson module including key questions, case studies and list of resources.
Human Migrations,World Savvy, Issue 7, January 2009. See various lessons on global migrations.
Victor Carmona, "Approaches to Understanding Current US/Mexican Immigration Issues," Kellogg Institute for International Studies, University of Notre Dame, September 20, 2010. See readings, novels, monographs, articles, movies, documentaries, Television series, and Lesson Plans.
Stephen Wesson, "Mexican American Migrations and Communities: A New Library of Congress Primary Source Set," Library of Congress, May 6, 2013. Click on "blue" link to see primary sources in Spanish and English.;jsessionid=f830387541409498337537?migration=10&bhcp=1
Caribbean Immigration, Education Materials, In Motion, New York Public Library, 2005. See lessons, population statistics, maps for teaching Caribbean immigration especially into the United States.
Center for Latin American and Caribbean Studies, University of Illinois at Champaign- Urbana, 2013. See resources and lessons (K-14) section on Latin American Immigration and Migration.
"Understanding Migration," Curriculum Resources for the Classroom, revised edition, Hemispheres Project Lesson modules, University of Texas, Austin, December 2011. See case studies about migration from all regionsand countries in the world.
"Immigration in Europe: Challenges and Opportunities-A Resource Packet for K-14 Educators," ORIAS, University ofCalifornia, Berkeley, prepared for Forum March 2011. Note European and North American lesson modules.
"Resources on Migration," Center for Latin American Studies, The Ohio State University. See resources forOrganizations, Media, Books (elementary, middle school, high school), and Lesson plans for Latin American migration.
"New Faces: Latinos in North Carolina," Working Films. Five Lessons in this 24 pp. pdf dealing with globalization, migration and Latinos in North Carolina. One could adapt this lesson for your state.
"US Immigration Policy: What Should We Do?" Choices, 2014. One week curriculum unit on US Immigration policy.
"Immigration Resource Collection," Facing History and Ourselves, 2014. Lesson plans and resources for Migration and Immigration studies.
"Cine Migratorio: The Festival," Project Kit, June 2013. Film festival resources and lessons for Cine Migratorio in Spain which portrayed experiences of migrations organized by youths living in Spain.

Note Ryba L. Epstein designed DBQ [Document Based Essay question] on Travelers and their views on "the Other" they encountered in their trade, political and militarymissions, migrations, diasporas, etc.

Ryba L. Epstein 2011. Permission granted for classroom use with acknowledgement.

Note to teachers: choose 6-8 of the following documents for a timed essay. All may be used for an out-of-class practice DBQ.

Travel and the "Other" DBQ

Instructions to students:
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
• Has a relevant thesis that does more than simply restate the question.
• Supports the thesis with evidence from the documents.
• Uses all of the documents.
• Analyzes the documents by grouping them in as many appropriate ways as possible and explaining the reason for the groups [group implies at least two documents]. Does not simply summarize the documents individually.
• Interprets the meaning of the documents correctly.
• Takes into account both the sources of the documents and the authors' points of view.
• Notes what additional information or documents would be useful to answer the question and explains why that document would be useful in answering the question.

Using the documents listed below from the time period of 600 BCE to 1500 CE, analyze the various reactions of travelers and the people whom they encountered to the "other" and speculate on the reasons for these reactions. Be sure to explain what specific additional sources might change yourinterpretation of the question.

Document 1
Hanno, a Carthaginian admiral, on a voyage along the west coast of Africa, around 425 B.C.E., searching for sites for new settlements:
"Passing on from there we came to the large river Lixos, flowing from Libya, besides which nomads called Lixitae pastured there flocks. We stayed some time withthem and became friends. . . . Inland from there dwelt inhospitable Ethiopians in land ridden with wild beasts and hemmed in by great mountains. . . . [Further along the journey, probably up the Senegal River] . . . we came to the end of the lake, overhung by some very high mountains crowded with savages clad in the skins of wild beasts, who stoned us and beat us off and prevented us from disembarking."

Document 2
Priscus, c. 450 C.E., official sent to Attila the Hun by the Eastern Roman Empire:
"A lavish meal, served on silver trenchers, was prepared for us and the other barbarians, but Attila just had meat on a wooden platter, for this was one aspect ofhis self-discipline. For instance, gold or silver cups were presented to the others diners, but his own goblet was made of wood. His clothes, too, were simple, and no trouble was taken except to have them clean."

Document 3
Ibn Fadlun, circa 920 C.E., ambassador of the Caliph of Baghdad to the Bulgar Khaganate:
"I saw the Rus when they arrived on their trading mission and anchored at the River Atul [Volga]. Never had I seen people of more perfect physique; they are tall as date-palms, and reddish in color. They wear neither coat nor mantle, but each man carries a cape which covers one half of his body, leaving one hand free. Their swords are Frankish in pattern, broad, flat, and fluted. Each man has [tattooed upon him] trees, figures, and the like from the fingernails to the neck. . . . They are the filthiest of God's creatures. They do not wash after discharging their natural functions, neither do they wash their hands after meals. They are as donkeys."

Document 4
From Travels of Marco Polo, Venetian merchant and explorer, describing the capital of the Yuan dynasty in China c. 1280-90 C.E.:
"The people are idolaters; and since they were conquered by the Great Khan* they use paper money. [Both men and women are fair and comely, and for the mostpart clothe themselves in silk, so vast is the supply of that material, both from the whole district of Kinsay, and from the imports by traders from other provinces.]

And you must know they eat every kind of flesh, even that of dogs and other unclean beasts, which nothing would induce a Christian to eat."
*Kublai, grandson of Genghis Khan

Document 5
Usama, Syrian Muslim chronicler, 12th century:
"Everyone who is a fresh immigrant from the Frankish lands is ruder in character than those who have been acclimatized and have held long associations with the Muslims. . . .
we came to the house of one of the old knights who came with the first expedition. This man had retired from the army and was living on the income of the property he owned in Antioch.
He had a fine table brought out, spread with a splendid selection of appetizing food. He saw that I was not eating, and said: ‘Don't worry, please; eat what you like,for I don't eat Frankish food. I have Egyptian cooks and only eat what they serve. No pig's flesh ever comes into my house.' So I ate, although cautiously, and then we left."

Document 6
Ibn Battuta, from Travels in Asia and Africa, 14th century:
". . . I met the qadi of Mali, Abd al-Rahman, who came to see me: he is a black, has been on the pilgrimage [to Mecca], and is a noble person with good qualities and character.
He sent me a cow as his hospitality gift. I met the interpreter Dugha, a noble black and a leader of theirs. He sent me a bull. . . . They performed their duty towards me [as a guest] most perfectly; may God bless and reward them for their good deeds!"

Document 7
Bertrandon de La Brocquière, from his book The Journey to Outre-Mer, French pilgrim to the Middle East, around 1433 CE:
"They [the Turks] are a tolerably handsome race, with long beards, but of moderate size and strength. I know well that it is a common expression to say ‘as strong as a Turk',
nevertheless I have seen an infinity of Christians excel them when strength was necessary, . . . They are diligent, willingly rise early, and live on little, being satisfied with bread badly baked, raw meat dried in the sun, milk curdled or not, honey, cheese, grapes, fruit, herbs, and even a handful of flour with which they make a soup sufficient to feed six or eight for a day. . . . Their horses are good, cost little in food, gallop well and for a long time. They keep them on short allowances, never feeding them but at night and then giving them only five or six handfuls of barley with double the quantity of chopped straw, the whole put into a bag which hangs from the horse's ears. . . . I must own that in my various experiences I have always found the Turks frank and loyal, and when it was necessary to show courage, they have never failed . . . "

Document 8
Sultan Bayezid II, ruler of the Ottoman empire (1481-1512):
"You know very well the unwashed [Christians] and their ways and manners, which certainly are not fine. They are indolent, sleepy, easily shocked, inactive; they like to drink much and to eat much; . . . They keep horses only to ride while hunting with their dogs; if one of them wishes to have a good war-horse, he sends to buy it from us. . . .They let women follow them in the campaigns, and at their dinners give them the upper places; and they always want to have warm dishes. In short, there is no good in them."

Document 9
Christopher Columbus, from his log dated October 12, 1492:
"I want the natives to develop a friendly attitude toward us because I know that they are a people who can be made free and converted to our Holy Faith more by love than by force. I therefore gave red caps to some and glass beads to others. . . . And they took great pleasure in this and became so friendly that it was a marvel. They traded and gave everything they had in good will, but it seems to me that they have very little and are poor in everything. I warned my men to take nothing from the people without giving something in exchange."

Document 10
From Book 12 of "The Florentine Codex," a history of the Spanish conquest of Mexico written by Friar Bernardino de Sahagún in collaboration with Aztec menwho were former students, late 16th century:
"They gave [the Spaniards] emblems of gold, banners of quetzal plumes, and golden necklaces. And when they gave them these, the Spaniards' faces grinned; they were delighted, they were overjoyed. They snatched up the gold like monkeys. . . . They were swollen with greed; . . . they hungered for that gold like wild pigs. . . . They babbled in a barbarous language; everything they said was in a savage tongue. . . ."

Migration Topical Bibliography, British Library, Social Science Collection Guide. This bibliography was developed in 2008 by PhD student, Amy Claridge and includes books, theses, journals, databases, maps and sound archives.
"Significant Books on Immigration, Immigrants, and Ethnicity," University of Washington bibliography, 2010. Most works listed are American history focused encompassing books written from 1985-2006.
"Migration," History in Focus, UK. Bibliographies (annotated) on migration topics including "General," see 18thcentury convict transportation, Africa, American including Caribbean, Asian and Middle East, Australian, British and Irish, and Europe.
"Blacks in the Diaspora,", Search, 2001-2014. See 144 books on Blacks in global diaspora/migration.
Patrick Manning, Department of History website, University of Pittsburgh. Dr. Manning's publications and articles manyhaving to do with migration in world history,
especially Africa.
Global History Annotated Bibliography, Arts on line, Monash University, Australia, April 27, 2013. Many of these titles include migration in world history chapters, sections, discussions and historiography.
"Migration Collections-Worldwide," international institute of social history. Short collection of student and worker migrant sites for social justice.

David Christian, "The Silk Roads in World History," (History 680) Central Asia Studies World Wide, course syllabus for the Study of Central Eurasia, San Diego State University, Department of History, Fall 2001.
Dr.Elaine MacKinnon syllabus for her World History Survey course, Fall 2012, utilizing Bentley and Zeigler,Traditionsand Encounters,McGraw-Hill and her own work, Places of Encounter:
Rowan Dorin, "Out of Eden: History of Expulsions in the Pre-Modern West," Fall 2013, syllabus, Harvard University. Deportations and forced migrations focus of this course.
Annemarie Sammartino, "Migration in Twentieth Century Europe," Oberlin College, Fall 2006 syllabus.
Adam Saltsman, "The Sociology of Migration," Department of Sociology, Boston College, Fall 2010.
Thomas Anderson, University of Pittsburgh Spring 2010, "History 1716-Indian Ocean World," syllabus.
Dr. Rajashree Mazumder, "Migration in the Indian Ocean Draft Syllabus," Yale University, Fall 2013.
Professor Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, "Islam Beyond the Central Islamic Lands: China and Europe," New York University, History Department syllabus, Fall 2011. Course examines Islamic diaspora and migrations into China and western Europe.
Professor Irene Bloemraad, University of California, Berkeley, "Sociology 146: Immigration in Global Perspective," Spring 2012.
Shira Klein, "Migration in World History," syllabus, Chapman University, Fall 2013.
Megan Metters, "The History of Immigration in Europe and the United States from WW II to Present," New York University course syllabus, Spring 2011. This course focused on the genesis of multicultural contemporary societies.
Dr. Michael J. Greenwood, "Migration, Immigration Adaptations and Development, Economics course syllabus, University of Colorado, Boulder, Spring 2011. Course surrounded economics of United States migration history.
Aldo Lauria Santiago, "Colloquium in Labor History: Latin American Workers, South and North," Rutgers University, Department of History syllabus. Urban and rural workers since late 19th century, Latin American labor migration or incorporation into the United States and labor organizing, protest and revolt was focus of this colloquium.
"Latin American Migration," Coursera syllabus prepared by Dr. Abril Trigo, The Ohio State University, 2014. Course aimed at high school teachers.
Roger Waldinger, "International Migration," Soc 236A, UCLA course syllabus, Department of Sociology.
Jonathan Dresner, "Asian-US Migration," Pittsburg State University, Fall 2012. Migration from India, Japan and China to the United States graduate course.
Dr. Huei-Ying Kuo, "Chinese Migration in Modern World History, 1500's-2000's," School of Sociology syllabus, John Hopkins University.
"MSc Global Migration," Student Handbook, University College London, 2013-2014. UCL Department of Geography postgraduate course handbook. Important theme for students to understand is global migration in the age of globalization.
Dr. M.S.Y. Lee and Dr. A.S.C. Sim, "Globalization and Migration, Global Issues course syllabus, The University of Hong Kong, 2014-2015.
The Protection Project, John Hopkins University, Syllabi Archive. See course syllabi on Migration, human trafficking, Gender and migration, plus other topics in this website.

Regional Migration Digital Resources:

Sean P. Connaughton, "Oceanic Explorations: Lapita and Western Pacific Settlement,Terra Australis 26," Australian National University, 2007 seen Terra Australis is a series of monographs on Pacific settlement, migrations, archaeology,history, ed. by Stuart Bedford, Christophe Sand and Sean P. Connaughton.
"Pacific Migrations," The Encyclopedia of New Zealand website. See resources on original peoples, Lapitapeople migrations to modern times.
"Scientists Improve dating of early human settlement," News, November 15, 2012. Simon Fraser University scientists, Canada, have dated human colonization of Polynesian triangle to 880-896 BCE.
Lynton Dove White, "Canoe Plants of Ancient Hawaii," Ka Imi Naauao o Hawaii Nei, 2003. Voyaging canoes criss-crossed Oceania and finally to the mid-Pacific to Hawaii. Lynton Dove White's website describing those plants and the migrations.
Marcia Malory, "Research Reveals Tonga's Role as Pacific Trade Hub," news, July 8, 2014. Tonga's growth as a centralized political and trade center impacting a vast region of the Pacific unveiled by examining tombs on Tonga.
Charles W. Romney, "Habeas Corpus, Asian Migrants, and Imperial Rights in Hawaii in 1900,"World HistoryConnected, 2011. Dr. Charles Romney, University of Arkansas, Little Rock, highlights Chinese female migrants lawsuits against men who "bought" them as prostitutes and then claimed they were married to the immigrant women.
John Maunu, "Hawaii in World History: On-Line Resources,"World History Connected, Vol. 8, No. 3, October 2011. See many digital resources, lessons, university syllabi, etc. involving migration, diaspora, immigration in Hawaiian history.


map source: Traditional 'Out of Africa' migration map. K. Kris Hirst, Migrations Out of Africa, Archaeology,
Roger Blench, "Language, Linguistics and Archaeology; their integration in the study of African prehistory," Chapter for The Oxford Handbook of African Archaeology," Peter Mitchell & Paul Lane, eds., July 2013. Roger Blench discussed the "new synthesis" in African prehistory migration studies which incorporates the social sciences, language, linguistics, archaeology, DNA genetic research to reach farther back into world history.
Charles Q. Choi, "Ancient Arabian Stones Hint at How Human's Migrated out of Africa,"Live Science,August 26, 2014.
Stanford University Medical Center, "Genetic Evidence Used to Trace Ancient African Migration,"Science Daily,August 5, 2008. Using DNA evidence Stanford University Medical Center claimed that new ideas such as animal herding strategies, moved via migration not by movement of ideas between neighbors.
"Africa Human Geography," National Geographic education encyclopedia Lessons. Note comments on three important migrations which shaped African history: earliest pre-human migrations from the "Mother Continent," Bantu and Slave Trade migrations.
"Bantu Migrations," New York State Education Department. See slide show on left side of page for maps of Bantu migrations.

Shula Marks, "South Africa-'The Myth of the Empty Land,'"History Today,Vol. 30, Issue 1, 1980. Shula Marks unveils abundant archaeological evidence, much of it recently gathered, for the widespread settlement of South Africa before 1488 when Portuguese sailors first reached the Cape. The South African government had "given" native Bantu-speaking peoples only 13% of the land claiming "evidence" that at the time of initial white migration large areas of land were empty. Migration as political, propaganda and nationalistic.;jsessionid=A3B902F16ABAA04C92B1F9181DAD515E
Voyages: The Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade Database. Information available on more than 35,000 slave voyages. Idea proposed in 1990 by David Ellis and Stephen Behrendt of the British Public Record Office.
Patrick Manning, "African Population, 1650-1950: Methods for New Estimates by Region," African Economic History Conference, Vancouver, BC, April 2013. Dr. Manning's presentation summarizing his methodology for estimating African population including variables of birth, death, migration and forced slave migrations. All this part of the African Population Project.
Aderito Machava, "Women and Migration in African Historiography: Notes for a Debate,"Afrika Zaani,Nos. 18 & 19, 2010-2011, pp. 17-24. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa & Association of African Historians, 2013. Aderito Machava claimed that women are invisible in African migration research and studies due to the patriarchy evident in African cultures.
Peter Stanton, "The Subaltern Global History and Africa: Slaves, Soldiers and Migrants-Challenging Historians," Georgetown University research paper (18 pages) for Phi Alpha Theta Mid-Atlantic Regional Conference, March 23, 2013. Focus is on historiography and historical challenges to teaching the under-class, or subaltern, in African studies.

monograph seen in Academia.
"The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean," Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, The New York Public Library, 2011. Website with tabs at top to navigate through the many resources on African migration in the Indian Ocean world with an introduction by Dr. Omar H. Ali, University of North Carolina, Greensboro. See Dr. Omar H. Ali's essay in pdf format:
Tiffany Ruby Patterson and Robin D. G. Kelley, "Unfinished Migrations: Reflections on the African Diaspora and the Making of the Modern World,"African Studies Review, Vol. 43, No. 1, Special Issue on the Diaspora, April 2000, pp. 11-45. Seen in See Table of Contents of that Special Issue:
Sola Akinrinade and Olukoya Ogen, "Historicising the Nigerian Diaspora: Nigerian Migrants and Homeland Relations," TJPTurkish Journal of Politics,Vol. 2, No. 2, Winter 2011. These two professors from Osun State University reject diaspora historiography of placing individual counties' migration history within the larger context of African diaspora and urge more study on single nation diasporas.

Central Asia:
Natasha Sheldon, "The Takla Makan Mummies: Human Migration and Ethnic Discord," Decoded Past, May 7, 2013. Tarim Basin is controversial home of the Takla Makan Mummies which some say prove pre-modern human migratory patterns and ethnic discord as well as early East-West admixture of migrating peoples. Mummies can also prove that the people who live in the Tarim Basin are not ethnic Chinese and deserve to be granted independent statehood.
Christine Keyser, etc., "Ancient DNA Provides new insight into the History of the south Siberian Kurgan people," OriginalInvestigation, May 16, 2009, Springer-Verlag 2009. Exploring DNA this team finds evidence as to who settled south Siberia during early Eurasian steppe migrations. Bronze and Iron Ages south Siberia was a region of overwhelmingly European peoples.
Molly Greenhouse, "Investigating the Sea Peoples: Nomadic Tribes and Causes of Migration From Anatolia in the Late Bronze Age," May 1, 2012 paper seen in Greenhouse is undergraduate student in University of Maryland, Baltimore County Ancient Studies program. This paper was given special notice by University of Maryland.
David Christian, "Silk Roads or Steppe Roads," used with permission for Bridging World History, Annenberg Foundation, 2004. The traditional view of the Silk Roads was that it linked trade and migration of major regions of agrarian civilizations in Afro-Eurasia and as originating in the Classical Era. David Christian cites evidence as to the Silk Roads as trans-ecological exchanges of the agrarian world to the pastoralist world of inner Eurasian steppes and woodland cultures to the north. Plus, Christian postulated that the Steppe/Silk Road exchanges were much older than the classical period, actually reaching back to the 4th millennium BCE.
Craig Benjamin, "The Yuezhi and Sogdia,"Tansoxiana WebfestschriftSeries I, March 2003. Dr. Benjamin, now professor at Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, Michigan, discussed the defeat of the central Eurasian steppe Yuezhi by the Xiongnu in 162 BCEand the Yuezhi westward migration into Sogdian territories, today Afghanistan.
"The Sogdians of the Silk Road," Silk Road Sogdians blog, April 4, 2011. The Sogdians centered in Central Asia, Uzbekistan, etc. dominated the Silk Road as principal merchants until conquered by Hephthalites and Turks in the 5th and 6th centuries CE. Their trade diasporas linked China, India and the Middle East cultures.
Xinru Liu, "Migration and Settlement of the Yuezhi-Kushan: Interaction and Interdependence of Nomadic and Sedentary Societies,"Journal of World History,Vol. 12, No. 2, 2001, pp. 261-292. Migration, adaption and change over time in Central Asia, 130 BCE-240 CE.
Jeffrey Hays, "Horseman Migrations, Weapons and Life on the Steppe," Facts and Details, last updated November 2012.
C. Lalueza-Fox, etc. al, "Unravelling Migration in the Steppe: Mitochondrial DNA Sequences from Central Asians,"

Royal Society paper, published March 31, 2004, pp. 941-947. Researchers claimed that this paper will help clarify debates on theWestern and Eastern genetic influences in Central Asian migration history. See C. Lalueza-Fox research cited in blogsite below on Central Asian migrations, languages, DNA and archaeology studies, especially facial, ethnic photographs of various European looking Central Asian people:
Yunus Emre Gurbuz, "One Migration, Two Different Historiographies: The Migration of the Uzbeks and Kazakhs in the 15th century," Turk Studies,International Periodical for the Language, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, Academic Journal,Tarih Sayisi, Vol. 8, Issue 5, September 2013. Seen in The Soviet Union "new man" was to be stripped of allethnic identity and be a Soviet which ignored central Asian schools of ethnic identity in the classroom. Yunus Emre Gurbuzexplained Uzbek and Kazakh migration history compared to Soviet versions.
Sebastien Peyrouse, "The Russian Minority in Central Asia," Kennan Institute, Woodrow Wilson Institute Center for Scholars, Occasional Paper # 297, paper translated by Michelle Smith. Migration of Russians into Central Asia.
Scott Tufankijian, "Going Beyond 1915 to Celebrate the Strength and Vibrance of the Global Armenian Diaspora," Kick Starter.
Erica Marat, "Labor Migration in Central Asia: Implications of the Global Economic Crisis," Silk Road Paper, Central Asia-Caucasus Institute Silk Road Studies Project, May 2009. Erica Marat's monograph discussed Central Asian labor migrations in the 2000's with peak migration being in 2008.

Middle East:
Emily Underwood, "Ancient Tools Point to Early Migration Into Arabia,"Science Magazine, November 30, 2011. 106,000 years ago people stood near the Red Sea and decided to migrate into Arabia which had a "greener" environment than it does now.
Cynthia Astle, "Archaeological Evidence About the Story of Abraham in the Bible," Ancient History, Clay tablets cited as evidence for journey/migration of Abraham west to the Levant.
"The Age of the Patriarchs, 1950-1500 BCE," Jewish Virtual Library, short summary of Egyptian empire and Abraham's migration out of Mesopotamia.
D. T. Potts, "Potts 2013-Mesopotamian and Persian Migrations: Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration, Blackwell, ed. I. Ness 2013," Academia. Five page encyclopedia entry for Mesopotamian and Persian migrations in ancient history.
"The Jewish Diaspora," Frontline PBS, "From Jesus to Christ," documentary, 1995-2014 WGBH Educational Foundation. See slim essays by L. Michael White,University of Texas, Austin, Shaye I. D. Cohen, Brown University, Paula Fredriksen, Boston University on the Jewishmigrations in time of Christ. Christians began to spread out beyond the original homeland and they were followinga migration path that had been well trod by other Jews. See Frontline PBS entire "From Jesus to Christ" documentary:
"Immigration to Israel: Introduction and Overview," Jewish Virtual Library, 2014. Jewish point of view as to migration/immigration into their homeland. Migration theory and history as evidence as to who owns the land in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.
Im Nin'Alu's Book of Origins. Jewish website dedicated to providing evidence for Jewish right to Israel and all of Jerusalem with migration histories of semitic peoples.
Fred M. Gottheil, "The Smoking Gun: Arab immigration into Palestine, 1922-1931,Middle East Quarterly, Winter 2003, pp. 53-64. Pro-Israel point of view as to control of land in the Levant. See link to "Founding National Myths" article on top right of page.
Mushsin Yusuf, "The Partition of Palestine-An Arab Perspective,"Palestine-Israel Journal, Vol. 9, No. 4, 2002. Mushin Yusuf begins his article by claiming, "the Jewish Conquering of Palestine can be viewed in the Western tradition of the crusades and imperialism." The Palestine-Israel Journal was founded in 1994 by an Israeli and Palestinian journalist. Note argument as to Palestinian migration into the region.
Palestine Remembered website including migrations and Palestinian diaspora. Palestinian perspective as to ownership of land and migration history.
Nazli Choucri, "Migration in the Middle East-Transformation and Change,"Middle East Review,Winter 1983/4. Increased need for manpower after oil price increase of 1973 is reason for major change in Middle East migrations.
Suresh K. Pillai, "Gulf Dreams-Essays on Migration of Malayalees to Gulf Countries," 2011 monograph seen in

South Asia:

Map source: Scheme of Indo-European Migrations from ca 4000-1000 BCE according to Kurgan hypothesis, Human Migrations,Wikipedia.
"Origins of Indo-Europeans, Language Development," Human Journey. See three popular theories for Indo-European people and their language in two page Human Journey "essay" which include the Kurgan thesis, Anatolian thesis, and the PaleolithicContinuity Theory.
Aryan Invasion Theory links, See eight resources/links to Aryan migrations, specifically the Aryan Invasion theory. See one example of those links: David Frawley, "The Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India,",
David Frawley, "Aryan Invasion of India, Pt. 1,"Hindu Online, November 10, 2008. See another version of Dr. Frawley's Myth of the Aryan Invasion of India.
"The Aryan Invasion: Theories, Counter-theories and Historical Significance,"Archaeology Online, 2005-2014. References to British use of Aryan Invasion theory to promote the British Raj in India, i. e., India being ruled for the second time by "people the color of wheat."
Slide ppt. "Aryan Invasion Theory, Myth or Reality-Evidence for and against," North Carolina State University, February 21, 2007.
Dr. Koenraad Elst, "The Politics of the Aryan Invasion Theory," Koenraad Elst website. Professor Elst shares articles and papers as to the politicization of the Aryan Migration Myth. Migration stories as political, nationalistic and propaganda. Go to "Home" tab for updated resources.
"Myths, history, and Migration," Wayanad, January 5, 2013. A slim article on the history of northeast Kerala Province, India migrationbeginning with very ancient peoples, the Jains, British and now tourists who are making a mess of Wayanad land even though they bring money. See tribes of Wayanad:
"Buddhism and Its Spread Along the Silk Road," Silk Road Foundation. Short article on Buddhist migration into northernIndia, Tarim Basin, the steppe and into China with timeline and map.
Dr. Habib Siddiqui, "The Decline of Buddhism in Ancient and Medieval India-Analysis,"Eurasia Review, August 5, 2013. Reasons for Buddhist migrations east and southeast.
Ashok Dasgupta, "Migration: An Anthropological Perspective With Special References to North Bengal, India,"International E-Publication, International Science Congress Association, 2013. Ashok Dasgupta, University of North Bengal, began his monograph with a discussion about theories of migration research and moves into three case studies of tribal migrations in north India.
Thomas Anderson, University of New Hampshire, "Teaching the Indian Ocean World," World History Connected, Vol. 11, Issue 1, February 2014. Note references to Indian Oceanmigration and extensive examples of migration footnotes/sources at end of this essay.
Richard B. Allen, Framingham State College, "Slavery and the Slave Trades in the Indian Ocean and Arab World: Global Connections and Disconnections," 10th Annual Gilder Lehrman International Conference at Yale University, November 7-8, 2008. Dr. Allen's monograph highlights 19th century slave migrations in the Indian Ocean and Arab World.
Mohammad Jalal Uddin Sikder, "Population Movements and the Threat of HIV/AIDS Virus at the Bangladesh-India Border," RSIS Monograph No. 14, NTS-Asia Secretariat, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies (RSIS), August 22, 2008.
Indian Ocean research projects, University of Bergen Centre for Middle East and Islamic Studies. See esp. short summaries of Hadrami diaspora: Migration of People, commodities and ideas and Trade and Migration project.
Ellen Laipson and Amit Pandya, eds., "On the Move-Migration Challenges in the Indian Ocean Littoral," Henry L. Stimson Center, 2010.
Suzanne McMahon, South Asian Bibliographer, University of California, Berkeley,"Overview of South Asian Diaspora," University of California, Berkeley Library, 1995. Slim annotations for 19th-20th century Indian migrations. See South Asia Resources page, South/Southeast Asia Library Resources, University of California, Berkeley for more on South Asiadiaspora and migrations:
Vinay Lal, "The Indian Diaspora," Vinay Lal Blog. Dr. Vinay Lal, UCLA professor of South Asian History and Culture, gives an overview of modern Indian migration. See four of his Diaspora/Migration articles written for The Hindu news, India, at the bottom of this short essay. See other resources on this topic on right side of page.
"South Asian Migration Histories Timeline," Moving Here website, Migration Histories, The National Archives, UK. Timeline of British migrations to and from South Asia.

Southeast Asia:
Xiayun Cai, etc. from Genographic Consortium, "Human Migrations Through Bottlenecks from Southeast Asia Into East Asia During Last Glacial Maximum Revealed by Y Chromosomes,", August 31, 2011 DOI 10.1371/ journal.pone.0024282. Molecular anthropology studies have found most of the Y-chromosome lineages of East Asians came from Southeast Asia. This paper displayed data from 1,652 individual belonging to 47 Mon-Khmer and Hmong-Mien speaking populations.
Craig A. Lockard, "Southeast Asia in World History,World History Connected, Vol. 5, No. 1, October 2007. Seereferences to migration and movement of peoples in this article by Southeast Asian researcher Dr. Craig Lockard, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.
Allen Charlie, "Iban's Myth and History: Migration and the Origins of Iban Culture," Allen Charlie website, September 8, 2011. Note links Pt. 1 and Pt. 2 to Iban Migration myths and history. Iban people lived on southeast maritime island of Borneo.
Lorraine Elliott, ed., "Climate Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia," S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, monograph no. 24, 2012. Seven chapters by seven authors describing climate change effects on humanmigration in modern Southeast Asia.
Adam McKeown, "Global Migration, 1846-1970,"Journal of World History,Issue 15, No. 2, June 2004, pp. 155-189, seen in Bridging World History as Reading no. 2, Annenberg Foundation, 2004. Adam McKeown has claimed that northern Asia and southeast Asian migrations have been overlooked within the popularity of Atlantic world migrations. Dr. McKeown stated that northern and southeast Asian migration is comparable to transatlantic flows and followed similar cycles of growth and contraction.
"Chinese Migration into Southeast Asia," OAC, Online Archive of California, 2009 The Regents of the University of California. Brief history of Chinese migration into Southeast Asia since 19th century.
Amarjit Kaur, "Labor Crossings in Southeast Asia: Linking Contemporary Labor Migration," New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 11, Issue 1, June 2009, pp. 276-303. Amarjit Kaur, University of New England, links historical and

contemporary Southeast Asian long-distance labor migration which approximated European transatlantic migrations. Southeast Asia was a major destination of mass long-distance labor migrations in late 19th and early 20th century fromChina and India and was a defining feature of Asian globalization.
Charles Hirshman and Sabrina Bonaparte, "Population and Society in Southeast Asia: A Historical Perspective," Chapter 1, seen in "Demography of Southeast Asia: Recent histories and future directions," eds. L. Williams and P. Guest,pp. 1-37, New York: Cornell University. Hirshman and Bonaparte explain Southeast Asia's huge demographic change over time citing migration as one reason for that population explosion inlate 20th and early 21st centuries.
Asmita Naik, Elca Stigler and Frank Laczko, "Migration, Development and Natural Disasters: Insights From the Indian Ocean Tsunami," IOM Migration Research Series, No. 30, International Organization for Migration, Geneva, 2007. Thethree authors focus on Indonesian, Sri Lanka and Thailand migrations due to the effects of the recent Indian Ocean tsunami.
Lorraine Elliott, ed., "Climate Change, Migration and Human Security in Southeast Asia," RSIS Monograph No. 24, S. Rajaratnam School of International Studies, 2012. See six chapters from this monograph seen in academia.edua.

East Asia:
Tim Appenzeller, "Human Migrations: Eastern Odyssey,"Nature, May 12, 2012. Humans had spread across Asia by 50,000 years ago.
Nicola Di Cosomo, "Ancient China and Its Enemies-The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History," Cambridge University Press, 2002 seen in Nicola DiCosomo, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, cites revisionist scholarship as to the powerful Chinese empire and relationship to the "barbarians" to the north. New archaeological evidence shows these nomadic groups to be more organized, advanced and politically unified than previously thought. Migration and trade routes was seen as a growing threat to Chinese power.
Sooyoun Kim, "Esoteric Buddhism and the Cross Cultural Transiguration of Suramgama-Sutra Faith in Goryeo," The Asian Review of World History, Vol. 2, Issue 2, July 2014, pp. 169-195. University of Southern California's Sooyoun Kim discussed the migration of Buddhism from it's origin in 5th century BCE India to China during the birth of Christ and then a migration to Korea during the period of the Three Kingdoms, specifically the Goryeo dynasty (918-1392 CE). Dr. Kim discussed the syncretism that took place as Buddhism adapted to Chinese and Korean religions and showed how Korea under the Goryeo dynasty developed their own form of Buddhism differing from the Chinese.
Barbara Luthi, Basel University, review of Adam McKeown, "Melancholy Order: Asia Migration and the Globalization of Borders," New York: Columbia University Press, 2008, in H-Suz-u-Kit, July 23, 2010. Dr. Adam McKeownchallenges old migration historiography in his work, claiming that state borders were not static in the last two hundred years and that migration occurred within tensions and conflict among border states.
Professor Michael Laffan, Princeton University, Review of Sunil Amrith, "Migrations and Diaspora in Modern Asia," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011, 240 pp., January 2012. Date accessed: 3 August, 2014. Sunil Amrith highlights Asian migration history from 1850's to present.
Ronald Skeldon, "Migrations From China,"Journal of International Affairs,Vol. 49, Issue 2, Winter 1996 seen in Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis Anthropology course readings list.Slim article concerned migrations within modern China (19th century-20th century).
"The Largest Migration in History,"The Economist,February 24, 2012. View and listen to videographic, 2:43, on rural to urban migration in modern China. See two other articles by clicking on "here" and "here" beneath the videographic box.
Marja M. B. Asis, "Asian Women Migrants: Going the Distance, But Not Far Enough," Migration Policy Institute, March 1, 2003. Discussion of Asian women migrating to Gulf States and "dragon" Asian economies to fill labor needs in the last 40 years.
Graemo Hugo, University of Adelaide, "Migration in the Asia-Pacific region," Global Commission on International Migration, GCIM, a paper presented for the Policy Analysis and Research Programme of the Global Commission on International Migration, September 2005. Asian, Southeast Asian, Pacific migration analyzed and discussed.
Stephen Castles and Mark J. Miller, "Migration in the Asia-Pacific Region," Migration Policy Institute, July 10, 2009. Article describing modern Asian-Pacific migrations. See more articles on right side of page.
"Urbanization and Demographics Could Skew China's Economic Rebalancing,"Stratfor Intelligence, September 3, 2014. Internal Chinese migration discussed and effects on China's future.

Luca L. Cavalli-Sforza, "The Basque Population and Ancient Migrations in Europe,"Aranzadi Science Society, Munibe, Supplement No. 6,pp. 129-137, San Sebastian 1988. Monograph discussing theories as to why the Basque language and culturehas been preserved a midst many streams of European migrations. See home page for Aranzadi Science Society:
Complete text of Robert Drews, "The Coming of the Greeks-Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East, Princeton University Press, 1988. Dr. Drews discussed migration of the Bronze Age Greeks, their proto-Indo-European language and war chariots.,_identity,_and_place/
Elena Isayev, "Migration, Identity, and Place," Classics and Ancient History project, University of Exeter, UK. Isayev's ancient Italian research challenges prevailing view that in the ancient world there was a natural tie to a specific homeland and a demographically settled world. New understanding of what it means to belong to a community and place is seen in Elena Isayev's work, in other words, mobility and migration in the last millennium BCE was ongoing and cyclical.
Migrations and Conquests. See other maps many dealing with migrations on left side of page.
Clare Downham, "Viking Ethnicities: A Historiographic Overview,"History Compass, Vol. 10, Issue 1, 2012, pp. 1-12 seen in Clare Downham's paper discussed trends in historiography of Viking ethnicities and cultural identities, 800-1000 CE and highlights comparative analysis of human migrations in the field of Viking Studies.
Excerpts from Donald W. Treadgold, "The Great Siberian Migration-Government and Peasant Resettlement from Emancipation to the First World War,"Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1957 in University of Oregon pages. Mid-19th centuryRussian peasant reforms saw migration east past the Urals into Siberia. See brief comparative to Americanmigrations west.
Clifton B. Parker, "European Immigrants to America in early 20th century assimilated successfully, Stanford Economist Says,"Stanford News,August 7, 2014. Defying traditional history, Stanford economist claimed that European immigrants to America in late 19th and early 20th century made as much income as native born Americans.
Zig Layton-Henry, "New Commonwealth Migrants-1945-1962,"History Today, Vol. 35, Issue 12, 1985. Legacy of empire brought a half million Blacks and Asian to the British commonwealth in the 1950's.
R. M. Douglas, "The Expulsion of the Germans: The Largest Forced Migration in History," Huffington Post Blog, June 25, 2012, updated August 25, 2012. Colgate Associate Professor of History, R.M. Douglas summarized his book, "Orderly and Humane: The Expulsion of the Germans after the Second World War," Yale University Press, 2012. See Yale University Press site and 6:35 Video with Dr. Douglas outlining his book:
R. M. Douglas, "The European Atrocity You Never Heard About,"The Chronicle Review, The Chronicle of Higher Education, June 11, 2012. US, Britain and the Soviet Union ordered forced deportations of 12 to 14 million German-speaking civilians after WW II. They were moved out of their birthplaces in Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Yugoslavia and Western Poland. 500,000 died in this forced migration.
Melissa Lane, "Myths About Migration: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives," History and Policy, Policy Papers, February14, 2006. Professor Lane, Kings College at Cambridge University, analyzed migration and the state's right to "control" immigrants and migration and economic conditions and migration especially in Europe. A continuation of the European Union's struggle with free movements of people, labor, across European borders. Short paper with sources. See another analysis of this EU migration/immigration "struggle" below:
Hartmur Behr, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, "EU Immigration Politics: The Myth of the Nation and Legacies of Nationalism," published inInternational Political Economy, February 2005, pp 1-18 seen in Hartmur Behr focused on French and German struggles with immigration in the context of European Union agreements to allow free flow of people throughout Europe. Dr. Behr saw nationalistic identities, i.e., "We" and the "Other" being part of the political and social angst.
William Jackson, University of Leeds, review of Marjory Harper and Stephen Constantine, "Migration, Settlers and the British Empire," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010 seen Reviews in History, UK.
"Migration," History in Focus, UK. History in Focus invited 13 European academics to write short pieces on Migration and "crossing borders" in British history.
"The African Diaspora in Europe: Historical Overview," ICD-Institute for Cultural Diplomacy, 2007. Summaries and statisticsfor African migration to European countries broken down by European countries and their experience with thatmigration history.
"Migration Myths Debunked," news, November 21, 2013. Writing from Johannesburg, South African news journalist debunks migration myths many Europeans hold.
Sasa Stanisic, "Three Myths of Immigrant Writing: A View From Germany," Words Without Borders, 2008. Sasa Stanisic, born in Bosnia in 1992, escaped the war torn Balkans as an immigrant to Germany and has been writing novels, plays and poetry. He discussed three myths he has seen in European "Immigrant Writing."
"Migration." Slim study on Russian/Soviet various ethnic group migrations and emigrations from 1980's-1996 utilizing Glenn E. Curtis, ed.,"Russia: A Country Study," Washington: GPO For Library of Congress, 1996.
Mary Elizabeth Malinkin, "Russia: The World's Second Largest Immigration Haven,"National Interest,August 10, 2014. According to 2013 data, Russia is second only to the United States in sheer number of immigrants.

Caribbean Migration to Britain, Moving Here-Migration Histories, National Archives UK. See topics for Caribbean migration to Britain on left side ofpage.
"The African-Caribbean Community: A Historical Perspective," I Respect, nd. History of African-Caribbean migration to Britain.
Elizabeth Thomas-Hope, "Regional Special Topic Monograph on International Migration Based on Analysis of the 2000 Round Census Data of Eighteen Caribbean Countries," CARICOM Secretariat, 2009. Migration census data for the Caribbean.
Suresh Pillai, "Indentured Indian-Emergence of Hindu Identity in Caribbean Countries," 2004 monograph seen in, 36 pp. Download. Suresh K. Pillai spent 18 months in the Caribbean researching the Indian diaspora and theirinclusive cultural tradition of Hindu dharma.
Google Book. Augustin Lao-Montes and Arlene M. Davila, eds.,"Mambo Montage: The Latinization of New York," Columbia University Press, 2001. Diaspora/migration of Caribbean and Latin peoples to New York City and the cultures they produced.
Suzanne Model, "The Secret of West Indian Success," published online September 16, 2008, Springer Science, Business Media LLC, 2008. Why have West Indian migrants been more successful economically than African Americans? Suzanne Model claimed it is due to "selectivity of migration" which means tendency of people who migrate to more talented and determined.
Ruel Johnson, "The Diaspora," Caribbean Community Secretariat, The Caribbean Diaspora, 2011. Ruel Johnson, youngest winner of the Guyana Prize for Literature and currently a journalist, wrote this short essay honored at the Caribbean Community Secretariat retreat.
Alex Glennie and Laura Chappell, "Jamaica: From Diverse Beginnings to Diaspora in a Developed World," MPT, Migration Policy Institute, June 16, 2010. Analysis of Jamaican diaspora beginning with Spain in the new world.
"Historical Origins of Caribbean Migration to the US," IPOAA, Indigenous People of Africa and America. Slim summary of Caribbean migration to the United States.
Professor Jacob Zumoff, New Jersey City University, Review of Lara Putnam, "Radical Moves: Caribbean Migrants and the Politics of Race in the Jazz Age," Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013. See author's reply. Dr. Lara Putnam, University of Pittsburgh, details diaspora of Caribbean migrants throughout the Caribbean region and into the Americas during the 1920's and 1930's.
Roger Hosein, Martin Franklin, and Samatha C. Joseph, University of the West Indies, "The Caribbean Diaspora-An Untapped Resource for Impacting Economic Development through Investments in the Caribbean," 2009 monograph. Globalization has increased Caribbean labor moving, especially to the United States, Canada, UK and former colonial states.

North America:
"Origins," drarchaeology, Dykeman Roebuck Archaeology LLC, New Mexico, USA, 2013. 2013. Website and archaeology "group" who question traditional native American origins as migrations across Bering Strait from Asia. This site claims that Southwest native migration and Origin myths, stories, accounts give no mention of an Asian land bridge as part of their Origins.
Gary W. Crawford and David G. Smith, "Migration in Prehistory: Princess Point and the Northern Iroquoian case," American Antiquity,Vol. 61, No. 4, 1996, pp. 782 790. Crawford and Smith, Department of Anthropology, Erindale College, University of Toronto, Mississauga, Ontario, analyze the "sita theory" of the origins of the Northern Iroquois and their migration stories.
Stuart Fidel, "The Peopling of the New World: Present Evidence, New Theories, and Future Directions: A Brief Historical Overview of Paleoindian theories and Research,"Journal of Archaeological Research,Vol. 8, No. 1, 2000. DNA evidence as to origins of Native Americans and their migration beginnings.
James B. Griffen, University of Michigan, Museum of Anthropology, review of "Walam Olum or Red Score: The Migration Legend of the Lenni Lenape or Delaware Indians: A New Translation Interpreted by Linguistic, Historical, Archaeological and Physical Anthropological Studies,Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1954, pp. xiv, 379 seen in Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 51, Issue 1, 1955, pp. 59-65. See more on Walum Olum below:
Timeline of Ojibwe people, See migration notes of west to east migration of Lenni Lanape people recorded on Wallum Olum, the oldest recording of any people in North America dating back before 1600 BCE.
"Walum Olum," See interpretation of Lenni Lenape people migration story in various parts.
"Migration Patterns of the Americas," Ancient World History blog, February 2012. Native American migrations to 600 CE.
"Chickasaw Migration Story: Journey From the Place of the Setting Sun," Ancient Origins, August 19 2014. Chickasaw and Choctaw migration myths. See three short video clips, 1:16, 2:43 and 3:01.
Native American Stories About Migration, Native Language of the Americas website, 1998-2014. See six native American migration myths.
Marjorie P. Kohli, "Immigrants to Canada-Emigration Information of the Nineteenth Century," University of Waterloo, Canada, last updated December 21, 2010. Marjorie P. Kohli has researched ship lists linked within this website citing names of migrants coming into 19th century Canada via ship.
"Colonization and Settlement, 1585-1763," Gilder Lehrman Institute. Introduction by John Demos. See interactive timeline. May have to subscribe to see resources. Subscription is free.
William G. Hartley, "Hand Cart Companies,"Utah History Encyclopedia,Utah History to Go, 2014. In mid-1850'sMormon leader Brigham Young needing to assist poor Mormons in migrating to Utah, urged these poor migrants to use hand carts to move to Utah a journey pulling their belongings in hand carts to Utah.
H. W. Brands' review of David Roberts, "Devil's Gate: Brigham Young and the Great Mormon Handcart Tragedy," Simon & Schuster, 2008, 402 pp. and Ronald W. Walker, etc., "Massacre at Mountain Meadows-An American Tragedy,"Oxford University Press, 430 pp. H.W. Brands reviewed two Mormon migration histories both ending in tragedy.
"Migration,"Special Focus, AP World History Professional Development booklet, College Board,2008. Essays by Kathy Callahan, Tim Keirn, Alex Karras, Rick Warner, Peter Winn, Adam McKeown, Robert Zeidel, and Valerie Cox focusingon South American, American, Scottish, Charts on Global Migrations, Native Americans and British migration toAustralia.
Jerome S. Handler and Michael L. Tuite, Jr., "The Atlantic Slave Trade and Slave Life in the Americas: A Visual Image," The Virginia Foundation for the Humanities and Digital Media Lab at University of Virginia Library, 2011, last updated November 13, 2013. See, especially, images of transatlantic slave passage, i.e., forced migrations.
Suzanne Sinke, Florida State University, "Crossing National Borders: Locating the US in Migration History," College Board Teacher's Corner. See books, articles and websites at the end of the article.
Robert Morgan, "There is No True History of the Westward Expansion," UTNE, March 2013. Robert Morgan, author of "Lions of the West," claims there can be no definitive history of US westward migration due to differing accounts from historical giants (Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson for example), literary figures and common people.
David Urbano, History 6393, University of Houston, Texas, February 3, 2000. Dr. Urbano uses Reginald Horseman,"Raceand Manifest Destiny: The Origins of American Racial Anglo-Saxons," Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1981, 367 pp. in this slimanalysis for his University of Houston students to explain the "Chosen People" myth as rationale for American migration west.
Linda K. Salvucci, "When Myth and Meaning Overshadow History: Remembering the Alamo," Gilder Lehrman Institute for American History. The Alamo was part of Mexico's attempt to stop US migration into Mexican territory and has been filled with myth. Linda Salvucci attempts to discuss new research on the Alamo"story." May have to register for free subscription. See resources on Mexican American War and Manifest Destiny migration historiography below.
"US Mexican War: Prelude," PBS background resources. See various points of view and essays on Manifest Destiny as a cause for Mexican-American War in mid-19th century. See YouTube video documentary (1:28:52):
Chinese Railroad Workers in North America Project, Stanford University, 2014. Ongoing research including stories of Chinese immigrants to came to work on the western American railroads beginning in the 19th century.,-Gender-and-Identity-in-American-Popular-Culture
Cherri Neminger, Review, "Examining Race, Gender and Identity in American Popular Culture,"Middle Ground Journal,May 12, 2014. Cherri Neminger reviewed three books, LarryAsher, "With Amusement for all: A History of American Popular Culture Since 1830,"2006, Linda Frost, "NeverOne Nation: Freaks, Savages, and Whiteness in US Popular Culture, 1850-1877,"2005, and Rachel Rubin and Jeffrey Melnick,"Immigration and American Popular Culture: An Introduction,"2007. Note references to American popular culture as a reaction to the immigration of Chinese and Irish in the 19th century in Asher and Rubin/Melnick.
Michael T. Lubragge, "Manifest Destiny," American History-From Revolution to Reconstruction and Beyond. See essays, 1801-1900, on Manifest Destiny as a rationale for US migration west.
Timothy J. Hatton and Jeffrey G. Williamson, "Historical Factors in Long Run Growth in International Migration and World Development: A Historical Perspective," National Bureau of Economic Research working paper, Cambridge, MA, September 1992. Hatton and Williamson describe mid-19th century to 1914 (WW I) migration from Europe to North America and effectsthese migrants had on both receiving and sending countries in this monograph.
"Arab Immigration," Arabs in America, University of North Carolina. History of Arab immigration to the United States from 1880's to the present.
"The Great Migration, African American migration from American South to Northeast, Midwest and West," NPR Fresh Air audio podcast, September 2010. See oral interviews from those migrants.
"World War I and the Great Migration," History, Art & Archives, US House of Representatives. Essay explaining WW I as acause of Black migration north in US history.
See articles on Immigration and Migration in American History, Understanding Race website, American Anthropological Association, 2011.
Fareed Zakaria,See esp. Video, "Will an Immigration Deadlock Make the US a Second Rate Nation?" Global PublicSquare Blog, CNN, June 7, 2012. See examples of othernations' immigration policies, i.e., Japan, Canada, etc. in comparative to the United States in link below:
Migrations website. Website dedicated to United States immigration history to individual states submitted by citizens of those states.
Walter McKenzie, Immigration, Education World, 2000. Resources for educators teaching Migration and Immigration in American History.
Melissa Lane, "Myths About Migration: Historical and Philosophical Perspectives," History and Policy, February 14, 2006. This short essay/paper discusses states (United States) attempts to control illegal immigration. Ms. Lane summarized her essay by citing Steven Friedman who claims, "current forms of control [of migration] are a greater threat to human rights and democracy than the presence of immigrants."
"De-Romanticizing Our Immigrant Past: Why Claiming My Family Came Legally Often a Myth," Immigration Policy Center, November 25, 2008. This US government essay written in context of increasing "illegal" migration/immigration into the US, specifically from Latin America.
"Steven Mintz, "The Human Meaning of Migration," Gilder Lehrman Institute. Novelists and autobiographers haveexplored human meaning of migration in stories, novels, autobiographies especially as to feelings about being uprooted and adjusting to new environments. Steven Mintz has gathered an annotated list of readings as examples of this dilemma in American history.
Noelle Swan, "70% of Americans See Immigration as Threat to American Way of Life,"Christian Science Monitor, August 7, 2014.
"Demography of Immigration in the United States Illegally,", seen on pro con website August 22,2014. See charts andresources for immigration into the US from 2000-2012, specifically, Top 10 countries of Origin, Top 10 countriesof Residence, Distribution by age and gender (2012), Top 10 Jobs held, 2008 which would be brick masons, block masonsand stone masons, 40%.
Aviva Chomsky, "Illegal Immigration is a Policy Used To Exclude and Exploit,"Truth out,September 5, 2014. See excerpt from Chomsky's book, "How Immigration Became Illegal," Beacon Press, 2014.

Latin America:
Michael E. Smith, Loyola University of Chicago, "The Aztlan Migrations of the Nahuatl Chronicles: Myth or History,"Ethnohistory,Vol. 31, Issue 3, pp. 155-186, 1984. Michael Smith claimed that two independent sets of historical accounts verified Aztlan migration history in the Nahuatl Chronicles.
Avis Weir, Migration from Latin America, Annenberg Learning, see 26:00 video. This 9-12th grade lesson designed by SPICE, Stanford Program on International and Cross-Cultural Education describedLatin American migration since the 1960's.
Trinidad L. Vicente, University of Deusto, Bilbao, "Latin American Immigration to Spain, 1990-2009," Migration Citizenship Education website, 2010. See tabs for more resources for migration and immigration.
Susanne Jonas, "Guatemalan Migration in Times of Civil War and Post-war Challenges,"MPI, Migration Policy Institute online Journal, March 27, 2013. Susanne Jonas highlights Guatemalan migration during their 36 year civil war (1960-1996) and recent socioeconomic problems.
Amy Goodwin and Juan Gonzalez, "US Turns Back on Child Migrants After Its Policies in Guatemala and Honduras Sowed Seeds of Crisis,"Truth out,July 18, 2014. See 45:53 video interview and transcript with University of California, Santa Cruz professor Dana Frank and Jennifer Harbury, Weslaco, Texas, wife of Mayan Guatemalan guerrilla commander captured by Guatemalan military in 1980's and disappeared.
Guillermo Cantor, "New Study Highlights Causes of Return Migration to Mexico," American Immigration Council, Immigration Impact website, January 14, 2014. Guillermo Cantor works for Customs, Border Protection, Department of Homeland Security references poor economic conditions in the U. S. and its deportation polices to explain why increased numbers of Mexican immigrants to the United States are returning to Mexico.
Ivan Gonzalez Alvarado and Hilda Sanchez, "Migration in Latin America and the Caribbean: A View From the ICFTU/ORIT." This point of view on migration in Latin America and Caribbean from Human and Trade Union Rights Programme. Their claim is that, historically speaking, the migratory movements of the population of Latin America and the Caribbean have been closely related to the development of societies in these regions and, more specifically, to the economic, social and political imbalances. See also 3 major migration patterns in the region, information and research from 1980's through early 2002.
"A Mayan Trilogy: Life, Death & Migration," Icarus Films descriptions of Olivia Carrescia's three films of Mayan natives from a Guatemalan village, 1982-1996, and their struggle to survive political and economic upheaval. Seelinks for descriptions of all three films.
David G. Gutierrez, University of California, San Diego, "An Historic Overview of Latino Immigration and the Demographic Transformation of the United States," National Park Service. Latest resource from 2013.
"Myths and Facts on Central American Migration Surge," WOLA,, last updated June 17, 2014. As migration issues heat up in the United States WOLA published this short Myth and Fact discussion surrounding Central American migration into the United States.
See two Central American Child migration articles, Wilson Center, August 2014.
Willy Foote, "Coffee and the Press of Migration,"Forbes, August 16, 2014. US media focuses on Latin American illegal immigration into the US caused by political unrest and cocaine drug violence. Willie Foote discusses an agricultural economic cause, that being, coffee leaf rust which has cost 500, 000 coffee-related jobs and $1 billion dollars in lost revenue. Why the fungus outbreak, which has occurred before? Warmer, wetter weather along with aging coffee trees, under investment, and distressed soil. Environment push factor in migration example.
Julio Ortega, "Remapping the Territory-'Our America'by Felipe Fernandez-Armesto,NY TimesBook Review, January 17, 2014. Dr. Armesto, Notre Dame University, new bookwas reviewed by JulioOrtega, Hispanic Studies professor at Brown University. Dr. Armesto's "Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States," Norton, January 2014 does muchwith migration. See Armesto C-Span 2 interview 1:03:41 videoin Film/Documentary section and Kirkus book review in Book Reviews/articles section.
John Williams, "Book Review Podcast: 'Our America: A Hispanic History of the United States," Arts Beat Blog,New York Times, January 17, 2014. Listen to the 38:44 minute audio Podcast interview with Dr. Felipe Fernandez-Armesto.

John Maunu is Digital Resources editor for WHC, College Board AP World History consultant, veteran Reader and Table Leader at AP World History Reading, reviewer of AP World, European and US History materials for publishing companies, co-moderator of theAP World History College Board on-line Teacher Community and classroom AP World History consultant at Cranbrook/Kingswood high school, West Bloomfield, Michigan. He can be reached at


1 A discussion of the commonly perceived differences is offered at

2 See

3 See H-Africa Forum, March 19, 1999. at

Home | List Journal Issues | Table of Contents
© 2014 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Content in World History Connected is intended for personal, noncommercial use only. You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the World History Connected database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Terms and Conditions of Use