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The Military and War in World History: A Digital Resource, Part I to 1450.

John Maunu



Considerations of military organization and the conduct of war often revolve around the affairs of infantry, cavalry and other weapons of war, land-based and naval, evolving technologies of war and the role of war in the rise and fall of empires and great powers. Yet, it is safe to say that since the most of ancient times, less martial concerns have played major roles in human conflict.  These include the nature of war as an extension of diplomacy; the impact of war-related taxation and other pressures on domestic affairs, issues of gender on the home front and on the battlefield,  war-related treatment of captured soldiers, medical care, logistics, weather, disease, geography, and war-related propaganda or control of the media, civilian population, young and old, in war zones, guerrilla activities, effects on combatants (from issues of “readjustment” of soldiers returning from war to the entry of veterans in politics);  the effects of war on the environment, and the nature of military training and education.

Also ancient in their origins are the historiography of military writing and scholarly debate over the nature of the military affairs and warfare.  

To assist in the study and teaching of these key dynamics of world history, World History Connected is committed to a series of digital resources illuminating them, beginning with the following collection of annotated websites addressing the military and warfare to 1450.  Subsequent articles in the series will follow further common chronological/geographical divisions, and special topics ranging from Religion and Warfare (June, 2015) to the Great War, 1914-1918 (in October, 2015).

Novices might begin with Ronald E Goodman’s brief summary of military strategy and tactics in world history in Scholastic for teachers:

Alternatively, novices could read Stephen Morrillo and Mike Pavkovic, "What is Military History?" This is a slim 150 page book that also serves as an introduction to field of military history which also offers a brief counting world military history from earliest times to the present:

Those seeking a full textbook approach to the subject will greatly profit from a reading of      Stephen Morillo, Jeremy Black, and Paul Lococo’s  World History: Society, Technology, and War from Ancient Times to the Present, 2 volumes (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2008).

For a detailed description and Table of Contents, see

There is also a previous compilation of resources worthy of attention prepared by 

Richard Jensen, entitled "Web Sources For Military History," from American History Projects, February 2012 featuring articles and digital resources on world military history from ancient times to the present:

The Military and War in World History: A Digital Resource, Part I to 1450.

Period 1 Beginnings-600 BCE:

Introductory sites:
Matthew White, "Selected Death Tolls for Wars, Massacres and Atrocities Before the 20th century," last updated January 2012.
Nicole Brisch, ed., "Religion and Power-Divine Kingship in the Ancient World and Beyond," The Oriental Institute of Chicago, Oriental Institute Seminar Number 4, (2008). This compilation of papers includes papers on Egypt, Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Persia, China, Rome and the Maya. See especially Part Three, Divine Kingship and Imperialism.

The Middle East and Egypt:
Seth F. C. Richardson, "Mesopotamia and the 'New' Military History," Recent Directions: Ancient Military History (University of Chicago, 2011). Dr. Richardson reviews the historiography of Mesopotamian military history.
P. Antill, "Military Logistics: A Brief History," History of War, August 22, 2001. The first standing army, according to this website, was 700 BCE, the Assyrians. They began the concept of supply and transportation furthered by Alexander the Great.
Lesson unit: "Migrations and Militarism across Afroeurasia," World History For Us All. Susan Douglass and Jean Johnson were primary authors of this lesson module which examines causes for pastoral nomads migrations into settled areas between 2000 BCE and 1000 BCE and weapons and militaries developed by city states, empires and the nomads themselves.
Marc-Antoine Crocq MD and Louis Crocq MD (Rouffach, France), "From Shell Shock and War Neurosis to Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A History of Psychotraumatology," NCBI, National Center for Biotechnology Information, PMC, US National Library of Medicine, National Institute of Health, Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, Vol. 2, No. 1 (March 2000), 47-55. The two medical doctors begin their history of military stress disorders with references from the Bible, Gilgamesh, a citation in 440 CE from Herodotus and move through the Vietnam War.
Arther Ferrill, "Neolithic Warfare," Draft, History Originally seen in MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vol. 3, No. 1 (Fall 1990).
Neolithic era Summer Reading Lesson plan developed by Kelly Wren and Kevin Denney, South Forsyth High, Georgia, for teaching AP World History Period 1 (8000-600 BCE) using the McNeill's "The Human Web":
Google Book, Arther Ferrill, The Origins of War: From the Stone Age to Alexander the Great, Westview Press, 1997. See Preface and Chapter 1, "Prehistoric Warfare."
Google Book. Wendy F. Kasinec and Michael A. Polushin, "Expanding Empire: Cultural Interaction and Exchange in World Societies from Ancient to Early Modern Times," Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources Inc., 2002. Describes how military empires expand their territory and how the "conquered" adapt and change the conqueror.
Jack M. Sasson, "Yarim-Lim's War Declaration," 1985, seen in Discover Archive, Vanderbilt University. Interprets a tablet found in Mari dating back to the 18th century BCE.
Bernhelm Booss-Bavnbek, Roskilde University, Denmark, "Mathematics and War," Draft essay for Hutchinson Companion Encyclopedia of Mathematics, November 30, 2001. Babylonian clay tablets, 1800 BCE, deal with siege computation: the number of bricks needed for siege ramps, volume of earth to be dug and how much workforce was required. Short essay with other sources at the end gives examples of mathematics and military use to modern times.
Jack M. Sasson, "Canaanite Maritime Involvement in the Second Millennium B.C.," published 1966 seen in Discover Archive, Vanderbilt University. Describes Canaanite shipping and trade with few mentions of military ships.
Richard A. Gabriel and Karen S. Metz, "A Short History of War: The Evolution of Warfare and Weapons," Strategic Studies Institute, US Army War College.
Brian R. Ferguson, "Tribal Warfare and 'Ethnic' Conflict," Cultural Survival Quarterly, Issue: 29, 1 (Spring 2005). This Cultural Survival website partners with indigenous people to defend their lands, languages and cultures. In this article Brian Ferguson looks at history just before empires and Neolithic revolution to discuss what caused the advent of war.
Google Book, Daniel Coetzee and Lee W. Eysturlid, eds., "Philosophy of War-The Evolution of History's Greatest Military Thinkers, The Ancient to Pre-Modern World, 3000 BCE-1815 CE," ABC-CLIO, 2013.
Stephen O'Brien (University of Chester, UK), review of Lee L. Brice and Jennifer T. Roberts, ed., "Recent Directions in the Military History of the Ancient World," Publication of the Association of Ancient Historians, Claremont: Regina Books, 2011. O'Brien briefly reviews the essays by Seth F. Richardson, Everett L. Wheeler, Sara E. Phang and Doug Lee concerning historiography of ancient military history.
John Patrick Hewson, "The Battle of Megiddo," Military History Online, published February 16, 2014. Earliest known battle, 12th century BCE Egypt.
"Selected Readings on Megiddo," The Oriental Institute, University of Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Note first link to battle while others deal with archaeology of Megiddo.
Mark Schwartz, "Darkness Descends: The End of the Bronze Age Empires, Introduction to the Theme of Ancient Warfare, IV-4, 6-9," Ancient Warfare, 2-5. Monograph on Mediterranean and Near East empires in collapse at the end of the Bronze Age 12th century BCE. Dr. Schwartz is an assistant professor at Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan.
Robert Drews, "The End of the Bronze Age:  Changes in Warfare and the Catastrophe ca. 1200 BCE," Princeton University Press, 1996. See 1993 edition Google Book:
Change over time rubric could be used with this book. Robert Drews does not use iron technology as a reason for change since that occurred a century later. See Bryn Mawr Classical Review and McGoodwin summary of book below.,-the-end-of-the-bronze-age-changes-in-warfare-and-w10584.html
David W. J. Gill (University College of Swansea, Wales), "Review of Robert Drews', The End of the Bronze Age," Bryn Mawr Classical Review, Vol. 4, No. 6 (1993).
Michael McGoodwin, The End of the Bronze Age, "Summary of Robert Drews (1993) " McGoodwin website, 1999, last updated, February 18, 2006.
Brian Hollenberger, "A Brief History of Chariot Warfare and Its Effects on the Catastrophe of ca 1200 BCE," Virginia Tech University. A slim monograph citing Robert Drews' The End of the Bronze Age.
Tamas Dezso, "The Assyrian Army-I. The Structure of the Neo-Assyrian Army, 1. Infantry," monograph, Eotvos Lorand University, Budapest, Eotvos University Press, 2012.
Davide Nadali, "The Representation of Foreign Soldiers and Their Employment in the Assyrian Army," 222-245 in Ethnicity in Ancient Mesopotamia-Papers Read at the 48th Recontre Assyriologique Internationale, Leiden, 1-4 July 2002. Edited by W. H. Van Soldt (Nederlands Institut Voor Het Nabije Oosten, 2005). The Assyrians were incorporating large numbers of foreign soldiers by the 7th century BCE. See bibliography and photographs of Assyrian military images at end of this paper.
Lee L. Brice and Jennifer T. Roberts, ed., Recent Directions in the Military History of the Ancient World, Claremont, California: Regina Books, 2011. Introduction to book published by Association of Ancient History. See review of this series of essays by Stephen O'Brien (University of Chester-UK), Bryn Mawr Classical Review,Vol. 11, No. 55 (2011) at
Philip M. Taylor (University of Leeds, UK), Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day (Manchester University Press, 3rd. ed., 2003) in in pdf on Study of military propaganda since the dawn of war and military conflict. See review below:
Pat Simpson (University of Hertfordshire, UK), review of Munitions of the Mind: A History of Propaganda from the Ancient World to the Present Day, nd.
Ira Meistrich, "Military History-The Birthplace of War," Military History Quarterly online, June 12, 2006, originally published in MHQ in Spring 2005. Within the current context of the Iraq War, Ira Meistrich explains how Iraq in Mesopotamia was the birth place for warfare in ancient times.
"Ancient Mesopotamia and Near East," All Empires website. See military history articles in center of this page.
Richard Carney, "The Chariot: A Weapon That Revolutionized Egyptian Warfare," History Matters, Appalachian State.
Andre Dollinger, "the armed forces,", Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, last updated October 2009. A review of ancient Egypt's army and navy with images.
Andre Dollinger, "Ancient Weapons of Egypt," posted 2000, latest changes March 2006.
Gregory P. Gilbert, "Ancient Egyptian Sea Power and the Origin of Maritime Forces," Foundation of International Thinking on Sea Power, No.1, Sea Power Centre-Australia,   Commonwealth of Australia 2008.
Brian Hollenberger, "History of Chariot Warfare," University of Vermont. and
"Excerpts from an account of the Battle of Kadesh between the Egyptians and Hittites during the Time of Rameses II," Excerpts from Gaston C. C. Maspero, "Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria," (New York: D. Appleton and Co., 1917), 178-190. Primary source from Egyptian sources glorifying the Egyptian victory over the Hittites 1288 BCE due to superior charioteers armed with compact long-range bows. See lesson plan by Ogden Morse, "SOAPSTONE: A Strategy for Reading and Writing," The College Board:
"The Military Leadership of Egyptian Pharaohs: The Creation of Dynasties,", posted by ixwa, November 14, 2013. Article about early and first militaries of Egypt and the pinnacle of African leadership in the Ancient World.
"Egyptian Galleons," Art Sales. See models of Egyptian of maritime vessels and photograph of model of Egyptian ship used in battle against the People of the Sea in 1250 BCE.
Andre Bollinger, "The Chariot,", last updated June 2009. This website on Middle East ancient history begun in 2000 by Andre Bollinger derives from Reshafim, Israel. "The Chariot" page supplies a summary of the chariot in ancient military history.
Leonard O. Goenaga, "The Military Tradition in Ancient Israel," paper for Professor Larson REL 3280 University of Chicago course, November 27, 2007. Posted on Leonard O. Goenaga website December 1, 2007. One could develop a SOAPSTONE Point of View Lesson plan as to self-proclaimed Christian Baptist presentation of ancient Israel's military tradition. Much of the author's background is available on this blogsite.
Alex Roland, "War and Technology," Foreign Policy Research Institute, February 2009. General article on war, military and technology innovation.
"Gallipoli Before Gallipoli-The Thracian Chersonese and the Hellespont (the Dardanelles) in Classical, Byzantine, and Early Ottoman Periods," Macquarie University Project, Sydney, Australia, launched late 2010 to be completed for ANZAC Centenary, April 2015. Project Director, Samuel N. C. Lieu and Project Officer, Tristan Doust. This project is part of the memorial for Australian and New Zealand soldiers who participated in the Gallipoli campaign against the Ottoman Turks in April of 1915 during WW I. Note superb links on right side of page for Atlas, Traveler's Accounts, histories of the region and much more.
Richard P. Tucker, "War and the Environment," World History Connected, Vol. 8, No. 2 (June 2011). Richard P. Tucker, adjunct professor at University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment describes military and war's effects on the environment beginning in earliest times.

Central Asia
Ingo Schrakamp and Jurgen Lorenz, "Hittite Military and Warfare in H. Genz, D. P. Mielke, Hg. Insights to Hittite History and Archaeology," Colloquia Antiqua 2, Leuven-Paris-Walpole, MA: Peeters, 2011. This 30 page download discusses central Anatolian Hittite military in the second millennium BCE.
Google Book. Christopher Baumer, "The History of Central Asia: The Age of Steppe Warriors" Volume 1, I.B. Tauris Publishers, 2012. Christopher Baumer begins his first volume by addressing pre-human Central Asia and it's climate and also introduces migration theories and culture before addressing the warrior traditions.
Sabuhi Ahnadov, "Knights in Azerbaijan, 14th-12th centuries BCE-4th century CE, Article 1," IRS, September 2013.See parts 2 and 3 of this series on Azerbaijan Knights in 600-1450 CE section. IRS is a Azerbaijan history and culture website. Dr. Ahnadov is a Professor of Philosophy.
Carolyn Willekes, "From the Steppe to the Stable: Horses and Horsemanship in the Ancient World," Dissertation for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy, Department of Greek and Roman Studies, University of Calgary, Alberta, Canada, April 2013. Carolyn Willekes theses paper describes types of horses from various regions and their use in the military strategies of that region.
Luce Boulnois and Helen Loveday, "Silk Road: Monks, Warriors & Merchants on the Silk Road," Odyssey Publishing, 2004. See Chapter 4 in this book for a detailed description of the Ferghana Valley "Heavenly Horses."

East Asia
Marilyn Shea, "Current and Historical Military Actions and Organizations," University of Maine website, last updated in December 2013.
Roger Smith, "The Long History of Gaming in Military Training," Simulation & Gaming, 40th Anniversary Issue. Roger Smith is Chief Technology Officer for US Army Simulation Training and notes that the Japanese used gaming simulations in 3000 BCE as did India in 500 BCE.
Google Book. Marvin C. Whiting, "Imperial Chinese Military History: 8000 BCE-1912," Lincoln, Nebraska: Writer'sClub Press, 2002.
Google Book. Shawn Connors, ed., "Military Strategy Classics of Ancient China: The Art of War, Methods of War, 36 Strategems & Selected Teachings-Texts by Sun Tzu, Wu Qi, Wei Lao, Sima Rangju, Jiang Ziya," Special Education Books, 2013. In English and Chinese languages and translated by Chen Song.
Dr. Yuri Pines (Hebrew University of Jerusalem) review of Nicola Di Cosmo, "Ancient China and Its Enemies: The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History," Cambridge University Press, 2002 seen in Reviews in History, UK. Detailed review of Nicola Di Cosmo's analysis of Central Steppe military power and their threat to China.
Nicola Di Cosmo, "Ancient China and Its Enemies-The Rise of Nomadic Power in East Asian History," Cambridge University Press, 2002. Nicola Di Cosmo, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, discussed the growing tension between China and the nomads to the north from 900 BCE-100 BCE.

"Warriors and Warrior Institutions in the European Copper Age." In Otto, T., Thrane, H., & Vandkilde, H. (eds.), Warfare and Society. Archaeological and Social Anthropological Perspectives, Aarhu: Aarhu University Press, 2006, pp. 393-422. H. Vandkilde's study assesses the importance of warriorhood in the Copper Age of central Europe, especially the Corded Ware Culture of early 3rd millennium BCE. Did they exist? If they did, what was their significance?
Asko Parpola, "The Nasatyas, the Chariot and Proto-Aryan Religion," Journal of Indological Studies, Nos. 16 & 17, (2004-2005). Dr. Parpola's, Helsinki, Finland, monograph details the chariot as an Aryan instrument of war and sport in the third millennium BCE.
Robert Drews, "The Coming of the Greeks-Indo-European Conquests in the Aegean and the Near East," Princeton University Press, 1988. Dr. Drews discusses Bronze Age Greek migration, proto-Indo-European language and the war chariot.
Ricardo Duchesne, "The Aristocratic Warlike Ethos of Indo Europeans and the Primordial Origins of Western Civilization,” Parts 1 and 2, in Comparative Civilizations Review (Spring and Fall, 2009).  One reviewer found that Duchesne’s larger research project, The Uniqueness of Western Civilization (Leiden: Brill, 2011), employs Eurocentric “polemics” against scholars he accuses of being engaged in a “crusade against the west,” while also finding his work “ambitious.” (quotes from the review at  Duchesne speaks for himself in an interview (see selection no. 24) at “New Books in World History” at
Ioannis Georganes, "Weapons and Warfare in Early Iron Age Thessaly," Mediterranean Archaeological and Archaemetry, Vol. 5, No. 2, (2005), 63-74 (from the The Canadian Institute in Greece). The science of archaemetry deals with the measurement and dating of artifacts in this case early Iron Age weapons in Thessaly, Greece.
Josho Brouwers, "A Western Way of War?" Ancient Warfare, Karwansary Publishers, May 29, 2013. Josho Brouwers is critical of Victor Davis Hanson's use of the phrase "the western way of war" and claims that it is "a useless phrase" and not helpful in serious study of military history or warfare. Dr. Hanson, "The Western Way of War: Infantry Battle in Classical Greece, 1989 was heavily influenced by John Keegan, "The Face of Battle," 1976.
Michel Kazanski, "Barbarian Military Equipment and Its Evolution in the Late Roman and Great Migration Periods (3rd-5th c. AD), pp. 493-522, from "War and Warfare in Late Antiquity," ed., Alexander Saranis and Neil Christie, Leiden, Boston: Brill, 2013. Lesson: Change over Time rubric applied to this monograph/secondary source article.
"Military Medicine Through the Eighteenth Century," US Air Force Air Academy, Chapter 1.
Linda R. Caporael, "A Window on War: Women and Militarism in Ancient Greece," paper prepared for Chicago, Illinois Symposium on Primitive War, American Anthropological Association, November 1987. Ms. Caporael represented the department of Science and Technological Studies, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY.

Period 2 600 BCE-600 CE:

Dr. Philip Sabin, Military Simulations, King's College, London, UK. Conflict simulations, Lost Battles, simulating war. Simulations from ancient times through modern battles, wars, conflicts.
"Psychological warfare," Wikipedia. From Alexander the Great through Genghis Khan to today psychological warfare has been an important part of world military history. A summary of world history examples.

Hawaii Military, Ancient Military produced in 2010. Short description of ancient Hawaiian military strategies and military weapons.

Paulo Fernando de Moraes Farias, "Bentyai (Kukyia): a Songhay-Mande Meeting Point, and a 'missing link' in the archaeology of the West Africa diasporas of traders, warriors, praise-singers, and clerics," Afriques [Online], 04/2013, Online since 16 April 2013, connection on 25 April 2014. Dr. Farias, University of Birminghan, UK, research monograph supplies historical context to the current armed conflict, drought, food crisis, restriction of freedoms and religious practice in Mali by tracing trade and military history of the region going back to 400 CE.
Joshua L. Mark, "Carthage," Ancient History Encyclopedia, April 28, 2011. Military history of Carthage in North Africa. See other articles beneath this essay for more on this topic.
Christian Rollinger review of Kostas Buraselis, et al (eds.), "The Ptolemies, the Sea and the Nile," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013, 274 pp. published on H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net MSU.EDU, April 2014. The Egyptian Ptolemies naval military history, 4th century BCE-30 CE.
Google Book. Christelle Fischer-Bovet, "Army and Society in Ptolemaic Egypt," Stanford University, Department of Classics, ProQuest, 2008, 440 pp. A military and social history of the Ptolemies, 323-30 BCE.
"A Real Letter From a Roman Soldier," Great Names in History, 100 Falcons blog, November 25, 2009. A young Alexandrian Egyptian, Apion, enlisted in the Roman army in the second century CE and survives a terrible storm in voyage to Italy to receive his uniform and pay. See his letter, in Greek, to his father back in Egypt.

Latin America
Richard C. Sutter and Rosa J. Cortez, "The Nature of Moche Sacrifice/A Biological Perspective," Current Anthropology, Vol. 46, No. 4, August-October 2005. This monograph describes the controversy over Moche sacrifice in northern Peru, 200 BCE-750 CE, by examining grave sites. Are the remains evidence for Moche ritual sacrifice of Moche warriors defeated in ritual battles or enemy soldiers captured in warfare?
John Noble Wilford, "A Peruvian Woman of AD 450 Seems to Have Had Two Careers," NY Times, May 17, 2006. Moch grave site reveals elite young adult woman with sewing needles and military weapons, two war clubs and 17 throwing spears. Was she a warrior Princess or were they funeral gifts from male warriors?

Middle East
Jason G. Goldman, "How Elephant Armies Built the Ancient World," Animals, March 17, 2014.
Dr. Kaveh Farrokh, "Archive for the 'Parthian Military History' category," Kaveh Farrokh website, February 9, 2014. Parthians rose to power in 247 BCE and were replaced by the Sassanid empire in 223 CE. The Parthians fought many battles with the Romans and stopped Roman advancement east. See more from Dr. Farrokh's website on the Parthians:
"A Roman description of the Parthians or later Persians from Justin's History of the World," primary source document from Professor Nicholas C. J. Pappas, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, Texas ancient history website.
Michael E. Paranac, "Vision, Folly and Balance: Imperial Approaches to Commerce and War in the Roman Near East, 27 BCE-180 CE," Senior Thesis, Department of History, Columbia College, Columbia University, April 2010. Advisors, Professors Marco Maiuro and Adam McKeown. Michael Paranac describes Roman Imperial trade and military policies in Syria and the Euphrates.
Byzantine Military blog, October 1, 2013. Website dedicated to the military history and civilization of the Eastern Roman Empire (330-1453 CE). See "Farmer's Law," 7th-8th centuries, Byzantine fortresses, defensive fortifications, images, photographs, maps.

Central Asia
Jeannine Davis-Kimball, Vladimir A. Bashilov, Leonoid T. Yablonsky, "Nomads of the Eurasian Steppes in the Early Iron Age," Berkeley, CA: Zinat Press, 1995. Ten Russian archaeologists pen monographs of Kazakh regions, specifically the Scythians, Sauromatians and Sarmatian Tribes, and Saka peoples who developed iron technology in the 8th and 7th centuries BCE.
Marek Jan Olbrycht, Krakow/Munster, "Parthia and Nomads of Central Asia. Elements of Steppe Origin in the Social and Military Development of Arsacid Iran," December 2003, seen in Academia. Marek Jan Olbrycht argued that Parthian cultural and military ethos made them equal to the Romans.
Google Book. Erik Hildinger, "Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia 500 BC to 1700 AD," First Da Capo Press, 1997.
Christopher Berg, Sam Houston State University, Review of Erik Hildinger, "Warriors of the Steppe: A Military History of Central Asia 500 BC-1700 AD," Da Capo Press, 1997 [2001], 260 pp. seen in De Re Militari Book Reviews, page added August 2011.
Francis Henry Skrine and Edward Denison Ross, Full text of "The Heart of Asia: A History of Russian Turkestan and the Central Asian Khanates From the Earliest Times," 1899. Francis Skrine was an Indian Civil Service official and Edward Ross was Ph.D., Professor of Persian history at University College, London. Book was written in context of Russian advances in central Asia recalls central Asian military history from "earliest times" or 6th century BCE to the late 19th century.
"Pre-Modern Swarming: Horse Archer Cases," Chapter 3, History Cases, Rand Corporation monograph part of larger study, 2000, "Swarming on the Battlefield: Past, Present and Future." This chapter introduces horse archer tactics begun in Central Asia by steppe warriors and then explains examples of successful swarming military tactics such as St. Clair's defeat 1791 North American Frontier, Ulm 1805, Boers 1888, UBoat Wolfpacks in WW I, and 1993 Somalia tactics in defeating American troops in Mogadishu. See entire monograph here:
Sean J. A. Edwards, ed., "Swarming on the Battlefield: Past, Present and Future, Rand Corporation, 2000.
"Ferghana Horse," Read Tiger, Wikipedia. The Chinese coveted "The Heavenly Horses" of the northern Bactria Ferghana Valley. These horses were taller and sleeker with well-muscled contours and were faster with greater endurance than Chinese horses. Alfalfa fed to the horses was a very nutritious grass. 104 BCE Emperor Wudi sent a general to conquer the nomads of the Heavenly Horses and after initial difficulties did and the Ferghana horse became a symbol of imperial power and royalty.
Courtney Helion, "Horses in Ancient China," Asian Art Museum Blog, San Francisco, California, January 27, 2014. More information on the Heavenly Horses of the Ferghana Valley prized by the Chinese.

South Asia
Roger Boesche, "Kautilya's Arthasastra on War and Diplomacy," The Journal of Military History, Vol. 67, No. 1, January 2003, pp. 9-37 (article), published by Society for Military History, Project MUSE. Kautilya, Indian adviser to Kings, 317-293 BCE wrote this classic work on political, military and diplomatic strategies.
Google Book. Kaushik Roy, "India's Historic Battles: From Alexander the Great to Kargil," Dehli: Permanent Black, 2004. Kaushik Roy begins India's military history in 326 BCE.
"Mauryan Military System," The Indian History, ancient. Short article summarizing Mauryan India military.
Bharat: An Untold Story-Golden Age of India, Bharat Untold Story Short article on Gupta golden age including military.

East Asia
"Attila the Hun," Gale group.
"The Art of War online," Sun Tzu, Ancient Military, 2010. Also, see Sun Tzu Chinese military leader, 544-496 BCE.
Nicholas C. Zakas, "Book Review of Art of War,", March 1, 2009. Comments on Sun Tzu and Sun Bin and Thomas Cleary's, "The Art of War: Complete Texts and Commentaries."
Scott Fitzsimmons, "Evaluating the Masters of Strategy: A Comparative Analysis of Clausewitz, Sun Tzu, Mahan, and Corbett," Innovations-A Journal of Politics, Volume 7, 2007. Dr. Fitzsimmons, University of Calgary Department of Political Science, finds a complementary thread that runs through all four military strategists. Lesson Plan: Using the AP College Board comparative rubric, breakdown Scott Fitzsimmons' article as to each rubric point.
"The Art of War by Sun Bin," 54 slide powerpoint. Sun Bin, died 316 BCE.
M.E.H., Book Review of Sun Bin Art of War,
"Han Dynasty Military," Totally History. Short article describing Han military, conscription and weapons.
Justin Rowan, "The Rise of Buddhism in Politics and War," Samurai Archives. Essay with works cited page.
Professor Albert Dien, "The Stirrup and Its Effect on Chinese Military History," Silk Road Foundation @1997-2000. Essay including the stirrups effect on northern nomadic tribes with comparative to European feudal class development and Chinese professional military class.
Robin Yates, "The Development of Some Early Chinese Weapons," Needham Review Institute Newsletter, No. 16, February 1998. Scroll down page to see Robin Yates brief review of early Chinese hand weapons.

Southeast Asia
Marc Jason Gilbert, "When Heroism is Not Enough: Three Women Warriors of Vietnam, Their Historians and World History," World History Connected, Vol. 4, No. 3, June 2007. Dr. Gilbert, Hawaii Pacific University, portrays Vietnamese women warriors, The Trung sisters and Trieu thi Trinh (Lady Trieu) 225-248 CE. See Endnotes for more resources for global women warriors, African, native American, etc.

Christopher Leslie Brown and Philip D. Morgan, ed., "Arming Slaves: From Classical Times to the Modern Age," Yale University Press, 2006. Series of monographs on empires and states arming slaves over time beginning with the helots in classical Greece. See example of Chapter one Helot essay from Peter Hunt, University of Colorado, Boulder course website:
"Herodotus: The Histories: Xerxes at the Hellespont (mid 5th Century BCE)," seen in Paul Brians, etc. al, Reading About the World, Harcourt Brace Custom Publishing a 2 volume Reader for Dr. Brians' Humanities and World Civilization course at Washington State University. This website was created for the course, December 18, 1998. Herodotus's depiction of Xerxes as a superstitious fool and bloodthirsty tyrant is an example of Greek writing which may have set the European mood of distrust of Middle Eastern people and culture. Herodotus is describing the Persian army as they begin to cross the strait (Hellespont) from Turkey into Europe and attack Greece.
David J. Lonsdale, "Alexander the Great-Lessons in Strategy," Routledge, 2007. David Lonsdale's book is part of "Strategy and History," series, eds., Colin Gray and Williamson Murray, Routledge publishing.
Thucydides, "The History of the Peloponnesian War," MIT Classics, written in 431 BCE, translated by Richard Crawley. Thucydides' history is divided into eight books which can be downloaded from this MIT website.
"Xenophon: The Anabasis or march up country," Paul Halsall Ancient History Primary Sources, Fordham University. Xenophon, born 431 BCE, pupil of Socrates, exiled from Athens, moves to Sparta where he details in seven books the Spartan military expedition to aid Cyrus in Persia from 401 BCE-399 BCE. See more on Xenophon below:
"Xenophon," See a biography of Xenophon followed by links to his writings/works.
Steven Pressfield, "The Warrior Ethos," 45 frame slideshare, January 29, 2011. First half mainly Spartan and Athenian attitudes toward war and ethos of the soldier.
B.F. Barker, "From the Scamander to Syracuse. Studies in Ancient Logistics," Paper completed for Masters of Art with Specialisation in Ancient Languages and Cultures, University of South Africa, November 2005. This 95 page master's paper discusses logistics and supply during the Persian invasion of Greece, Athenian need for timber supplies to build ships, the Syracuse assault and Alexanders march from Greece to Asia.
Scott McCulloch, "The Old Men of Ancient Warfare," Ancient Life website, December 19, 2012. Scott McCulloch discusses veteran soldiers of Alexander the Great, The Silver Shields, and the 3rd rank of the Roman army, the Triarii.
Google Book-Patricia Southern, ""The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History," ABC-Clio, 2006, 383 pp. See 4 short reviews of book and another below.
Book Review of Patricia Southern, ""The Roman Army: A Social and Institutional History," Oxford University Press, 2007, 330 pp., by Roman Empire UNRV History website-Roman Empire blogger 'Ursus." This reviewer gives high marks, "a gem," to Southern's book on Roman army for her analysis of sources used, bibliography and superb prose. Dr. Southern is a librarian by trade with a History and Archaeology degree from London University and then on to teach British frontier studies at University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Reviews of Southern's book in other sites, like good reads are not as sterling.
William Stuart Messer, "Mutiny in the Roman Army, The Republic," Classical Philology, XV, April 1920 seen in Internet Archives, JSTORr. Read Dartmouth's Dr. Messer's monograph like a Kindle book.
D.S. Potter, University of Michigan, Review of Ben Isaac, "The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008, 492 pp., Bryn Mawr Classical Review. Dr. Isaac questions the Roman Empire having a 'grand strategy' for the defense of the empire which led to problems along the frontiers.
Yozan Mosig,  "Propaganda and War in the Roman World: The Demonizing of Hannibal and the Carthaginians," The History Herald, December 9, 2012. Roman propaganda to support their military and demean Hannibal and Carthage during the Punic Wars.
"Polybius," Wikipedia. Greek historian, 264-146 BCE, who formed personal friendship with Roman military commander Scipio Aemilianus and accepted Roman culture, wrote "The Histories" which was a detailed account of Rome's rise to power and was eye witness to sack of Carthage. Would Polybius be an embedded military journalist?
Bill Thayer, "Roman Military History," University of Chicago, last updated November 14, 2013. See websites, resources for Roman military history.
Jeffrey Hays, "Ancient Roman Military, Weapons and Spies," Facts and Details, last updated January 2012. Military history website @ 2013.
Walter Scheidel, "The Roman Slave Supply," Version 1.0, Stanford University, May 2007. Many Roman slaves were military captives including entire city populations conquered by Roman armies.
Gregory G. Bolich, "Military Technology-Using a Cloud of Dust in Ancient Warfare," Military History Quarterly online June 12, 2006 originally published in MHQ Autumn 2004. The Romans learned from Hannibal at the 216 BCE battle of Cannae about maneuvering the enemy forces into facing sun, wind and dust.
"Historian Sallust 86-55 BCE," Ancient History, See monographs by Roman historian Sallust on the Jugurthine War and the Catilinarian Conspiracy, especially John Selby Watson's translation of Sallust's "The Jugurthine War." See concise summary of Jugurthine War in
LTC William T. Sorrells, "Insurgency in Ancient Times: The Jewish Revolts Against the Seleucid and Roman Empires, 163 BC-73 AD,"A Monograph, School of Advanced Military Studies US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, May 26, 2005.
Andrew J. Schoenfeld, "Sons of Israel in Caesar's Service: Jewish Soldiers in the Roman Military," Shofar: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Jewish Studies, Vol. 24, No. 3, Spring 2006, pp. 115-126, published by Purdue University Press. Seen in Link originally seen in Roman Army Talk:
Marisa Elana James, "The Jew Who Pulled Down the Walls: Tiberius Julius Between Alexandria and Jerusalem," Rabbinic Civ I Final Paper, January 19, 2012. Egyptian Jew who was a Roman Governor and General.
"Tiberius Julius Alexander," wikipedia.
Merlin Miller, "Arminius: The Liberator of Europe," Barnes Review, September/October 2009. Merlin Miller contends that 2000 years ago, September 9-11, 9 CE, that Arminius and his soldiers destroyed 3 Roman legions and gave birth to Europe.
"Ancient Slavs" Ancient Military, 2012. Summary of ancient slav military and their attacks into a weakened Roman empire. See links on left side of page for many other summaries of ancient militaries and weapons.
"Just War Theory," Wikipedia. First begun as philosophical discourse in Roman times...
Alexander Moseley, "Just War Theory," Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Dr. Neil Faulkner, "Overview: Roman Britain, 43-410 AD," BBC History, March 29, 2011. See Britain tribes the Romans encountered in their military "colonization:"
"Britain Tribes," BBC History. This brief description of British tribes who encountered the Romans come from Roman sources, Tacitus, Roman historian and a Roman geographer named Ptolemy.,8599,1879350,00.html
Ishaan Tharoor, "Why Chemical Warfare Is Ancient History," Time, February 13, 2009. British archaeologists find that a 256 CE battle saw Roman soldiers dying in a tunnel due to an early gas and bitumen weapon.
Richard Abels, "Late Roman and Barbarian Militaries, 300 CE-600 CE," United States Naval Academy. Roman, Byzantium and Barbarian militaries.
"Victori-The Roman Military" website developed by three 15 year old high school students in Pennsylvania for the 1998 Think Quest competition. See tabs for Tools of war, Strategy and Tactics, Military and the People, History, Teacher Resources, and Links.
"How Narses Conquered Italy,", October 1, 2010. Justinian entrusted 70 plus year old eunuch, Narses, to conquer Italy, and he does. Eunuchs were trusted in many roles by emperors due to the fact that they should not have designs on creating their own dynasties.

Period 3 600 CE-1450 CE
Kordula Wolf and Marco Di Branco, "Berbers and Arabs in the Maghreb and Europe Medieval Period," The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migrations, ed. Immanuel Ness, Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2013 seen in Political and military history of Berbers and Arabs in their migrations/conquests westward through North Africa.
John Feeney, "Fortress of the Mountain," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 44, No. 2, March/April 1993. Saladin built Cairo, Egypt fortress, "The Citadel," against the European crusaders finished in 1183.
Konate Siendou, "Violence in Two African Epics: A Comparative Study of Chaka and Sundiata," Blac Foundation, monograph paper, Universite de Cocody-Abidjan, December 19, 2012. Heroic violence in the epics of Sundiata, the Emperor of Old Mali (1217-1255) and Chaka (b. 1787), the Zulu King, who revealed himself as a military strategist to English colonizers of southern Africa were capitalized by their contemporaries as a source of reference for their present daily experiences. The violence treasured by the griot in one epic (Sundiata's) and decried by the Christian author in the other (Chaka's) finds that the heroic exploits of these two military figures are an interesting contextual comparative.

South Asia
"Harsha (590-647 CE)," Weapons and Warfare, posted by Mitch Williamson, April 11, 2011. Summary of Gupta military.
Nicholas F. Gier, "From Mongols to Mughals: Religious Violence in India 9th-18th Centuries," paper presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting for American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006. Much of Dr. Gier's monograph includes military leaders and their discretion as to other faiths.

Central Asia
Review Essay. Alicia Ventresca Miller, Christian-Albrechts-Universitas Zu Kiel, "Rethinking Cental Asia: A Review of The Age of the Steppe Warrior," Silk Road Foundation newsletter, Vol. 11, November 2013. Review of Christopher Baumer, "The History of Central Asia: the Age of the Steppe Warriors," New York: I. B. Tauris and Co., Ltd., 2012,

302 pp.
"Steppe Nomads and Central Asia," All Empires online history community. Military and Battles of the central steppes during 300 CE-1500 CE period in world history.
Sabuhi Ahnadov, "Knights in Azerbaijan, Article 2, 5th-11th centuries," IRS History, January 2014. This Azerbaijani source explains how Azad Knights were part of the Sassinad empire during this era and knighthood developed as a social, military institution.
Sabuhi Ahnadov, "Knights in Azerbaijan, Article 3, 12-13th centuries," IRS History, March 2014. This Azerbaijani source discusses Azerbaijan knighthood in a romantic fashion explaining it's end at the hands of the Mongol invaders who would not fight in "knightly fashion." Change over time would see knighthood replaced by mass armies.

There is perhaps no better introduction to the place of the “Mongols in World History” than that offered here by Timothy May, whose most recent article on the Mongol military appears in this issue of World History Connected.
Google Book. Stephen Turnbull, "Genghis Khan & the Mongol Conquests 1190-1400," Osprey Publishing, 2003.
Patrick Wing, University of Redlands, review of Timothy May, "The Mongol Art of War: Chinggis Khan and the Mongol Military System, Yardley: Westholme, 2007, 214 pp. seen in Mamluk Studies Review, University of Chicago, Vol. 12, No. 2, 2008.
Timothy May, "The Mongols in World History," World History Connected, Vol. 5, No. 2, February 2008. See reference to Mongol army and how they were "different" from other medieval military systems.
Paul D. Buell, "Age of Mongol Empire-A Bibliographic Essay," The Silk Road Foundation Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 15, 2003, The Silk Road Foundation. Dr. Paul Buell discusses historiography and brief bibliographies of various aspects of Mongol culture and history.
Mongols in World History, Asia For Educators, Columbia University.
Jurgen Paul Halle, "The State and the Military-a Nomadic Perspective," Mitteilungen des SFB 586, "Differenz und Integration" 5, Monograph focused on Mongol nomadic military states.
"Mongolian History-Online Resources," The Indo-Mongolian Society of New York, compiled by Indo-Mongolian Society of New York in 2004.  Many great links and digital resources with some primary sources and to non-Asian culture's Points of View as to the Mongol Other. See the following excerpts from Jack Weatherford, "Genghis Khan & Making of the Modern World," Crown Publishers, Random House, 2004, esp. excerpt from pp. 254-255 as to "Development of European anti-Asian and anti-Mongol Views During the Enlightenment" at the Renaissance writers and explorers treated Genghis Khan and the Mongols with open adulation, the eighteenth-century Enlightenment in Europe produced a growing anti-Asian spirit that often focused on the Mongols, in particular, as the symbol of everything evil or defective in that massive continent. As early as 1748, the French philosopher Montesquieu set the tone in his treatise The Spirit of the Laws, holding the Asian in haughty contempt and blaming much of their detestable qualities on the Mongols, whom he labeled, “the most singular people on earth.” He described them as both servile slaves and cruel masters. He attributed to them all the major attacks on civilization from ancient Greece to Persia: “They have destroyed Asia, from India even to the Mediterranean; and all the country which forms the east of Persia they have rendered a desert.” Montesquieu glorified the tribal origins of Europeans as the harbingers of democracy while he condemned the tribal people of Asia: “The Tartars who destroyed the Grecian Empire established in the conquered countries slavery and despotic power: the Goths, after subduing the Roman Empire, founded monarchy and liberty.” Based on this history, he summarily dismissed all of Asian civilization: “There reigns in Asia a servile spirit, which they have never been able to shake off, and it is impossible to find in all the histories of that country a single passage which discovers a freedom of spirit; we shall never see anything there but the excess of slavery.” Genghis Khan became the central figure of attack. Voltaire adapted a Mongol dynasty play, The Orphan of Chao, by Chi Chün-hsiang, to fit his personal political and social agenda by portraying Genghis Khan, whom Voltaire used as a substitute for the French king, as an ignorant and cruel villain. The Orphan of China, as he renamed it, debuted on the Paris stage in 1755 while Voltaire enjoyed safe exile in Switzerland. “I have confined my plan to the grand epoch of Genghis Khan,” he explained. “I have endeavored to describe the manners of the Tartars and Chinese: the most interesting events are nothing when they do not paint the manners; and this painting, which is one of the greatest secrets of the art, is no more than an idle amusement, when it does not tend to inspire notions of honor and virtue.” Voltaire described Genghis Khan as “The king of kings, the fiery Genghis Khan/Who lays the fertile fields of Asia waste.” He called him “a wild Scythian soldier bred to arms/And practiced in the trade of blood.” In Voltaire’s revisionist history, the Mongols warriors were no more than the “wild sons of rapine, who live in tents, in chariots, and in the fields.” They “detest our arts, our customs, and our laws; and therefore mean to change them all; to make this splendid seat of empire one vast desert, like their own.” Genghis Khan’s only redeeming quality, in Voltaire’s play, was that he reluctantly recognized the moral superiority of the better educated. “The more I see,” Voltaire quoted Genghis Khan as saying, “the more I admire this wondrous people, great in arts and arms, in learning and in manners great; their kings on wisdom’s basis founded all their power.” Genghis Khans ended the play with a question: “…what have I gained by all my victories, by all my guilty laurels stained with blood?” To which Voltaire answered: “…the tears, the sighs, the curses of mankind.” With these words, Voltaire himself began the modern cursing of the Mongols. (Excerpt from pages 254 and 255)
For the development of European Anti-Asian and anti-Mongol Views During the Enlightenment period, see Voltaire's stage play, free at Google e-books: The Orphan of China. Note images and documents not in this "dbq" analysis lesson on Mongols. But some of the documents can be seen in examples below.
Mongol teaching unit, World History For Us all, San Diego State University. Note images and maps and discussion of disease.
Mongol Empire DBQ (Document Based Essay Question) thanks to Mrs. Crouse's webpage-AP World History.
Mr. Vitale's AP World history DBQ essay page. Thank you Mr. Vitale. Note 4 Mongol Document based essay tests.
Connecting Women to the Silk Road....primary source docs. of Europeans encountering Mongol women, etc..
Focus Unit: Mongols...note Mongol women link.
The Mongols in World History, Columbia, pdf. from Asia for Educators main site:
Mongol lesson plan,
Marco Polo on the Road to China. Edsitement Lesson Plan no. 5.
Johnson, "Mongol Destruction and Beginning of New Empires in Asia," World Christian Foundations sources.
P. Steeves, Points of view on Mongol impact in Russia,
"The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Russia and Asia Studies.
Mongols in world history....print materials, History-World.
Buddhists in China DBQ, AP Central College Board website.
Ming build the Great Wall of China, Edsitement lessons, National Endowment for the Humanities.
Scott Haase, "Central Asia: A Study of History, Society, Culture and Its Affects on the Current Political and Economic Ideologies of Today's Leaders," Master's Paper for Diplomacy and Military Studies degree, Hawaii Pacific University, Spring 2008. Central Asia's new place in the world examined as a geopolitical region surrounded by three superpowers, Russia, China, India.

East Asia:
"Hired Swords vs. Heavenly Warriors: The Development of Warrior Power in Early Japan," Constantine in Tokyo blogsite, September 4, 2010. A comparative review of William Wayne Farris, Heavenly Warriors: The Evolution of CE, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1992 and Karl Friday, Japan's Military 500-1300: The Rise of Private Warrior Power in Early Japan, Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1992.
Justin Rowan, "The Rise of Buddhism in Politics and War," The Samurai Archives, Japanese History Page. As Buddhism flowed into Japan and diversified into various "schools," military elites and powerful political figures forged a militaristic Buddhist school beginning in early 600's and into the 700's CE.
"Samurai Archives Interview with Historian Thomas D. Conlan," The Shogun's House blog, December 12, 2008. Dr. Thomas Conlan discussed his books on Mongol and Japanese medieval military history.
Sample From Lesson "Women in Heinan and Feudal Japan-Samurai Sisters," Women in World History Curriculum. See short excerpt as to women and military and self-defense in early feudal Japan.
DRM_Peter, "In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takesaki Suenaga's Scrolls of the Mongol Invasions of Japan," Translated by Thomas D. Conlan, DE RE MILITARI, The Society for Medieval Military History, posted February 16, 2014. Professor Conlan's translation of Takesaki Suenaga's Scrolls published by East Asian Program at Cornell University, 2001, claimed that the Japanese did not need the divine wind or "kamikaze" to fight the Mongol invaders to a standstill in 1274-1281 conflict. See Dr. Conlan's interpretive essay included in his book, pp. 251-276, in pdf download within this review.
Thomas Conlan, PhD, Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME, "The Culture of Force and Farce: Fourteenth Century Japanese Warfare," Harvard University, Edwin O. Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, monograph, January 2000. Dr. Conlan, Bowdoin College Department of History and Asian Studies, details Japanese military "knights" and the essence of their culture, ie., flamboyance, recognition, to be noticed from afar. Dyed horses, gold and silver inlaid onto swords, plumes, artistic masks, helmets all meant to make the warrior stand out on the field of combat, a contrast to today's warrior fighting camouflaged on the field.
Dr. Alicia J. Campi, Review. Thomas D. Conlan, trans., "In Little Need of Divine Intervention: Takesaki Suenaga's Scrolls of the Mongol Invasion of Japan," Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, Cornell East Asia Series, 2001, 302 pp., seen in Mongolian & Tibetan Affairs Commission upload.  Dr. Campi in her first paragraph states that Dr. Conlan's book is "interesting but ultimately disappointing effort to shed light on the history rather than the myths."
Thomas D. Conlan, "The Two Paths of Writing and Warring in Medieval Japan," Taiwan Journal of East Asia Studies, Vol. 8, No. 1 (Issue 15) June 2011, pp. 85-127.
Dietmar Rothermund review of Peter Lorge, "The Asian Military Revolution: From Gunpowder to the Bomb," Cambridge University Press, July 2008, 200 pp, 9 maps, H-Soz-u-Kult, H-Net Reviews, September 2008 seen in USC US-China Institute, University of Southern California. Peter Lorge controverts the idea that Asia's military revolution was due only to the encounter with the West. Lorge discussed Chinese, Japanese, Korean and SE Asian military development 800-1200 CE. See Cambridge University Press Author biography, Table of Contents and Chronology from Peter Lorge's book:
Peter Lorge, "War, Politics and Society in Early Modern China, 900-1795," Routledge, 2005 from Warfare and History Series, edited by Jeremy Black, Exeter University.
"Technological Advances During Song Dynasty-Gunpowder," Asia for Educators @2008. Resources and short article for Song dynasty (960-1279) development of gunpowder which was also adapted by northern nomadic cultures.
Reischauer Institute of Japanese Studies, papers since 1998. Beginning with a 14th century Japanese military paper see Japan Forum lecture series presentations as well as contributions by Harvard Faculty and graduate students.

Southeast Asia:
Michael Charney, "Precolonial Southeast Asian Military History," Oxford Bibliographies. See short summary followed by seven noted military histories of the region. To access more information and complete article or Ebooks one has to subscribe to Oxford bibliographies.
Google Book. Chang Ming Shun, Malcolm M. Murfett, John N. Miksic, Brian P. Farrell, "Between Two Oceans: A Military History of Singapore 1275-1971," 2nd ed., Marshall Cavendish Editions, 2011.

Middle East:

Battle of Khaibar, 628 CE, Comparative Exercise:
1. See Jonah Blank article as to Battle of Khaibar/Khaybar and the Taliban fighting season 2014.
2. See Iranian TV 51:00 youtube Video of the Battle.
3. See Jewish Virtual Library entry as to Muhammad's battles against the Jews surrounding Medina.
Compare and Contrast the two POVs.
What evidence is provided for each POV?
Jonah Blank, "Historic Battle of Khaibar and Taliban Spring 2014 Afghanistan Fighting Season," Foreign Policy, May 29,2014. Or, see article here:
Jonah Blank claims the Muslim frontal assault on fortress of Khaibar may have meaning for the Taliban strategy this spring and summer. In 628 CE Muhammad and Ali defeated Jewish tribes and Arab allies at the strong Jewish fortress of Khaybar/Khaibar 60 miles from Medina.

See Iranian TV series, '40 Soldiers,' 51 minute youtube video of "Battle of Khaybar-The Victory of Ali." Muslim POV uploaded November 9, 2008. Muhammad and Ali laid siege to Jewish fortress of Khaybar, Ali killed the two Jewish "Lions" or military commanders. Click on "More" to see added information on the siege.
"Battle of Khaybar," Jewish Virtual Library.
Konstantinos Karatolios, "Greek Fire: Nine Little Known Facts About Byzantine's Secret Weapon," Military History Now, March 19, 2014. The Byzantine navy was able to keep Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean secure with the secret recipe which burned Muslim enemy ships.
Brian Todd Carey, "Battle of Manzikert," Oxford Bibliographies. Short summary of 1071 historic battle which saw the Byzantine armies lose to the Seljuk Turks and three key books on that battle.
Savvas Kyriakidis, "Military Leadership in Late Byzantium," Chapter 2, Commanders. The military character of the late Byzantine aristocracy is discussed by Savvas Kyriakidis in this 30 pp. download of chapter 2 from his book published by Oxford Press in 2009.,+The+Armies+of
Google Book. Hugh Kennedy, "The Armies of the Caliphs," Routledge, 2001. This google book only allows one to read Chapter 4, Early 'Abbasid Warfare, 750-833 CE.
Stefan Heidemann, "Arab Nomads and the Seljuq Military," seen in Shifts and Drifts in Nomad-Sedentary Relations, ed., by Stefan Leder and Bernhard Streck, Wiesbaden 2005, posted with download available on
Dogan Gurpinar, "Historiography of the Seljuks of Rum," European Journal of Turkish Studies, 2012. This monograph explains how the Seljuk Turks of Rum and specifically the victory at Manzikert in 1071 was used in Turkish history by political movements such as the Ottomans, Young Turks and into the 1970's. Example of state building, nationalism and politics wrapped around images of military victories.
Jere L. Bacharach (University of Washington), "African Military Slaves in the Muslim Middle East," Black Past, circa 2007- 2011. One of the largest groups of persons of African descent in the medieval Mid-East region was military slaves. Short article.
Sylvia Ducharme, "Slaves of the Sultan: The Janissaries," Center For Middle East Studies, Harvard University, May 2001. Monograph for teaching about the Middle East at the precollegiate level. Mongols took children in war and bought boys from families in times of famine, a custom that was Hindu in origin. The Ottomans conscripted Christian adolescent boys, chiefly in the Balkans, created a Palace school system of education and trained the boys, war prisoners and slaves for service in the Sultan's Palace, army and branches of government. The Janissary or "new troop" system began in 1377 and was abolished in 1826.
Mamluk Studies Resources, Middle East Documentation Center, University of Chicago.
Reuven Amitai, "Mamluks of Mongol Origin and their Role in Early Mamluk Political Life," Middle East Documentation Center, University of Chicago @ 2008, 2011, pp. 119-137. Dr. Amitai, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, discusses early Mamluk politics and military and original Mongol links.
"Reuven Amitai-Preiss, Mamluk and Mongols: an overview," Chapter 10 of his Mongols and Mamluks: The Mamluk-Ilkhanis War, 1260-1281, Cambridge University Press, 1995, pp. 214-235, seen in Dr. Alan Fisher's course matrix, Michigan State University, HST 372 History of the Middle East readings.

Latin America:
Linnea Wren, Kaylee Spencer, and Krysta Hochstetler, "Political Rhetoric and the Unification of Natural Geography, Cosmic Space, and Gender Spheres," Travis Nygard, Ripon College Art History scanned article. This monograph explains Chichen Itza as a militaristic polity and how it's religious symbolism dominated the region in the terminal classic period, 800-900 CE. Also note reference to female miitary figures and women warriors. See more of Travis Nygard precolumbian work with Linnea Wren:
"Iconographic Analysis Conducted by Archaeologists on Murals Reveal Maya Military Life," Art Daily, uploaded April 1, 2014. Eduardo Tejeda Monroy of the National Institute of Anthropology and History detailed his team's discoveries on Mayan murals and their depiction of Mayan military society.
Michael E. Smith, Arizona State University, "The Aztec Empire," Chapter 7 seen in Elizabeth M. Brumfiel and Gary M Feinman, ed., "The Aztec World," Abrams, 2008. Note success of Aztecs was begun by military conquest which resulted in the flow of goods into Aztec society. Yet too much warfare and sacrifice would be the Aztec's undoing. See below.
"Aztec Flower War," 1400's saw peak of power of Aztecs and new emperor designing a "Flower War" with the neighboring Tlaxcalans which would be ritual warfare to capture prisoners. The Tlaxcalans "accepted" their being a sacrifice farm for the Aztecs until the arrival of the Spanish could unleash them from this arrangement.
"Aztec Warriors," Aztec History Net. Short article on Aztec military with links for other Aztec history on right side of page.

Victor Davis Hanson, "Introduction: The Historiography of Ancient Warfare," seen in Philip Sabin, Hans van Wees and Michael Whitby, eds., "The Cambridge History of Greek and Roman Warfare, Vol. 1, Cambridge University Press, 2007.
"From Holy War to Peaceful Co-habitation, Military Orders: A General Introduction, University of Szeged, Hungary, SUN, 2008. A description of medieval Military Christian orders of knights.
Rose Eveleth, "Not All Knights of the Round Table Were White," Smithsonian Magazine, January 16, 2014.
Valerie Eads, "Means, Motive, Opportunity: Medieval Women and the Recourse to Arms," 2006. Paper presented at the Twentieth Barnard Medieval and Renaissance Conference, "War and Peace in the Middle Ages and Renaissance," December 2, 2006. Ms. Eads is faculty at the School for the Visual Arts, New York City.
Ronald Lee, "The Attempted Genocide and Ethnocide of the Roma," Roma Community and Advocacy Centre, Toronto, Canada, nd. Ronald Lee, Canadian Romani, activist and lecturer at University of Toronto, explains the history of the Roma or "Gypsies" originally Hindu "Kshatriya" recruited from vassal states in Northwestern India by the Ghaznavid Muslim invaders under Mahmud Ghazni in the early 11th century. The Roma are descended from those Hindu troops called "ghulam" and their supporting camp followers, wives and children, who were sent to Khurasan in east Persia (Iran) as ethnic contingents of the multi-ethnic army serving as occupation and garrison troops. The history of the Roma diaspora finds many in Europe where Ronald Lee claims they are suffering from ethnocide. See more on Romani:
Ronald Lee, "A New Look at Our Romani Origins and Diaspora," Roma Community and Advocacy Centre, Toronto, Canada, 2009. More on Romani origins as military troops and diaspora to Europe in late 14th-15th centuries
Barry C. Jacobsen, "Elite Warriors of History: The Varangian Guard," The Deadliest Blogger: Military History Page, posted February 28, 2012.

Two sites: 

Google Book. John France, ed., "Mercenary and Paid Men: The Mercenary Identity in the Middle Ages," Leiden, The Netherlands: Brill, 2008.
Thomas F. Madden (Saint Louis University), "Crusaders and Historians," First Things, Religion and Public Life Journal, January 2007. Thomas Madden discusses the historiography of the crusades and motivation for the crusades in this essay.
Google Book. John H. Pryor, ed., "Logistics of Warfare in the Age of the Crusades: Proceedings of a Workshop held at the Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Sydney, 2002," Ashgate Publishing, Ltd., 2006. Note Chapter 2, "The Logistics of the Mongol-Mamluk war, with Special reference to the Battle of Wadi'l-Khaznadar, 1299 CE," by Reuven Amitai.
John Temple-Leader and Giuseppe Marcotti, "Sir John Hawkwood: Story of a Condottiere," London: T. Fisher Unwin, 1889, Internet Archive Way back Machine seen in De Re Militari homepage. 14th century condottiere fighting in Italy in 44 chapters scanned in pdf format.
Google Book. Kelly DeVries, Medieval Military Technology, Broadview Ltd., 1992. This page opens to Bibliography. Scroll up page to see selected pages of this book.
Captain John Woodward, etc. al, "Medieval Logistics," Quartermaster Professional Bulletin, Winter, 2000 seen in Air University website. Brief history and explanation of medieval European military logistics.
Robert Douglas Smith and Kelly DeVries, "The Artillery of the Dukes of Burgundy, 1363-1477," Boydell Press, 2005. Download from
Dr. Kelly DeVries faculty page, Loyola University. See Dr. DeVries medieval military history books he has authored and an interview by Live Science staff writer, Stephanie Pappas, "How Real is the 'Game of Thrones' Medieval World?" April 3, 2014. One can see the link to that interview at bottom right side of this faculty page.
Steve Paulson interview with Dr. Kelly DeVries, "Medieval Combat-Kelly DeVries," April 4, 2014, Wisconsin public radio audio podcast, 9:18. From Game of Thrones fans Paulson and medieval military expert, Dr. DeVries, Loyola University, discuss the historical realities of medieval combat.
Albert A. Nofi and James F. Dunnigan, "Medieval Life & Hundred Years War," a 200,000 word website, 1997.

John Maunu is an AP College Board World History consultant who can be reached at 


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