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Religious Missions, Conversion: Internet Resources

John Maunu


According to tradition Mani, the fountainhead of Manicheanism, said, "My religion is of that kind that it will be manifest in every country and in all languages and it will be taught in faraway countries."

"When the missionaries arrived, the Africans had the Land and the missionaries had the Bible. They taught how to pray with our eyes closed. When we opened them, they had the land and we had the Bible."—Jomo Kenyatta

This resource for the study of missionaries and religious conversion in world history addresses topics that range over time and across from many empires, states and religions. It also examines the responses of those encountering, as well as engaging, in proselytization. It is organized into sections as follows: global resources, annotated links to regional missionary and missions, university and college syllabi, and sources for related music/song and art.

Kees van der Pijl, "The Foreign Encounter in Myth and Religion," NY: Pluto Press, 2010.
"Digital Resources on Travelers and Travel Writing," World History Connected, Vol. 10, No. 2, June 2013. Many resources from 8000 BCE to Present as to missionary as travel writer.
"Mission of the Society of friends of Epicurus," Society of Epicurus. Epicurus and "disciples", like other Greek philosophers, built schools throughout the Mediterranean region, teaching their philosophies and beliefs of life and after-life. His secular thoughts continued globally. One competition as to missionary and mission was between Epicurean and Stoic schools. See "fabricated" debate between Zeno, founder of Stoic schools, stoa, and Epicurus, video 16:17 in New Epicurean website:
Epicurus and Epicurean Philosophy, Epicurus website, moderated by Vincent Cook since December 4, 1996.
Professor Franz Cumont, "Mithraism and Christianity-A Comparison," CAIS, The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies. Mithraism spread from Persia through Turkey into Rome and embraced by Roman soldiers. See description of Roman soldiers as Mithra missionaries throughout the Roman empire.
"Druidism," The Mystica, website moderated by Alan G. Hefner, last updated February 12, 2014. Druid priests were diviners, power brokers and acted as missionaries within their European cultures.
Jonathan M. Bloom, "Revolution by the Ream-A History of Paper," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 50, No. 3, May/June 1999. Missionary and Mission history is not complete without discussion of Chinese invention of paper, it's migration through Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade networks, it's stimulus for science, education, technology, and, yes, missionary outreach and study.
Linda Learman, ed., "Buddhist Missionaries in the Era of Globalization," University of Hawai'i Press, 2005. This book from Contemporary Topics in Buddhism series discussed Buddhist missionaries and mission world wide.
Nestorian Bibliography, Note on left side of this page are tabs for Nestorians in India, Arabia, and elsewhere throughout Eurasia.
James Kenneth Hamrick, "Orthodox Preaching as the Oral Icon of Christ," ISSUU, Orthodox Logos Publishing, 2013. Thirty page slide share booklet with many Orthodox book suggestions beneath.
Ruth A. Tucker, "Women Missionaries," Women Missionary blog. Website dedicated to women missionary memoirs of mission work in China, Africa, 19th century Oregon and elsewhere. Pearl Buck was daughter of missionary couple in China.
"Women as Cultural Emissaries-Consider Women Missionaries," Women in World History Curriculum. See two primary source examples of missionary work. First, 8th-9th century Anglo-Saxon nuns, second, Indian writer, Krupa Sattianadan on her experience with British missionaries in 1878 Bombay, India. See Women in World History Curriculum "Home" for essays on Women as Cultural Emissaries:
Ildiko Glaser-Hille, "Magyarok Nagyasszony: The Virgin Mary as a Symbol of Hungarian National Identity," monograph seen in Academia. Catholic Franciscans and other missionaries use of Mary's humanness to "market" Jesus as a true human figure in non-Christian regions. Catholic and Byzantine missionaries used the Cult of Mary in foreign lands to compare to non-Christian female figures in those regions.
"Cult of the Virgin Mary in Middle Ages," Metropolitan Museum. Change over time of Virgin Mary in Byzantine icons and Latin Christianity art.
Lesson Module, "The Spread of Religions," Unit 7, Bridging World History, Annenberg Learner. See digital resources, pdf transcripts of videos, 28:00 videos for the spread of Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam in world history.
Google Book. Andrew Buckser and Stephen D. Glazier, "The Anthropology of Religious Conversion," Rowman & Littlefield, January 1, 2003, 236 pp. Anthropologists Buckser and Glazier examined a variety of cultural settings via 14 case studies to understand how religious conversion occurs.
"Missionary," Religion Comments on missionary tradition in Buddhist, Christian, and Muslim faiths. See comments on Jewish missionary outreach. See more resources and information on Missionaries in world religions from another pesky wiki source:
Yossef Schwartz, "Kabbalah and Conversion: Caramuel and Ciantes on Kabbalah as a Means for the Conversion of the Jews," 1606-1682, Edizioni ETS, 2012 monograph. Catholic missionary strategy to convert the Jews.
"Kabbalah," Jewish Virtual Library, 2012. In depth explanation with many links of history and understanding of Jewish Kabbalah.
Shlomo M. Brody, "Is Judaism a Proselytizing Religion?" Jewish Ideas Daily, October 19, 2012. Shlomo Brody discussed certain Jewish groups that proselytize and the argument over missionary outreach in Judaism. Mr. Brody is a teacher at Yeshivat Hakotel in Israel.
Derek Leman, "Messianic Jewish Musings-Michael Brown and Post-Missionary Messianic Judaism," Derek4Messiah blog, May 8, 2007. Debate as to Messianic Judaism as a missionary faith and Rabbinic Tradition and Yeshua.
"Proselytizing," Huffington Post, April 27, 2015. Various articles on Proselytizing around the world, mostly US.
"EBSCO and ATLA Announce 11 Separate Thematic Series of ATLA," EBSCO, March 5, 2015. Historical monographs series aimed at Religion and Theology scholars. See ATLA announcement with links that will open to summaries of each of 11 series:
William Grimes, Review, Nyan Chanda, "Bound Together-How Traders, Preachers, Adventurers, and Warriors Shaped Globalization," Yale University Press, 2007, 391 pp., New York Times Books, May 30, 2007.
Gregory F. Fegel, "Missionaries are Colonialists-The Unspoken Historical Colonial Agenda of Christianity," Note Mamiwata is a Vodun site in West Africa:

This point of view originally published in Pravada, Russia, October 21, 2008:
Dana L. Roberts, "Converting Colonialism: Visions and Realities in Mission History, 1706-1914," Google eBook, Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, Janaury 2, 2008, 304 pp. Dana Roberts has taken essays from the North Atlantic Missiology Project and attempted to show link between colonialism and mission work.
Howard Culbertson, "Christian Missionary Timeline," Southern Nazarene University. From 30 CE-2006.
Alex McKay, PhD, "Towards a History of Medical Missions," Review of David Hardiman (ed.), "Healing bodies, saving souls: Medical Missions in Asia and Africa," Wellcome Series in History of Medicine, Clio Medica 80, Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2006, 348 pp. originally seen in Cambridge Journal of Medical Missions, No. 51, Issue 4, October 1, 2007, 547-551. Dr. McKay reviewed David Hardiman's edited work on Christian medical missions in Africa and Asia.
R. Loder-Neuhold, "Collecting Monks, Museum Founding Nuns: Mission, Museums in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany," downloaded by R. Loder-Neuhold to Academia. See many abstracts for research papers dealing with Missionary materials and activities from all over the globe, Congo, South Africa, Latin America, Europe, Middle East.
Eddie Arthur, Kang San Tan, Peter Oyugi and Claudio Muzzi, "The Modern Missionary Movement-an Era of Western Dominance: Was It All Bad and Where do we go from here?" Thinking Mission series, Forum at CMF, May 25, 2011, downloaded to Presentation by Eddie Arthur with responses from an Asian, African and Latin American perspective.
Felicity Jensz and Hanna Acke, Introduction to book about 19th century Evangelical Protestant missionary media in Britain, Continental Europe, North America and British colonial world.
Miss Francis J. Baker, "The Story of the Women's Foreign Missionary Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 1869-1895," Cincinnati: Curtis and Jennings and New York: Eaton & Manis, 1898. Full text from
6 part audio podcast video of John Chisholm Lambert, "Missionary Heroism." Lambert (1857-1917) stories of heroic Christian missionaries, men and women, throughout the globe. See LibriVox recordings of all chapters of Lambert's book:
Jamal Malik, "Religion and Colonialism," Academic Room. Essay on European religions and colonial history.
Sheikh Ali Al Timimi, "Christian Missionary Work in Muslim Countries,", 1:16:26 Video, published January 8, 2013. Sheikh's warnings to Muslims concerning Christian missionary outreach in Muslim countries. Lecture/Speech delivered by American of Iraqi heritage, Sheikh Ali Al Timimi in UK, 1996. Compare to:
International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Issue 28:3, July 2004. See pdf articles, most about Christian missionary outreach in Muslim countries.
David A. Kerr, "Christian Missionaries and Islamic Studies: Beyond Antithesis," International Bulletin of Missionary Research, January 8, 2002. David Kerr explained how Christian Missionary scholars introduced Islam to the West.
Emily Conroy-Krutz, Michigan State University. Emily Conroy-Krutz papers and articles on 19th century American and western missionary and mission globally. Dr. Conroy-Krutz has not downloaded her work to But one can view most of her abstracts from this site.
Mission Dawah website, Global missionary effort for Islam, 2015.
"Missionary Work of Islam," Academic Room. See summary of Muslim missionary activity from 630 CE to present.
"Himmler and Religion," World Future Fund. Many resources for Nazi German Heinrich Himmler's plans to develop and promote in Germany and globally a German Aryan Pagan Religion. Note his comments on future of Christianity in a Third Reich. See more below.
"Excerpt from 'Whisperers: The Secret History of the Spirit World," Huffington Post, June 12, 2013. Excerpt from J.H. Brennan book on Elite Nazi Pagan Aryan Religion, New York, NY: Overlook Press, Peter Mayer Publishers Inc., 2013.
Wayne Madsen, "CIA Involvement With Religious Groups Not a New Charge," Mathaba, March 16, 2009. Mr. Madsen highlighted examples of religious groups and missionaries linked to CIA spying from 1950's to 2009.
Pst. Gerald Chen Hsiongcai, "Buddhist Evangelism into the 21st Century," Buddhism Today, Panna Youth Centre, Singapore, 2001. Hsiongcai is Buddhist Youth Centre President and discussed the future of Buddhism and missionary evangelising into the future.
Jonathan S. Walters, "Buddhist Missionary Work," Academic Room.
"Buddhism Around the World," Buddhism Today, last updated November 9, 2001. Note Buddhism and Buddhist activity, news, evangelical outreach globally.
Dr. Timothy C. Tennent, "Non-Western Church: Top Ten Mission Trends in 21st Century Christianity," blog, April 15, 2010. Dr. Tennent, President of Ashbury Theological Seminary and Professor of World Christianity, described demographic Christian growth outside the West.
Dr. Jeff Mirus, "Vatican II on Missionary Activity: Principles," Catholic Culture, September 22, 2010. Description of Catholic missionary principles since Vatican II.
Dr. Jeff Mirus, "Vatican II on Missionary Activity: Mission Work," Catholic Culture, September 23, 2010.
A tangent? Importance of ritual in missionary, religious conversion, practices, outreach. "Five." 5 minute video showing the rituals of 5 year olds in 5 different religions, Aeon Video, April 14, 2015.
"Missionary Collections," SOAS, Study of Asia, Africa and the Middle East, University of London. See external links to right of this page for Internet Mission Photographic Archive. Also:
"Falun Gong Practitioners Outside of China," Falun Dafa website. See tabs on left side of the page for resources, history about Falun Gong faith and missionary and mission outreach.
Flyer. "Falun Dafa/Falun Gong," University of Minnesota. Chinese faith organized by Li Hongzhi first fled Communist China to Paris in 1995 and has missions and outreach globally. "Pure Heart, Clear Mind" is motto.
Gordon Shepherd and Gary Shepherd, "Membership Growth, Church Activity, and Missionary Recruitment," Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Thought, nd. Gordon and Gary Shepherd quote Harold Bloom, religious writer, as stating that Mormon missionary recruitment is the most aggressive of all religions.
Francis X. Rocca, "Evangelicals and Vatican Reach Accord on proselytizing," National Catholic Reporter on-line, June 29, 2011. Evangelicals and Catholics agreed to develop guidelines for proselytizing among other religions and people without religions.
Jain digital resources website, Colorado State University.
World Religions & Spirituality Project, Virginia Commonwealth University website. See many resources on religions and spirituality by clicking on tabs at top of page.
Michael Van Dusen, "10 Forgotten Ancient Religions," Listverse, October 4, 2013. Ten ancient religions some of which are being revived today by "new practitioners."

"Heka: The Magic of Ancient Egypt," Reshafim. Magic was found in all ancient religions and priests, Kings and their gods had power to use magic. Note example of Isis, mother goddess, and the "cult's" widespread expansion throughout the Roman Empire, even evolving into the Marian Cult in Christianity.
"Demon Things," Demonology Project. Project supported and planned by group of scholars using Magic, Demonology from Egypt to Byzantine world. Seen in Dr. Kasia Szapakowska syllabus, Swansea University, Wales, UK included at bottom of this article under Syllabus.
Dr. Aziz Ateya, "A Brief History of Evangelism & Mission (4), Coptic Missionary and Mission Until the Sixth Century," Evangelism Coptic Orthodox. Coptic Christian missionary activity in Egypt and Ethiopia.
"Who are the Copts?" Copts UK website, July 20, 2009, editorial supervisor, Dr. Helmy Guirguis. Scroll down this history of the Copts to Coptic missionaries and mission section.
"Memoirs of Boston King, A Black Preacher," Antislavery Literature website. 18th century Autobiographical narrative memoir by Boston King, a fugitive slave from South Carolina who became a teacher and missionary in Sierra Leone. Serialized in four parts in 1798 by Methodist Magazine. See more resources on left side of this page and teaching guide for this narrative.
Emily Conroy-Krutz, Michigan State University, Review of Erksine Clarke, "By the Rivers of Water: A Nineteenth-Century Atlantic Odyssey," US Religion blog, March 2014. Biography of complex southern plantation owner and slave holder John Leighton Wilson who was commissioned by American Christian missionary society to travel to Africa in mid-1830's to conduct missionary work. As the civil war began, John Leighton Wilson would join the Confederate forces.
"Alexander Crummell, Nationalist and Missionary," Boston University School of Theology and Missiology biography. Alexander Crummell, born in New York City (1819-1898), overcame obstacles a black man faced attending a Protestant Episcopal seminary in Boston and earning a B.A. from Cambridge University in England in 1853. As an ordained priest he spent the next 20 years as a missionary and educator in Africa returning in 1873 becoming an influential pastor in Washington D.C.
Joseph R. Moss, "The Missionary Journey of Louise 'Lulu' Fleming, M.D.," Florida Baptist History, address given to the Florida Baptist Historical Society, May 4, 1996. Louise Fleming, born 1862 to slave mother in Hibernia, Clay County, Florida, was educated by American Baptist Home Mission. She was chosen to be a "Talented Tenth" program missionary, in which one out of ten educated blacks would return to their home area to teach other blacks. Ms. Fleming applied to African missionary program and was chosen to travel to the Congo (Zaire) in late 19th century.
"Martin R. Delany and Edward Wilmot Blyden, Chicken Bones: A Journal for African American thought, Nathaniel Turner blog. Biographies of Black nationalists Delany and Blyden with Edward Blyden also being a gifted linguist and Christian Evangelist in Liberia and Sierra Leone. Martin Delany traveled to Africa looking for "pristine" African sites for Black American emigration which irritated American missionaries in Africa.
"Crowther, Samuel Adjai [Ajayi], 1807-1891," Boston University School of Theology and Missiology, Missionary Biographies. Born in western Nigeria, a Yoruba, abducted by Fulani and Yoruba Muslims, sold to Portuguese, liberated by a British patrol in the Atlantic and taken to Sierra Leone where he was trained by English missionaries. He was among the first Protestant missionaries to his native Yoruba homeland, went on two expeditions of the lower Niger River. Wrote a perspective on missionary endeavors in Africa in 1869, "An African Bishop Directs Christian Evangelization in Africa," where he used phrase "Africa for Africans" connecting him to Black nationalists like Martin Delany and Edward Blyden, see link above.
Andre E. Johnson, "Bishop Henry McNeal Turner and Rhetoric," R3, Rhetoric, Race and Religion blog, May 27, 2014. Biography of Henry McNeal Turner who wrote "An African American Bishop's Views of the Evangelization of Africa," in 1891. A free native of South Carolina, McNeal (1834-1915) was ordained in 1853, briefly the first Black Chaplain in the United State Army, became a Back to Africa activist. In 1880 became the twelfth bishop of the African Methodist Episcopal Church (AME) who began to spread that church in Liberia, Sierra Leone, and southern Africa.
J. A. Millard, "Mzimba, Pambani Jeremiah, 1850-1911, Presbyterian Church of Africa, South Africa," Dictionary of African Christian Biography, article reproduced with permission from "Malihambe-Let the Word Spread," 1999, Unisa Press Pretoria, South Africa. Pambani Jeremiah Mzimba was born in Cape Town Colony, attended the Lovedale Institution, operated by United Free Church of Scotland for the education of Africans. Ordained in 1875 but broke with white missionaries and founded his own Presbyterian Church of Africa. becoming a leader who believed that blacks needed to create their own institutions to overcome racial prejudice.
"Aggrey, James E. Kwegyir, 1875-1927, Wesleyan Methodist, Ghana," Dictionary of African Christian Biography. Born in British colony of the Gold Coast, Aggrey completed his mission-school education in record time and taught in mission schools until 1898. He traveled to the United States enrolled in Livingstone College, an African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church institution in North Carolina.
Robert Rotberg, "John Chilembwe-Brief Life of an anti-colonial rebel, 1871?-1915," Harvard Magazine, March-April, 2005. American trained Baptist preacher and missionary who established a mission in what is now Malawi. In 1892 joined domestic staff of eccentric, African nationalist Joseph Booth, a British Fundamentalist Baptist missionary. Together they wrote a mission statement for an African Christian Union which would use African American help in creating mission training schools, "A Plan for African and African American Cooperation," in 1892 which angered and terrifiedEuropean missionaries and colonial figures. From 1900 Chilembwe had his own mission in Nyasaland (Malawi) and organized an uprising against Europeans, triggered by African ill treatment and British conscription of Africans for WW I. Some compare Booth and Chilembwe to Harper's Ferry Fundamentalist John Brown.
James R. Ryan, University of Exeter, Review of T. Jack Thompson, "Light on Darkness? Missionary Photography of Africa in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries," Studies in the History of Christian Missions, Grand Rapids, MI.:  Eerdmans Publishing, 2012, 304 pp.
Mahommah G. Baquaqua and Samuel Moore, 1854 Biography of Mahommah G. Baquaqua, native of Zoogoo, interior of Africa his description of his homeland, capture into slavery, conversion to Baptist Christianity in Haiti and return to Africa as missionary to his native people, Documenting the American South, University of North Carolina.
Christopher I. Ejizu, "<Conversion> in African Traditional Religions," Afrika World. Monograph on conversion experience in traditional African religions prior to Christianity and Islam.
Silvia Bruzzi, "The Role of Muslim Mentors in Eritrea: Religion, Health and Politics," Storicamente, Issue 8, No. 7, 2012. Silvia Bruzzi claimed that much of colonial history focused on Christian missionaries helping local residents of colonial regions. In the colonial history of Eritrea in east Africa, Bruzzi detailed the role of Islam and Muslim

Shaykhs as medical mentors among Eritreans. See same monograph in Academia:
"Education in Western Africa, Colonialism," What When How website. European education begun by Christian missionaries during colonial era. This is a summary of that process and reaction by West Africans to missionary and later colonial education.
Bwanda Fusa simulation game, Dr. Howard Culbertson, Southern Nazarene University, Oklahoma. Simulation introduces missionary student to "on the ground" training and simulated experiences in an African "type" environment.
S. Acharya and D. M. Murdock, "Garden of Eden Originally a Pygmy Myth," Free Thought Nation, July 25, 2011. Missionaries including Jesuit anthropologist indicate that much of Ituri people creation myths and stories similar to the Bible even though the Ituri pygmies were "uninfluenced" by Christian missionaries. The authors of this work, as well, as other anthropologists and missionaries claimed that Biblical creation stories can be found in many, many other cultures.
Daniel Bitton, McGill University graduate student, anthropology, "Death, Discipline and Domination in the Ituri Rainforest," monograph seen in Academia. Bitton described the relationship between the forest-dwelling pygmy hunter-gatherers with the village-dwelling tribes of Bantu and Sudanic farmers "involving...economic exchange and joint initiation, marriage and funerary rituals." The Village tribes dominated by imposing their religion, missionary-like, onto the pygmy but the Ituri pygmy accrue material benefits. Can this Democratic Republic of Congo case study be compared to other missionary and native relations elsewhere in world history?
Michael McRae, "Nubia's Black Pharoahs," Discover Magazine, December 1, 2005. Archaeologist looking for evidence that Egyptian embattled priests in Thebes sent missionaries to convert Nubian Chiefs to Amun and then move north to conquer Egypt.
African Religions, Stanford University website, SUL. See the many religions of Africa which also describe missionary and mission of those faiths.
History of Christian missionaries in Africa, Exploring Africa Matrix, Michigan State University. See maps, resources, lessons.
"Handbooks on the Missions of the Episcopal Church-Liberia," Project Canterbury, New York: The National Council of the Protestant Episcopal Church, 1928. Report on missionary work in Liberia with many photographs from that mission.
Ineke Van Kessel, "Merchants, Missionaries and Migrants," Open Access, Leiden University, Africa Studies Centre. Introduction (14 pp.) to Van Kessel's book, Merchants, Missionaries, and Migrants, a Dutch/Netherlands history of colonialism in Africa.
Bibliography of African Missiology. Christianity in Africa sources.
Islam in Africa, Exploring Africa matrix, Michigan State University. See maps, resources, lessons.
"Islam in Kenya,", wikipedia, updated July 8, 2014. First Muslim missionaries into Kenya were Tanganyikans with Maalim Mtondo being first missionary into Nairobi in late 9th century.
Sheikh Alhaji Zurkanine, "History of Bilal Muslim Mission-Kenya," Islam in Africa blog, posted February 19, 2010. Short history of 20th century Shia Islam mission in Kenya, Africa.
Roxanne Panchasi interview with Elizabeth Foster author of "Faith in Empire: Religion, Politics, and Colonial Rule in French Senegal, 1880-1940," Stanford University Press, 2013. Listen to audio podcast interview 1:19:10.
Kathryn Rountree, Research Paper Masters Thesis, "Catholic Missionaries in Africa: The White Fathers and the Belgian Congo 1950-1955," Department of History, Louisiana State University, December 2009.
Missionaries and Colonialism in Africa, Alfagems Secondary School, Catholic Diocese of Morogoro, Tanzania.
Yazarin Kisa Ozgecmisi, Dokuz Eylul University, Turkey, "The Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt: From Moderation to Authoritarianism," Uluslararasi Hukuk ve Politika Cilt: 9, Sayi: 33, ss I-25, 2013. Monograph on Muslim Brotherhood especially since Arab Spring with comments on the Brotherhood's Islamic outreach, education and recruitment by Dr. Ozgecmisi, American educated professor with interest in democratization.
Julie C. Ma and Wonsuk Ma, "Mission in the Spirit: Towards a Pentecostal Charismatic Missiology," monograph, Regnum Books International, Regnum Studies in Mission, Oxford, England, 2010. Downloaded to Academia. Monograph detailing a Pentecostal missionary spirit throughout the world, especially in poor regions.
Kent Larson, "Potential Effects of the Missionary Age Announcement," Times and Seasons (Latter-day Saints newsletter), October 7, 2012. Latter-day Saints lower age of missionaries. See 92 comments on this change over time.

Tad James with George Naope and Rex Shutte, "What is Huna-Excerpt from the lost secrets of Ancient Hawaiian Huna," 1997. Note comments as to Christian missionaries forced ancient Hawaiian Huna, spirituality, underground.
"Protestant Missionaries arrive," Hawaii History website. See short paragraph introduction followed by three links on Protestant missionaries arriving in Hawaii. Third link is broken.
"Experience 1850's Mission Life," Polynesian Cultural Center. Latter-day Saints (LDS) church in Hawaii and Polynesia plus, description of 200 Polynesian Mormon converts who migrated to Utah's high plains to build a colony near the Mormon temples.
Diane Lee Rhodes, "A Cultural History of Three Traditions: Hawaiian Sites on the West Coast of Hawai'i Island," 1819 saw death of powerful Hawaiian King and beginning of missionary and US corporate colonialism in Hawaii. See other "chapters" of Hawaiian culture history at bottom of this page.
Cynthia Ross Wiecko, "Jesuit Missionaries as Agents of Empire: The Spanish-Chamorro War and Ecological Effects of Conversion on Guam, 1668-1769" World History Connected, Vol. 10, No. 3, October 2013. Forum on Jesuits in World History. See link for that complete World History Connected Forum:
"Sunday Missionary Movement: 20th Century Martyrs Phil Masters and Stan Dale, A Story of the Yali and Kimyals," The End of Time blogsite, December 7, 2014. Beginning with two German-born missionaries sailing to Dutch New Guinea in 1855, Christian missions have been organized in New Guinea working with the cannibalistic Yali and their neighbors the Kimyals.
Graham Hassall, "Religion and Proto-Nationalism: Apelis Mazakmat and 'traces of mild sectarian strife' in New Ireland," Baha'i Library online, 2001-2002. European missionaries and New Ireland, Melanesian, Australian natives conflict. Apelis Mazakmat was first Baha'i religious convert in 1956. See Baha'i website on that conversion and history of the Baha'i mission in New Guinea:
Graham Hassall, University of Melbourne, Australia, "The Failure of the Tommy Kabu Movement: A Reassessment of the Evidence," Pacific Studies, Vol. 14, No. 2, March 1991 download to Academia. Tommy Kabu movement was negative reaction to missionary and colonial administration in Papua, New Guinea. Papuan resistance leader named Tommy Kabu, 1922?-1969.
Aborginal History, Australia. See Noel Loos, "From Church to State: Queensland Government take-over of Anglican Missions in North Queensland," scroll to p. 73 to read.
Charles F. Urbanowicz, "Christian Missionaries in the Polynesian Kingdom of Tonga: Late 18th & 19th Century Activities," Californian State University, Chico, 1983, updated August 15, 2003.
"The Missionaries," New Zealand History, Ministry for Culture and Heritage, last updated November 21, 2014. Seven section history of Christian missionaries to the Maori in New Zealand.
Kenneth R. Clark, "Culture Shock: The Last Cannibals," Chicago Tribune, June 17, 1988. Short article on Mark Twain quote about missionaries and cannibals and TBS National Geographic documentary "My Father, the Cannibal." Slim article on missionaries and cannibals in Papua, New Guinea. See other missionary articles from Chicago Tribune on right side of page.

South Asia:
"Monks and Merchants," Asia Society, Silk Road. Note short descriptions of Buddhist missionaries following the Buddha's exhortation, "Go, Monks, preach the noble doctrine...let not two of you go in the same direction."
Swarna de Silva, "The Place of Women in Buddhism," A Talk given to the Midlands Buddhist Society (UK) on Sanghamitta Day, 1988. Note de Silva's lecture broken into table of contents, such as, Women before Buddhism, Early Buddhism and women. Sanghamitta was supposedly a daughter of Asoka who traveled to Sri Lanka bringing a Buddhist mission that no longer exists. She followed her brother there.
Senaka Weeraratna, "Repression of Buddhism in Sri Lanka by the Portuguese (1505-1658), VG Web, ACSLU Essays on Unethical Conversion, June 12, 2005. Senaka Weeraratna's thesis was that the Portuguese Christians used unethical conversion tactics along with repressing Buddhists in the colonizing of Sri Lanka.
K. N. Panikkar, Indian historian, Review, "Religion and Politics in Colonial India," The Hindu, October 29, 2013. Dr. Panikkar reviewed Parma Sengupta, "Pedagogy for Religion-Missionary Education and the Fashioning of Hindu and Muslims in Bengal," Orient Black Swan, 2013. Parma Sengupta claimed it is Myth that 19th and 20th century Western colonial rule secularized the non-West. Actually, Christian missionaries reinforced Indian religions, Hinduism and Islam, rather than weakening them.
"Inventing the Dravidian Race, Pt. 1, " Sowing Seeds of Thought blog, June 18, 2011. Perspective as to British colonial administrators and Anglican Evangelists ability to divide and rule peoples of Indian subcontinent based on imaginary histories and racial myth, even inventing an entire race called Dravidians. British Anglican Missionary Bishop Robert Caldwell (1814-1891) being one. The idea was to move the "Dravidians" away from Brahmin Aryan Hindu influence and convert them to Christianity.
Jesse S. Palsetia, "Parsi and Hindu Traditional and Nontraditional Responses to Christian Conversion in Bombay, 1839-45," Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Vol. 74, Issue 3, 2006, pp. 615-645, seen in Academic Room. This monograph focused on two case studies of Indian youths converted to Christianity in 1839 and 1843 and the Hindu/Parsi communities attempts to stop the conversions in Indian law courts. See tenets of Parsi Zoroastrianism (India) below:
Tenets of Traditional (Parsi) Zoroastrianism, South Asian Zorastrianism.
Nauzer K. Bharucha, TNN, "Parsis Say No to Conversion," Parsi Khabar, Zoroastrians in India, October 11, 2010. Indian Parsis (Zoroastrians) upset that a Mexican drug gang and Brazilian nudists claimed to be Zoroastrian have passed an edict outlawing conversion. Zoroastrians have struggled over proselytizing and conversion for a number of years. See article below for more on this Parsi issue.
"Zoroastrians Keep the Faith and keep Dwindling," Parsi Khabar, Zoroastrians in India, September 6, 2006.
Julia Hardy, "Missions and Expansion," Buddhism Historical Development, Early missionary expansion of Buddhism throughout East and Southeast Asia. See also tab on left of page for "Exploration and Conquest" for summary of Ashoka's work in expanding Buddhism.
Anagarika Dharmapala, "Our Duty to the People of the West,", Maha Bodhi Journal, Vol. 35, September 1927. Buddhist point of view of necessity for Buddhist philosophies in the powerful west. Who is Anagarika Dhamapala? He was a pioneer missionary who attempted to revive Buddhist in India, Europe and the Middle East:
William J. Hamblin and Daniel Peterson, "Indian Ruler Sowed Seeds of Buddhism," Desert News, Utah, May 6, 2012. Article highlighting how Ashoka spread Buddhism in South Asia.
Aijaz Hussain Malik, Center for Historical Studies, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, "Tracing the Genesis of Conversion: The Role of Sufi Missionaries in the Islamization of Kashmir," International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 3, Issue 6, June 2013. Research paper.
Sufi Saints and Sufism website dedicated to Sufi saints in India, moderated by R. K. Gupta. See tabs to Sufism in India and Holy Bible in Hindi on left side of website page. Sufi Hindi Christian Bible written in story form to appeal to the common people was endorsed and approved by Archbishop of Delhi.
Jesudas M. Athyal, "Gospel and Cultures: A Subaltern reading of the history of Christian Mission in India," Jmathyal blog. Note other tabs as to Christian colonialism in India on left side of this page. Who is Dr. Jesudas M. Athyal? Go to
Boston College, Christian World Outreach Center, which offers a biography of Jeusdas Mathew Athyal.
Dr. Koenraad Elst, "The Problem of Christian Missionaries," Koenraad Elst Site, June 7, 1999. Dr. Elst, a disillusioned Catholic, discussed problems of Christian missionaries and the Hindutva movement in India in this short blog post.
Vishal Mangalwadi, "Can Hindutva Survive the Persecution of Christians in India?" Mission Frontiers, November 1, 1999 originally seen in "Oh India," October-December 1999. This was an open letter to all Christians and missionaries in India as to Hindutva, fundamentalist Hindu parties, persecution of Christians and those persecution's effects on Hindutva and BJP political party popularity.
Richard M. Eaton, University of Arizona, "Comparative History as World History: Religious Conversion in Modern India," Journal of World History, Vol. 8, No. 2, 1997, 243-271. Dr. Eaton looked at why some communities converted to Christianity in India and why others did not.
Arvind Sharma, "Hinduism as a Missionary Religion," State University of New York Press, 2010. Project Muse books. Your university, library or school has to have an account to access the online book.
B. R. K. Gauthama, "the missionary mandate," The Hindu, January 13, 2000. Short op ed by Mr. Gauthama as to threat of Christian missionary outreach in India.;_ylt=A2KLqIEnvg5VWEoAFhT7w8QF;_ylu=X3oDMTByZ2N0cmxpBHNlYwNzcgRzbGsD
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6:17 ABC Nightline video part of Faith Matters Series, "Miracle Workers in India-holy men or con men?" aired October 20, 2010. Skeptical ABC reporter visited Sufi, yogi and Hindu ascetics to observe their popularity in modern India.
Anany Chakravarti, American University in Cairo, Three monographs downloaded to Academia dealing with Brazil and Portuguese missionaries in India. "Peripheral Eyes: Brazilians in India, 1947-1961," 40 pp., "The Many Faces of Baltasar da Costa: 'imitatio and accomonodatio' in the seventeenth century Madurai mission," Etnogratica, Vol. 18, Issue 1, 2014, and "In the Language of the Land: Native Conversion in Jesuit Public Letters from Brazil and India," Journal of Early Modern History, Vol. 17, 2013, pp. 505-524.
"The War Against Hinduism," Hindu Philosophy, Morals, Rituals blog, November 13, 2012. Hindu blog discussion and angst as to Christian and Islamic missionary efforts.

East Asia/Southeast Asia:
"Early Indonesia," excerpted from William H Frederick and Robert L. Worden, eds., "Indonesia: A Country Study," Washington, DC: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress, 1992. Succinct essay on history of religious change over time in Indonesia from "Indianization" of Hindu/Buddhism through Islam.
Daniel C. Waugh, Faxian Journey to India, essay, University of Washington, 1999. From 399-411 CE, Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian traveled to India to find Buddhist books, materials not available in China. This is a summary of his travels.
Stephen F. Teiser, "Buddhism in China," Academic Room, 2005. See tabs on left side of page for Buddhism in Japan, Korea, Mongolia, Taiwan, Tibet and Vietnam.
Donald K. Swearer, "Buddhism in Southeast Asia," Academic Room, 1987 entry. Throughout this essay, Donald Swearer wove in references of Buddhist missionaries and mission.
Cindy Kleinmeyer, "Religions of Southeast Asia," slide share, Northern Illinois University, June 2004. Hinduism, Islam, Buddhism, Animism, Catholicism, Confucianism in Southeast Asia. Note references to missionary and mission throughout.
10:35 audio podcast, "Assyrian Church of the East in China," lecture by Martin Palmer, published on YouTube February 24, 2014. Nestorian missionaries ventured east from 635 CE Nineveh and Baghdad. Stele or monument uncovered dating back to 781 CE in China indicating Nestorian missionary and mission throughout Eurasia.
C. M. Joll, Chapter 2, "Indic, Islamic and Thai Influences: Extract of Chapter 2 from Muslim Merit Making in Thailand's Far South, Springer, 2012. Chapter 2 of C. M. Joll book about Indic, Thai and Islamic influences in history of Thailand's southern Malay Provinces. Academia download by C. M. Joll.
Joseph Paul Charles, "Global Christianity: Trends in Mission and the Relationship with Non-Western Missionaries Working Cross-Culturally in Thailand," South African Theological Seminary Masters of Theology Paper, October 2009. Mr. Charles analyzed and gave evidence as to decline of mission in the West, growth in non-western regions, and a case study of Christian missionaries and mission in Thailand.
Poramin Jaruworn, "The Roles of the Buddha in Thai Myths: Reflections on the Attempt to Integrate Buddhism into Thai Local Beliefs," Manusya, Journal of the Humanities, Special Issue, No. 9, 2005. Monograph analyzing the syncretic blending of Buddhism into Thai traditional religion. Missionaries many times will use local beliefs to identify and compare their faith and how it is similar to those local beliefs.
Toyotomi Hideyoshi, "Letter to the Viceroy of the Indies," 1591, The expulsion of Jesuit missionaries in 1587 provoked a reaction by European Catholic officials. A Jesuit missionary delivered a letter of protest from Portuguese Goa to Hideyoshi. This is his reply and an expression of his attitude toward Christianity, missionaries and Japan's place in East Asia.
Christian writings by Japanese converts to Christianity, Mission Studies website, John England moderator.
"1613 Embassy Project," Japan Arts and Crafts. Japanese Shogun had approved of Christian missionaries and missions in 1611 and ordered the building of a new galleon in Japan to return Spanish officials and missionary back to Spain with Japanese officials to discuss trade and meet with the Pope in Rome. This article discussed that history along with quotes from participants.
Ian Harris, ed., "Buddhism, Power, and Political Order," Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies, 2007, 254 pp. Buddhism in Britain described in first article with remaining articles concerned with Buddhist power and politics in SE Asia.
Cho Cho Aung, "Evaluation on Buddhist Education and Curriculum of International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University in Myanmar," Dao, 2014. Buddhism came to Myanmar in 11th century and this paper explained the importance of promoting Theravada Buddhist education in that Southeast Asia country.
"Myanmar and Theravada Buddhism," International Theravada Buddhist Missionary University, khemarama, Tinh An Lan Nha, Vietnam Buddhist site. This site explained history of Theravada Buddhism in Myanmar and curriculum of the Theravada Missionary University located in many global areas.
"Buddhist Outreach Resources," World Christian Missionary Resources, Asia Pacific Institute of Buddhist Studies, Baguio, Philippines, 2005. Christianity embracing Buddhism resources for evangelical work in East Asia and Southeast Asia.
Youngmin Kim, Seoul National University, South Korea, "Wang Yangming," Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. General, administrator, scholar, philosopher and missionary? Wang Yangming's neo-Confucianism promoted action as opposed to Zhu Xi, 12th century Chinese Confucianist, who taught methodical study and contemplation, possible only for elites. Wang's 1527 "Great Learning" put forth his thoughts and teachings opposing Zhu Xi and was enthusiastically received in his lifetime, even though he was exiled for 3 years for his ideas. Wang's "Community Compact for Southern Ganzhou" 1520's showed his thoughts on model communities where former rebels, criminals could be turned into model citizens following neo-Confucian values.
John Lawton, "The Far East," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 42, No. 6, Nov/Dec. 1991. John Lawton focused on spread of Islam into India and the Far East with sail, not sword, beginning with mid-7th century Muslim mosque in India.
"East Asian History Sourcebook: Ch'ing-Tsing: Nestorian Tablet: Eulogizing the Propagation of the Illustrious Religion in China, with a Preface, composed by a priest of the Syriac Church, 781 A.D.," Paul Halsall, Fordham University, Jesuit University of New York. Primary source from Nestorian perspective as to missionary work and mission in China.
Paul Lunde, "Muslims in China-The History," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 36, No. 4, July/August 1985.
"History of Islam in China," Dr. Ben website, last updated August 2014. History of Islam in China with maps including current Muslim and Chinese conflicts.
Isabel Pina, University of Lisbon, "Joao Rodrigues Tcuzu and the Controversy over Christian Terminology in China: The Perspective of a Jesuit from the Japanese Mission," Bulletin of Portuguese-Japanese Studies, No. 6, 2003, pp. 47-71.Monograph about Jesuit missionary and interpreter, Joao Rodrigues (1561-1633), who was at the center of Chinese Rites Controversy.
Lucian Pye Review of Liam Matthew Brockey, "Journey to the East: Jesuit Mission to China, 1579-1724," Foreign Affairs, May/June 2007. Slim review.
Caitlin Lu, "Matteo Ricci and the Jesuit Mission in China, 1583-1610," The Concord Review, 2011. One could also see Yu Liu, "The Intricacies of Accommodation: The Proselytizing Strategy of Matteo Ricci," Journal of World History, Vol. 19, No. 4, 2008.
"Matteo Rici and the Ming Dynasty," In Our Times With Melvyn Bragg, 45:24 audio podcast, BBC Radio 4, April 16, 2015. If this podcast moves from this Home Page, one can still search for it as these podcasts remain on site "Indefinitely."
"Chinese History-Religion,", Richard R. Wertz moderator @1998-2015. Short history of Christian missionaries in China.
Charles W. Hayford, editor, "American China Missions: An Introductory Bibliography," Haverford College, April 23, 2003. Bibliography for American missionary activities and missions in China.
Jane Hunter, "The Gospel of Gentility: American Women Missionaries in Turn of the Century China," Yale University Press. Click on "Preview" to see sample "google book-like" sample chapters.
"Dutch Role on Taiwan," H-Net, H-Asia Dialog, November 1995. See bibliography entries for Dutch missionary and missions in Taiwan.
Anthony E. Clark, University of Alabama, "Early Modern Chinese Reaction to Western Missionary Iconography," Southeast Review of Asian Studies, Vol. 30, 2008, pp. 5-22. Anthony Clark cited Chinese sources before the traditional western historiography of focusing on 1899-1900 Boxer Rebellion.
Franklin D. Rausch, "Jesuits in Korea: Influence Without Presence," World History Connected, Vol. 10, Issue 3, October 2013. Part of World History Connected Forum on Jesuits in World History.
"The Tonghak Religion and Uprising: Ch'oe Cheu on Learning Truth and Twelve Reforms Proclaimed by the Tonghak Overseer's Office," Asia For Educators, Columbia University. Primary source documents with questions on Korean Tonghak religious leaders (Tonghak religion formed in 1860) and 1894-1895 Tonghak believer's led uprising. Tonghak religion was associated with Catholic missionaries by the Korean government. A lesson module.
"Buddhism and Its Spread Along the Silk Road," Silk Road Foundation @1997-2000. Short history with Map as to Buddhist missionaries spreading Buddhism east along Silk Road into East Asia.
"Buddhism in East Asia," Buddha Net, @2008. Buddhist missionaries traveling into China, Korea and Japan and from China back to India.
Carol Tsang Review of Brian D. Ruppert, "Buddha Relics and Power in Early Medieval Japan," Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Asia Center, 2000, 505 pp. published in The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 64, No. 2, May 2005, pp. 473-474. Accessed 25/12/2014 to Carol Tsang reviewed Brian Ruppert's study of 9th-14th century Japan and use of Buddhist relics or as Ruppert stated (p. 13) "...symbols that evoke submission in a given community."
Mimi Hall Yiengpruksawan, "Hiraizumi: Buddhist Art and Regional Politics in Twelfth-Century Japan," Harvard University Press Monograph, January 30, 1990. Powells Books website. How three successive rulers in northern Honshu, Japan used art and architecture to claim religious and political mandate. Art and architecture as missionary and mission.
William E. Deal, Case Western Reserve University, Review of Keller Kimbrough, "Preachers, Poets, Women, and the Way:  Izumi Shikibu and the Buddhist Literature of Medieval Japan," University of Michigan, 2008, 374 pp. seen in Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, January 1, 2010. Late 10th and early 11th century Heian literature and how court elites and Buddhist missionaries reacted and used these female poems and literature.
Carmen Sterba, Book Review of Miura Ayako, "Hosokawa Garasho Fujin," (Japanese title), 1975, Asia Culture Enthusiast blog, September 15, 2011. Biographical historical novel about Hosokawa Tama Gracia (1556?-1600) who visited Portuguese Jesuit mission while her husband was away at war and converted and baptised in 1587 shortly after Jesuits ordered out of Japan. Both Miura Ayako and Gracia were impacted by war and conversion to Christianity and are popular in Japan.
Dr. Alexander Berzin, "The Spread of Buddhism to Asia-Buddhism and Its Impact on Asia," Berzin Archives-Asian Monographs, Cairo: Cairo University Center for Asian Studies, June 1996. See other resources on left of this page.
Steven Heine, Review, "Death and Social Order in Tokugawa Japan: Buddhism, Anti-Christianity, and The Danka System," by Nam-lin Hur, Harvard University Asia Center, 2007, 409 pg., Journal of Law and Religion, Vol. XXIV, May 28, 2008, posted in Hamline University Law file. Dr. Heine is Florida International University, Miami, Florida Professor of Religious Studies and History and Director of Asian Studies Program. Note comments on Tokugawa danka system which ordered all Japanese to register with a local Buddhist temple, Buddhist funerary rituals and anti-Christian rhetoric. Example of State missionary practice.
"Irishman Led First Buddhist Mission West," Maynooth University, Ireland, December 15, 2014. Maynooth University researchers found that an Irish born Anglican, Charles Pfoundes, b. 1840, led Japanese Buddhists to Ireland.
Zvi Ben-Dor Benite, "The Dao of Muhammad: A Cultural History of Muslims in Late Imperial China," Harvard East Asian Monographs 248, Harvard University Asia Center, Cambridge, Mass. and London, 2005. Zvi Ben-Dor Benite was student at Hebrew University and now is East Asian professor at New York University and his monograph highlights Muslims in late Imperial China. Note Dr. Benite's page:
Posted by Zia Shah, "Islam in China," The Muslim Times, December 2011, accessed March 13, 2015. History of Islam in China including missionaries.
Video, 9:18 YouTube, "John Birch," uploaded December 11, 2007. John Birch, born in China, in 1918 to missionary parents became a missionary in China later becoming a US intelligence agent during WW II. He was killed by Chinese communists 10 days after the end of WW II.
Overseas Missionary Fellowship, OMF, formerly China Inland Mission founded by James Hudson Taylor in 1865. Website and mission dedicated to Christian outreach in China.

Central Asia:
Richard Foltz, "Religion and Overland Trade in Asia, 1000 BC to AD 1400," Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia 2000. Note especially Sogdian Manichaean missionary efforts with Turks of Tien Shan, 763-840 CE.
"Buddhism and the Hellenistic World," Religion Facts. Alexander the Great's "invasion" of central Asia introduced Hellenism and Buddhism. See other tabs at top and left side of this page for more articles on Buddhism and its transmission throughout Eurasia and note comments on Greek Buddhists.
"Silk Road Transmission of Buddhism," Buddhism Guide website. Note Buddhist Missionaries along Silk Road section.
"Padmasambhava," Padmasambhava Guru Rinpoche website. Summary of Buddhist cult figure, born in 8th century Swat valley. His form of Buddhism spread into Tibet, Bhutan and Sikkim.
Two slim essays. One by Howard D. Owens, "Diasporic Nestorian Communities in Central Asia," describing Nestorian missionaries and the other by Melvin and Carol R. Ember, "Jewish Diaspora in East Asia," Yale University, 2005. Note in Owens' essay differences between Richard Foltz (above and author "Religions of the Silk Road”) and other historians as to religion diffusion along the Silk Road.
Two short readings: "Diasporic Nestorian Communities in Central Asia-Nestorian Christology and Missionaries" and "Jewish Diaspora in East Asia," Loganville High School, Georgia reading guide. Note slim comments on Sogdian Nestorian merchant missionaries.
Joel Walker, University of Washington, Seattle, Review of H. F. Halbertsma, "Early Christian Remains of Inner Mongolia:  Discovery, Reconstruction, and Appropriation," Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2008, 356 pp. Dr. Walker referenced Halbertsma's history and archaeology of Central Asia and China as a model for others in this field. Halbertsma traced earliest Christian missionaries and missions among the Turkic Ongut people during the 10th through the 13th century.
Mark Dickens, "Nestorian Christianity in Central Asia,", 2001. Mark Dickens is an independent scholar and consultant working out of Canada and Uzbekistan. The Nestorian or Holy Apostolic Catholic Assyrian Church of the East was a strongly missionary church using monastic orders, merchants and other laymen to spread the faith through trade and building medical centers and shelters.
Stanley Samuel Harakas, "Christianity in Eastern Europe and northern Eurasia," Academic Room, 1987, updated 2005. Dr. Harakas outlines 20 centuries of Christianity, Byzantine and Latin, in Eastern Europe and northern Eurasia.
Mary Jane Maxwell, Review of Richard C. Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road: An Overland Trade and Cultural Exchange from Antiquity to the Fifteenth Century," St. Martin's Griffen, 2000, 200 pp. World History Connected, Vol. 1, Issue 2, May 2004. Dr. Foltz described thematically movement and transformation of all religions that moved through the vast central steppe Silk Roads for 2000 years.
John Bray, "Christian Missionary Engagement With Tibet,", Buddhism and the West, originally essay seen in "The Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan," (3), 2011, pp. 93-118. Note footnotes and secondary sources at end of essay. History of Christian missionary and missions in Tibet.
Isrun Engelhardt, "Between Tolerance and Dogmatism: Tibetan Reactions to the Capuchin Missionaries in Lhasa, 1707-1745,", Buddhism and the West, originally published in "Zentralasiatische Studien (ZAS) 34, 2005, pp. 55-97. See comment on this author and article in following link.
academic papers as to Christian missionaries in Tibet and controversy with NKT or New Kadampa Tradition. Also reference to Ole Nydahl. Who is Diamond Buddhist Lama Nydahl? Go to
"New Kadampa Tradition From Ancient Kadampa to Modern Buddhism," Buddhism Controversy blog, May 12, 2014. Article referenced missionary strategy of "marketing" NKT Buddhism as a stress reliever.
"Trials of a Tibetan Monk: The Case of Tenzin Delek," Human Rights World report, February 2004, Vol. 16, No. 1 (C). Tenzin Delek, born 1950, was a Tibetan Buddhist monk/missionary who attempted to revive Buddhism, Buddhist monasteries in Tibet after he returned home from India, sanctified and blessed by the Dali Lama. Full report of his situation, arrest by Chinese, and trial. See update on Tenzin Delek below:
"China Release Senior Tibetan Monk on Medical Parole," Tibetan Centre for Human Rights, April 7, 2015.
"Afghanistan Flooded by Christian Missionaries," Kavkaz Center, January 10, 2008. Independent Islamic Caucasus Center Chechen Internet agency perspective as to President George W. Bush's strategy in Afghanistan which includes "attack against Islam" with Christian missionaries.

Middle East:
Prods Oktor Skjaervo, "An Introduction to Manicheism," Early Iranian Civilization 103 course, 2006 Fall term seen in Harvard Faculty of Arts and Sciences pdf. Note extensive bibliography, historiographical analysis, life of Mani and missionary expansion of Manicheism.
"Manichaeism-Wiki," The Full Wiki. From the 3rd century through the 7th century Manichaeism was the most widespread religion in the world with churches as far East as China and as far West as the Roman Empire. Note references to missionaries and missions.
David A. Scott, "Manichaean Views of Buddhism," University of Chicago, 1985 seen in Academic Room. Dr. Scott described Mani and Manichaean's reaction to Buddhism and Buddhist missionaries and missions moving east and west.
Stephen Williamson, "The Real Magi, The Real History Behind the Bible Story of the Wise Men," Blog @2010. The three Wise Men were Zoroastrian missionaries. See also Dr. Ali Jafarey, "The Zarasthushtrian Assembly," article.
Hannah Michael Gale Shapero, "Ancient Iranian Religions: Conversion to Zoroastrianism," The Circle of Ancient Iranian Studies, CAIS. Dr. Shapero discussed the debate over Zoroastrian conversion and proselytizing. Conservatives say NO conversion unless parents are both Zoroastrian while liberals are more open minded. See traditional Zoroastrian website, "Traditional Zoroastrianism: Tenets of the Religion," for more information and resources on Zoroastrian and conservative point of view from India: and see article from Parsi Khabar, Zoroastrians in India, September 6, 2006 as dwindling Zoroastrian populations.
"Muhammad's Mission (Medina Period, 622-632)," Chapter 16, October 17, 2008, download to Muhammad as missionary within the mission of Yathrib or Medina.
John Lawton, "The Arab Heartland," Saudi Aramco World, Vol. 42, Issue 6, Nov/Dec 1991. Muslim outreach, missionary and mission in the Arab world beginning in 7th century. See other articles on Muslim expansion history on left side of this page.
"Missionary Work of Islam," Academic Room, copyright 2013. History of Muslim missionary work from 650 to 1995.
Sayyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha, "The Origin of the School of Sufism," International Association of Sufism, originally an article from journal, "Sufism: An Inquiry," Short article on origins of Sufism during the Prophet Mohammad's time which saw these suffee believers delivering their practices and beliefs throughout the Middle East, Persia, Egypt after his death.
R. James Ferguson, "Meeting on the Road: Cosmopolitan Islamic Culture and the Politics of Sufism," Research Paper No. 4, The Centre for East-West Cultural and Economic Studies, December 1996. R. James Ferguson, Bond University, Queensland, Australia described Sufi missionary, political, and economic influences within the Islamic world.
Camille Helminski, "Women and Sufism," The Threshold Society, June 8, 2002, originally appeared in Gnosis #30 (winter 1994). Women Sufi mystics working with male Sufis as disciples, some becoming so popular that people came to visit them as human "missions" holding truths as to communication with God.
John P. Dickson, Introduction to doctoral thesis, "Mission-Commitment in Ancient Judaism and in the Pauline Communities," Coronet Books, October 2003. See more on Mr. Dickson below.
John P. Dickson, "Chapter 1 Winning the Gentiles: Mission and Missionaries in Ancient Judaism?" pp. 11-50, John Dickson, Australian historian, minister, public speaker, and strong Christian "public advocate," first chapter from his doctoral thesis. Opening sentence of this chapter sums up the subject: "The question of whether Judaism at the time of Christian origins was a 'missionary religion' is a well-worn track in scholarship, and, as yet, no consensus has been reached." John Dickson goes on to analyze the topic.
"Byzantine Religion and Influence," History Doctor AP World History website. Note monasticism and monks and their missionary work in Slavic regions and Russia.
Professor Ahmad Moussalli, American University of Beirut, "Wahhabism, Salafism and Islamism: Who Is The Enemy?" Conflicts Forum Monograph, January 2009. Dr. Moussalli attempted to define ideologies and terms used by Wahhabism, neo-Wahhabism, Salafism, neo-Salafism, and Islamism. Since 911 chaos has surrounded these movements and ideologies and Dr. Moussalli compared and contrasted the movements.
Ziauddin Sardar, Review, "Ibn Abd al-Wahhab by Michael Crawford, book review: A Puritan's Progress," The Independent, UK, December 18, 2014. Sardar reviewed missionary outreach of the conservative cleric who allied himself to Saud family in 18th century Saudi Arabia.
"A History of Orthodox Missions Among the Muslims," Orthodox wiki. Entry as to Byzantine Orthodox missionaries among Muslims.
Mehmet Ali Dogan, excerpt, "Missionary Schools," Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire, pp. 385 ff. Short excerpt on Protestant Missionaries in Ottoman Empire and Ottoman's response.
Norimitsu Onishi, "A Nation Challenged, A Shrine, A Tale of the Mullah, and Muhammad's Amazing Cloak," NY Times, December 19, 2001. Afghanistan Taliban Mullah, Mohammad Omar, proselytized his authority as Commander of the Faithful in Kandahar, Afghanistan by standing on top of a central mosque wearing Mohammad's Cloak. It was a successful attempt to display and promote his status as an Afghanistan religious and political leader which some considered blasphemous in that he was an uneducated, rural man with no blood ties to the Prophet Mohammad (BPBUH).
International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Issue 28:3, July 2004. See pdf articles concerning Christian missionary outreach in Middle East and Muslims.
"The Works of Samuel M. Zwemer," Logos. See Logos publishing site with samples of 40 year Christian missionary Samuel Zwemer and his work among Muslims in 19th century Middle East. His work was published in 1900.
David Hollinger, "Missionary to US Marine: Life of Colonel William Eddy," Oxford University Publishing blog, April 28, 2015. Born to American Presbyterian missionaries in Lebanon, William Eddy would join the U. S. Marine Corps and work for OSS during WW II in the Middle East.
Dalit Haley, Tova Dvorin, "Muslim Missionaries Converting Jewish Women in Israel," Israel National News, December 30, 2013. Group called Dar Al-Islam is converting unhappy Jewish women, many from central Asia, in Arab Israeli village.

Latin America/Caribbean:
E.K. Hayward Review of Fred Spier, "Religious Regimes in Peru: Religious and State Development in a Long-Term Perspective and the Effects in Andean Village of Zurite," Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 1994, 328 pp. seen in World History Connected, Vol. 7, Issue 3, October 2010.
Fray Andres de Olmos, "Final Judgement," 1530's, Stages of Conflict, Hemispheric Institute. Franciscan friar Andres de Olmos wrote "Evangelical theatre" or religious plays with dramatic action. Andres de Olmos "Final Judgement" was written for Nahua audiences.
Bernardino De Sahagun, University of Houston resource. Spanish missionary and priest who sailed to Mexico and wrote prayers, hymns, and devotional texts in Aztec language, Nahuatl including, in 1540, sermons in Nahuatl. See more information on De Sahagun by clicking on "Achievements," "Codex" and "Sources" tabs.
"Diego Duran," Self Gutenberg. Brief biography of Dominican friar and missionary to the Nahuatl (Aztecs), (1537-1588) famous for his Duran Codex or "The History of the Indies of New Spain." He preached in native villages and grew to respect the Mexica.
Google book. Chimalpahin, "Annals of His Time," Stanford University Press, 2006, 329 pp. Native chronicler and Christian church official, Chimalpahin, left us with the rare indigenous perspective about Spanish missionaries communicating Christian ideas in New Spain with his Annals, 1613. He described religious activities in which Spanish, native, African, and mestizo participated.
Aliocha Maldavsky, "Missionaries," Oxford University Publishing Bibliographies, last updated August 26, 2011. Slim annotated bibliography of Catholic and Protestant missionaries in Latin America, Caribbean and North America.
"Black History Month: Olaudah Equiano," Sisters of the Faith, February 6, 2009. Olaudah Equiano, slave to missionary in Nicaragua, 1775.
Nancy Gardner Prince, American National Biographies Online. Born free in Massachusetts, Nancy Gardner Prince (1799-ca. 1856) had traveled to the Russian court after she had married an African-American seamen, returned to Boston to become involved with abolition movements, then to Jamaica as teacher and raising money for missions and orphanages. Her concern for fair treatment of Blacks everywhere hoping that clergy and missionaries would help, especially in the West Indies became suspect as she traveled the West Indies. In 1841 she published a "travel guide" in Boston which was a scathing attack on British colonialism, corruption by political, religious, missionary and mission officials and their failures in helping people of color in the West indies. See that entire 15 pp. booklet here:
Nancy Gardner Prince, "The West Indies: Being a Description of the Islands, Progress of the Church, Education, and Liberty Among the Colored Population Generally," published in Boston in 1841, 15 pp.
"Haitian Vodun," Assata Shakur Forum, posted October 26, 2008. This post with cited sources explained how Vodun developed and expanded in Haiti in four stages among the poor and how a syncretic blending of Vodun with Roman Catholicism occurred.
Halima Kassim, "Muslim and Missionaries of Trinidad," Caribbean Muslims, June 10, 2008. Muslim migration into Trinidad, missionary work and back to India movement.
"Christian Missionary Deconverted by Tribe," Unreasonable Faith, Patheos, April 2009. University of Pittsburgh professor and missionary to Brazil tribe, Dr. Daniel Everett, is deconverted. See 10:25 video. Who is Daniel Everett:

North America:
Daniel T. Reff, "The 'Predicament of Culture' and Spanish Missionary Accounts of Tepehuan and Pueblo Revolts," Ethnohistory, 1995, pp. 63-90. Ohio State Ethnographer Dr. Reff explored Spanish missionary perspectives as to Tepehuan (1618) and Pueblo revolts (1680) and found the accounts laden with "devil" images as to the natives and Counter-Reformation theology and philosophy.
Ojibwe, "17th Century Jesuits in New France," Native American Net Roots, March 12, 2012. Jesuit missionaries in Canada from a native perspective.
Carol Pogash, "To Some Indians in California, Father Serra is Far From a Saint," NY Times, January 21, 2015. Pope Francis call to canonize Father Serra, first missionary in California, received negative reports from native Californians and others.
Deborah A. Miranda, "Lying to Children About the California Missions and the Indians," Zinn Project, posted March 2015. Ms. Miranda commented on California 4th grade curriculum project about California missions and natives.
"California Missions and Indians," Indian Country, PBS, March 2015. California Native perspectives on Mission system and harm done to Native Americans.
"Historic California Missions," California State Parks. 21 historic missions described along the California Mission Trail.
Fred Glass, "Native Americans in the Mission," Found SF-San Francisco Digital Archives, March 2015.
Tracy Neal Leavette, University of Creighton, "Native American Religion in the Early South," Journal of Southern Religion, Issue 14, 2012. Monograph. Discussion of Southern native religion and culture, Natchez native attempt to convert European missionary which showed native values of making outsiders into kin and descriptions of European missionaries in the early South.
"Quakers and Indians," Native American net Roots, February 19, 2011, posted by Ojibwa. Native American blog post explained history of Quaker missionary and mission and natives in America.
John Harrison, "Missions and Missionaries," Columbia River Project, Northwest Council, October 31, 2008. Short article on history of Christian missionaries in early 19th century Northwest.
"In the Beginning was the Word: The Russian Church and Native Alaskan Cultures," Library of Congress. Russian orthodox mission in Alaska and native reactions. Primary source documents and images. See more from Library of Congress:
"Russian Orthodox Church: Russia's Alaskan Legacy," Litsite, University of Alaska, Anchorage. Note point of view as to why the Russian church was successful in converting natives. Syncretism of Russian Orthodox priests, many from Siberia, and their respect for nature which allied with Alaskan native culture.
"Innocent, Veniaminov [Ivan Popov-Veniaminov] 1797-1879," Boston University School of Theology, History of Missiology. Most famous Alaskan Russian Orthodox missionary who worked in Alaska from 1835-1841.
Peter A. Goddard, "The Devil in New France: Jesuit Demonology, 1611-50," Canadian History Review, University of Toronto Press, Vol. 78, No. 1, March 1997. Many Jesuit missionaries in Canada viewed the native as close to the Devil. Peter Goddard discussed Jesuit descriptions of natives as demons.
Julia Roller, "Native and Christian-A Look at Christianity on Indian Reservations," seen in University of California, Berkeley journalism project site. Note Christian advocate, Julia Roller's point of view on Christian missionaries and missions on native reservations and see tabs on left side of page for more slim articles, such as Natives and Mormons, Sweat Lodge, and Blackfoot.
Chad Bragg, "Communicating the Gospel to the Inuit of Nunavut, Canada," North American Missions, Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, November 7, 2008. Research paper for Dr. David Sills in partial fulfillment for Theological degree.
Larry Jorgenson, "From Shamans to Missionaries: The Popular Religiosity of the Inupiaq Eskimo," Word and World, October 4, 1990. Word and World is newsletter for Luther Seminary, St. Paul, Minnesota. This article about 1894 Lutheran missionary, Brevig Memorial Lutheran Church, Brevig Mission, Alaska, Tollef Larson Brevig's "fight against the Shamanism of Alaska's Seward Peninsula."
Clarence R. Bolt, "The Conversion of the Port Simpson Tsimshian: Indian Control or Missionary Manipulation?" BC Studies, no. 57, Spring 1983. University of British Columbia article. This monograph seen in Missionaries and Missions below:
University of Saskatchewan Library, iPortal, Indigenous Studies Portal.  See other monographs here on missions, missionaries in Australia and Canada, some open to Library site. Click on "Google Scholar" tab and you may see the monograph.
T. Max Friesen, University of Toronto, Department of Anthropology, "Kitigaaryuit: A Portrait of the Mackenzie Inuit in the 1890's based on the Journals of Isaac O. Stringer," Arctic Anthropology, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp. 222-237, @2004 Board of Regents of University of Wisconsin System seen in Academia. Anglican missionary Issac O. Stringer made nine trips into Kitigaaryuit "town" of northern coastal Alaskan Inuit during the beluga whaling season from 1892 through 1909, leaving journals which described these natives from his point of view.
Ron Csillag, Religious News Service, "Inuktitut Bible for Inuit Christians," Huffington Post, Relgion, May 2, 2012. Christian Bible translated into native Inuit language.
Linda Mugford, "Postcolonialism from an Inuk Perspective," Academia, 2012. Linda Mugford lives in Nunatsiavut area of Labrador and discussed Native post-colonial society and effects of European colonialism, especially German Moravian missionaries and mission schooling, on Inuk culture and peoples.
Google Book. Francis Parkman, "The Works of Francis Parkman: The Jesuits in North America," Little, Brown, 1897. Parkman's original work was published in 1867.
Annotated Biographical Index of Presbyterian Missionaries in North America, Presbyterian Heritage Center. These American missionaries began native missions as early as 1732.
"American Women Missionaries," National Women's History Museum.
"The Missionary Spirit," Nebraska Studies, 1800-1849. See the three articles related to this topic: Moses Merrill, Dunbar and Allis, and The Conversion Struggle.
"Jain Religion in America," Pluralism Project, Harvard University. Note Jain missionaries to America in timeline. Click on "religion" tab at top of page to see other world religions and their missionary efforts.
Bilal Rana, "Who Was America's First Muslim Missionary?" Lansing Examiner, June 12, 2010. Dr. Mufti Muhammad Sadiq arrived in Philadelphia, February 15, 1920.
Susan Neylan, "Shamans, Missionaries and Prophets: Comparative Perspectives on Nineteenth-Century Religious Encounters in British Columbia," Historical Papers 1994: Canadian Society of Church History, published in Church History of Canada blog June 2013. Ms. Neylan attempts to analyze Christian missionaries and indigenous religious interactions in 1800's British Columbia.
Reverend Theodore Lafleur, "The Gospel and Romanism in Canada-The Grande Ligne Mission in Lower Canada," Montreal, 1866, 26 pages. Reverend Lafleur, 1821-1907, wrote about the threat of Roman Catholicsim from his Baptist missionary point of view from the 1835 Swiss and French founded Grande Ligne Mission near Montreal, Lower Canada.
"Children's Literature," Anti-Slavery Literature website. See juvenile mid-19th century anti-slavery literature aimed at children in American Sunday Schools.
Margot Adler, "Inner Space: The Spiritual Frontier," excerpt from "Sisterhood is Forever: The Women's Anthology for a New Millennium," Washington Square Press, a division of Simon and Shuster, March 2003. Margot Adler, a Wiccan Priestess since 1973 and contributor to NPR discussed the importance of gender and female images in world religions and those images importance in the New Spirituality of the Feminist movement especially as the 1970's feminist movement rejected the male symbols of western Christianity.
Melissa Jane Kronfeld, "Prislam: The Recruitment and Radicalization of Terrorist Operatives in the Prison System and the Threat to the American Homeland," March 10, 2011, download to Academia. Ms. Kronfeld was a reporter for the New York Post (2005-2009), graduate of New York University and George Washington University working on a PhD in Global Affairs. Monograph on Missionary recruitment in American prison systems.
Jane Lampman, "American Buddhism on the Rise," Christian Science Monitor, September 14, 2006. Popularity of Dali Lama and Buddhism in America with 1.5 million adherents making Buddhism the 4th largest religion in US. See update on Buddhism in America below.
Radhika Abeysekera, "The Appeal of Buddhism in the West," First presented at University of Winnipeg, Canada, updated for presentation in Sri Lanka, August 2, 2003.
Justin Whitaker, "Buddhists in America," Patheos blog, July 15, 2011. Three to four million Buddhists in America?
"Buddhism in the US: Exploring the Digital Face of Buddhism," Dharma Dialogue blog, November 8, 2012. Top Buddhist websites on the internet. Buddhist digital missionary and mission in the 21st century.
Institute of Buddhist Studies website, Berkeley, California. History of the Institute beginning in 1930 affiliated with the Honpa-Hongwanji branch of Shinshu Buddhism, a Japanese Pure Land School.
Rebecca Y. Kim, "Missionaries Coming to America," Oxford University Press, Academic Insights for the Thinking World blog, February 7, 2015. Rebecca Kim, author of "The Spirit Moves West-Korean Missionaries in America," gave reasons for why foreign missionaries come to America.
Tenrikyo in America and Canada, Tenrikyo website.
8:12 Video, YouTube, "Knocking," documentary about Jehovah's Witnesses in America, their outreach and tactics.

University syllabus:
Dr. Kasia Szpakowska, syllabus, "Supernatural Beings and Demons of Ancient Egypt," Swansea University, Wales, UK, 2013-14. Seen in Wabash Center, Wabash University.
Dr. Barbette Stanley Spaeth, syllabus, "Magic and the Supernatural in the Ancient World," Tulane Unversity, Spring 1998. As a continuity over time, all religions use some form of mystic, magical ritual(s) in their faith and proselytizing that faith.

See Bibliography for that course:
Dr. Bonnie Effrus, syllabus, "Medieval Magic and Witchcraft," Fall 2011, University of Florida. Medieval European religious use of magic and witchcraft.
Dr. Yechiel Y. Schur, syllabus, "Religion, Magic and Sorcery in the Medieval World," University of Pennsylvania, Summer 2015. Course dealt with social, religious, political and economic functions of the supernatural in medieval Europe, 500-1500 CE.
Amanda Goodman, syllabus, "Religions of the Silk Road," Silk Road Toronto, University of Toronto, Canada, Fall 2010- Winter 2011.
Syllabus for Studies in Church and Mission, Department of Theology, Uppsala University, Sweden, last revised March 11, 2014. Focus on Lutheran Church and mission outreach.
Eckhard J. Schnabel, syllabus, "Mission in the Early Church," Gordon-Conwell Theological Seminary, Charlotte, North Carolina branch, Spring 2013.
Bruce N. Fisk, "Life and Teachings of Paul," Briercrest Biblical Seminary, June 3-7, 2002. Course syllabus for Dr. Fisk's course on Christianity's early missionary. Bruce Fisk is from Westmont College, Department of Religious Studies.
Dr. Paul D. Numrich, "Missionary Religions," syllabus, Pontifical College Josephinum, Fall 2005-Spring 2006. Comparative religions approach.
Lauren Jarvis, "Missionaries and Empire from 1500-Present," University of Utah. Note introduction stating that most research agrees that "local missionaries" (not foreign) do most of the work of spreading religious ideas.
Howard Culbertson, "Mission Strategies and Tactics," Southern Nazarene University, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. Course resources for missionary and mission strategy and tactics.
Dan Mathewson, syllabus, Evangelicalism, Wofford College, 2011.
Christopher W. Chase, syllabus, "Religion in America, RELIG 210," Iowa State University, 2013. Dr. Chase's course covers all forms and examples of American religion beginning with traditional native religions, Buddhism and Hinduism in America, and all forms of Christianity in America.
Elias dos Santos Medeiro, syllabus, "History of Missions," Reformed Theological Seminary, Jackson, Mississippi, Fall 2012.
Dr. Shawn Daggett, syllabus, "History of Missions," Harding University, Arkansas, spring 2013. Focus of this Christian University course was missions from New Testament, Roman Catholic and Protestant perspective.
Thomas Power, syllabus, "History of Missions and Development," Wycliffe College, Winter 2014. Christian global mission.
Marjorie Mandelstan Balzer, syllabus, "Shamans, Priests, Healers," Berkley Center, Georgetown University, Spring 2014. This course studied folk healing, gender, and missionaries in indigenous societies.

Music/Songs and Art:

"Missionary Man," Eurythmics, 1986, posted on 10/25/2009.

"Buddha Purnima Program, May 25, 2013 at Ramakrishna Mission, Aalo. Chanting and devotional songs.
George J. Tanabe Jr., "Music and Buddhism," Academic Room. Article explaining music, chanting and ritual in Buddhist religious teaching. Repetition is key to teaching Buddhist religious ideas.
"Wooded Mountain at Dusk," 1666, by Kuncan (1612-1673), Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History, Metropolitan Museum of Art. Kuncan (K'un-Ts'an) an educated poet-painter, who retreated from urban society to enter a Buddhist monastery who frequently traveled to paint landscapes, directly from nature attaching poems to the paintings. The poem is seen in this source. Monk using art to promote mission. Painting and poem bring together Wang Yangming's (1520's) notion of the unity of the human and natural world and Li Zhi's (1590's) idea of the power of the senses.
Buddhist Art,

"Shaman's Song," Shamans of Russian Baikal, 2:34 YouTube video, 2011.
9:58 YouTube Video, "Yoruba Bata: A Living Drum and Dance Tradition From Nigeria," 2008. Traditional religious ceremony and importance of the drum and dance. See background to these religious ceremonies below.
"Music in Traditional African Religions," Cazarsivi blog, September 21, 2012.
Carol L. Rizzolo, "Percussive Speech and the Drums of the Yoruba," Carol Rizzolo blog. Importance of the drum in traditional Yoruba, West African, religious ceremony and dance.

"Arabo-Andalusian Sufi Songs-Ensemble Ibn Arabi," International Archive. See songs on right side of page.
"Music," The City of Light website, Islamic Spain TV, The Culture of Al Andalus. Music in Islam.
"Crusaders," Islamic poem website, December 8, 2006. Interesting mention, of "missionaries" in this poem in context of US Iraq War from an Islamic point of view.

Archdiocesan School of Byzantine Music, Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Look to lower right for two video clips of Byzantine leaders which has music in background.
"Blessed Are the Peacemakers," Archdiocesan Byzantine Choir, YouTube video 1:40:34 concert, November 30, 2013.
Rui Oliveira Lopes, University of Lisbon, "The Reproducibility of Art in the Context of the Jesuit Missions in China-Artistic Mutual Understanding in the Dialogue between Europe and China, 1601-1666," 2014. See many artistic images of Spanish Jesuit art displayed in China in 17th century.
Sonia Narang, "The Music of the Missions," Frontline World, PBS. Spanish and Italian Jesuit missionaries in South America founded missions called "reducciones" harboring Paraguay's Guarani Indians who were taught European music. 1986 film "The Mission" included some of that music. Listen to audio podcasts of this Mission music.
Laurence Muftah, "Ragheb Moftah-Musical Resurrection," My Coptic Blog, October 2008. Ragheb Moftah, b. 1898, d. 2001, collected Coptic Music, songs. Laurence Muftah was the librarian at American University, Cairo, Egypt, librarian. Listen to Coptic music:
Mission Songs: A Bibliography of Christian mission songs.
1987 film with English subtitles, "Sorceress," 1:35:03 YouTube Video posted March 12, 2012. Thirteenth Century Dominican Friar asmissionary "detective" searching for heretics entered French village and found a suspect. Young woman who lived in the woods healing people with herbs and natural medicines became his target. Note comparative to opening scene as greyhound saves baby from snake and is mistakenly killed by his master. Film as art.

John Maunu is an AP College Board World History consultant and World History Connected Digital Resources editor who can be contacted at


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