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Digital Resources for Port Cities in World History

John Maunu


"A man's return from the sea is like his rising from the grave and the Port is like the place of congregation on the Day of Judgement: there is questioning, and settlement of accounts, and weighing, and counting." --Ibn Al-Mujawir, Ta'rikh al-mustabsir []


     The port city is a space where different cultures meet, mix, and conduct business. Nearly as old as humanity and still vibrant, such spaces constitute a worthy example of a "continuity over time" in world history. The following annotated list of digital resources for port cities in world history crosses disciplines and themes such as archaeology, gender, architecture, port city prostitution, crime, intellectual and scientific sharing, piracy, art, and film. It includes references to lesson module resources, and is divided into Global and regional sections with each section furtherdivided with digital resources nestled into time periods.

The following discussion of resources is intended to help further illuminate the place of port cities in maritime and world history and bring it into the classroom.

Interactive ancient history maps,Ancient History Encyclopedia.
"Hanza Map," Latvian History word press, December (2009). See Hanseatic League map indicating port cities involved in the medievaland late Renaissance trade alliance.
World Ports Source. Interactive satellite images, maps of 4,764 ports in 196 countries, from 2005-2015.
World Sea Ports of the world, Maps of the World. Modern important world sea ports.
Esri, Marina Koren, "Interactive-50 Largest Ports in the World,"Smithsonian,May 7, 2013. Note 17 slide interactive map(s) displaying giant container ports and how they stitch together the modern world economy linking six continents and countless supply chains. Article and map.


Those interested in the historiography of port cities will find it fascinating. Cicero's perspective on the sea and maritime trade was that it was a distraction for Roman citizens, a view leavened by his appreciation of the allure and economic power of ports. This view is closely examined in Candice Rice, "Maritime Archaeology and Ancient Trade in the Mediterranean," in Damian Robinson and Andrew Wilson, eds., Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology Monographs, Oxford University Press,2011), 81-92, a source uploaded to Academia by Rice at:
Another perspective on the history of port cities is that embodied in Malte Fuhrmann's thesis on European nationalism and cosmopolitanism mixing withinthe culture of Ottoman port cities, from the late 19th century o WW I. He focuses on how various European elites communicatedand interacted in these port cities. Fuhrmann's description of the cosmopolitan/nationalist tug and pull between European elites in Ottoman port cities as the Great War loomed is a useful case study in the cultural interaction and mixing occurring in port cities over time. See Malte Fuhrmann, "Cosmopolitan Imperialists and the Ottoman Port Cites: Conflicting logics in the urbansocial fabric," Cahiers de la Mediterrane, Volume 7 (2002), 149-163. See

A third perspective is embodied in the theory of hydrarchy or maritimeradicalism developed at sea by sailors, pirates, and port city dock workers and what happens when these maringlaized historical actors influence maritime urban centers. The historiography of that approach can be seen in the second section of the annotateddisplay of port city links below, particularly in the section on "Global Resources" in the 1750-1900 period, and especially in Paul Gilroy's essay, "Offshore Humanism: HumanRights and Hydrarchy," and also in Niklas Frykman, Clare Anderson and Marcus Rediker's, "Mutiny and Maritime Radicalism inthe Age of Revolution-Introduction," which describe how such forces operate in times of crisis and revolt. Frykman, Anderson and Rediker's employ the case study of the American Revolution and Boston to add to our understanding of the place of port cities in world history.

Global Resources

8000 BCE-600 BCE:
Marc Jason Gilbert, "Paper Trails: Port Cities in the Classical Era of World History,"World History Connected,Vol. 3, No. 2,February (2006). Dr. Gilbert displayed and described with great images and maps the ancient seaports of Lothal, Xel Ha,Ostia/Portus, Carthage and Hepu.
Richard Covington, "Assyria to Iberia,"Aramco World,March/April (2015). See map of late Bronze, early Iron Age Mediterranean trade network and article about archaeological treasures found throughout the sea ports of the region such as bronze works, gold, and jewels.
Ancient Ports-Ancient Antiques. Website with many resources on ancient port cities, ships, maps. See tabs at top of page for more digital resources.
Ancient Mediterranean Ports website and wiki. Founded in 1995 by group of port cities that were founded during Greek antiquity. First home site was Agatha in southern France, then in 2002 moved to Larnaca, Cyprus.
Andrea Babbi, Friederike Bubenheimer-Erhart, Simone Muhl and B. Marin-Aguillera," Introduction to "The Mediterranean Mirror: Cultural Contacts in the Mediterranean Sea between 1200 and 750 BCE," International Post-doc and Young Researcher Conference, Heidelberg, October 6-8, 2012 published by Verlag des Romisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseum, Mainz, in 2015. Uploaded to Academia by B. Marin Aguillera. Introduction to book on ancient Mediterranean trade and cultural contacts which gives context to port cities in the region. See abstracts to papers presented at this 2012 conference:
"Lesson 2.2: Mediterranean Trade in the Bronze Age (Shipwrecks, texts, and buried cities), Our Shared Past in the Mediterranean, A World History Curriculum Project for educators, Ali Vurak Ak Center for Islamic Studies, (2014), Ms. Susan Douglass creative leader. See Home Page for this project: Click on "Browse Modules" to see five (5) other lessons.
Sanford Holst, "Sea Peoples and the Phoenicians," paper presented at Al Akhawayan University in Ifrane, Morocco, June 28, 2005. People of the Sea 1200 BCE migrations/invasions destroyed Phoenician trade competitors in theMediterranean trade network, but left Phoenician ports and maritime cities untouched. This historical happening paved the way for Phoenician port building throughout the Mediterranean basin and Phoenician dominance until Greek and Roman development.
Jonathan Hyslop, "Ports in the Ancient and Medieval Empires, Draft Entry for the Forthcoming ,"Encyclopedia of Empire," uploaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop.
"Port Cities," Academia. Note many monographs on Port Cities over time from global scholars.
Teresa Drusin, "Ancient Trade Routes," Ancient Trenches website. Note descriptions of ancient world trade sites, trade goods with maps and images and other chapters on upper right side of this page.
K.R.A. Narasiah, Review of Rila Mukherjee, ed.,"Vanguards of Globalization: Port Cities from Classical to Modern Times, Primus Books, (2014). SeeThe Hindu,Book Reviews, August 11, (2014). Compilation of papers presented at July 2011 conference at University of Hyderabad totaling 17 articles which covered Indian Ocean and Atlantic Ocean trade networks and their port cities.
Sea Links Project, Oxford University. Project dedicated to studying earliest maritime connections around Indian Ocean utilizing archaeology, genetics, linguistics, paleoenvironmental studies to understand cultural and biological factors involved in earliest Indian Ocean settlements, port cities and maritime centers.

600 BCE-600 CE:
Arthur de Graauw, "Ancient Ports and Harbours-The Catalogue," Vol. 1, 4th ed., January 2014, uploaded to Academia by Arthur de Graauw. Beginnings of a database of 3000 ancient ports and shelters cited in 66 ancient author's works between 500 BCE-500 CE including a few modern authors.

600 CE-1450 CE:
"Sites of Encounter in the Medieval World," History Blue Print, California history-social science Projects, University of California, Davis. See lesson modules for Sicily, Quanzhou, Calicut,Majorca, and Cairo.
Nick Bartel and ORIAS, "The Travels of Ibn Battuta: A Virtual Tour with the 14th Century Traveler," University of California at Berkeley and ORIAS, (2012). Mention of port cities with maps surround Battuta's travels through North Africa into theMiddle East.
Angela Schottenhammer, University of Salzburg, Austria, World History full professor, Review of Francis Gipouloux, "The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and Trade Networks in China, Japan and Southeast Asia, 13th-21 century," Cheltenham and Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2011. seen in China Perspectives Online, February (2014). Dr. Schottenhammer reviews Gipouloux's comparative research of European Mediterranean and Baltic Sea Hanseatic League port cities and trade networks with Asian Sea's port cities and trade networks.
Silk Road Spice and Incense Routes, Silk See port cities of incense and spice routes and last section on Maritime Silk Road ports.
"Monsoon Trade System," Byzantine Emporia blog by Ben, December 26, 2014. Concise summary of Indian Ocean monsoon driven trade and port cities.
Vaisali Krishnakumar, "Research Paper-Arab Influence and Its Impact on Indian and East African Coastlines," School of Planning and Architecture, New Delhi, May (2014), uploaded to Academia by Vaisali Krishnakumar. Ms. Krishnakumar focused on cultural and economic aspects of Arab navigation and trade (11th-17th centuries) on the East African and Indian coast with particularattention to port cities. She drew an architectural comparative between Lamu on the Swahili coast and Kuttichira on theMalabar Coast.
Evelyn Shi, "Chinese Port Cities Jointly Apply for UNESCO World Heritage Status,China Travel News, December, 2011. Seven Chinese port cities on maritime Silk Road.

The seven cities served as important export ports from which silk and porcelain products started to be shipped to regions as far as east Africa more than 2,000 years ago. URL for map below:

Figure 1

The Period 1450-1750:
The Indian Ocean: Cradle of Civilization, NEH (2002) Summer Institute Home Page. Note tabs for resources at top, many dealt with Port Cities.See examples of those modules below. See section specific to Port Cities:
Laura Mitchell, University of California, Irving, "Trading Marriage: Women and Men in the Indian Ocean," NEH (2002) Summer Institute, University of Pennsylvania.
James Brennan, "Port Cities: The Western Indian Ocean," NEH (2002) Summer Institute, University of Pennsylvania,Photographs and slim bibliography for each port city in this course module which includedDar es Salaam, Zanzibar, Mombasa, Lamu, Aden, Jiddah, Muscat, Kuwait, Karachi, Bombay, Surat, and Goa.
"The Indian Ocean World," College Board, (2006). Lesson modules on Indian Ocean architecture, trade networks with much on port cities.
Giorgio Riello, University of Warwich, UK, "The Making of a Global Commodity: Indian Cottons and European Trade, 1450-1850," World HistoryStudies and World History Education: The Proceedings of the First Congress of the Asian Association of World Historians,The Asian Association of World Historians, (2010). Dr. Riello traced the history of cotton as a global commodity.
Conference papers. "Seascapes, Littoral Cultures, and Trans-Oceanic Exchanges," Library of Congress, Washington DC conference, February 12-15, 2002. Webdoc History Cooperative, American History Association, (2005). Papers from that conference include port cities and global oceanic exchange from1450-20th century, most 16th-18th centuries. Paper pages open a bit slow, be patient.
"Port Towns and Urban Cultures," WHA (World History Association) program with abstracts for 2014 conference in Barcelona.
"Port Towns and Urban Cultures," Conference Report: WHA Barcelona Symposium, 26-28 March, 2014. See resources images and lectures from this conference.
Dr. Michael E. Brooks,"Book Review-Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the Early Modern Era," by Michael N. Pearson, Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1998, History Mike blog, June 30, 2008.
Isabel Dos Guimaraes Sa, "Portuguese Colonial Charity: The Misericordias of Goa, Bahia and Macao," Chapter Twelve, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, (2011),Reinterpreting Indian Ocean Worlds: Essays in Honor of Kirti N. Chaudhuri,Stefan C. A. Halikowski, ed. Description of Portuguese Port City colonial administration using the Misericordias system of relief and financial support for Catholics in port cities.
Jonathan Hyslop, Colgate University, "Imperial Ports-Draft Entry for the forthcoming Encyclopedia of Empire," downloaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop.
"Maritime History," Academia. See many monographs on maritime history from this research portal.
H-Urban, H-Net, Michigan State University website and discussion community.
Spanish port cities and their global maritime history, Maritime Heritage Project, accessed June 3, 2015.
Katrina Gulliver, "Colonial Cities as a Frame of Historical Analysis," uploaded to Academia by Katrina Gulliver. Eleven page comparative paper on European colonial (Port) cities across empires over time beginning in 16th-17th centuries.
Brooke Newman, Virginia Commonwealth University, Review of Douglas Catterwall and Jodi Campbell, eds., "Women inPort: Gendering Communities, Economies, and Social Networks in Atlantic Port Cities, 1500-1800," Leiden: Brill, (2014). See H-World, H-Net Reviews, June (2014). See Brill as to this book:
"Smuggling in Oxford Bibliographies in Atlantic History, ed. Trevor Burnard," uploaded to Academia by Mark Hanna. Annotated bibliography of smuggling, port cities, customs beginning in 16th-17th century Atlantic trade network.
Maria Fusaro, University of Exeter, "Maritime History as Global History? The Methodological Challenges and a Future Research Agenda," in M. Fusaro and A. Polonia, eds., (2011), 267-282. Uploaded to Academia by Maria Fusaro. Maritime History and world and global histories must deal with port cities. SeeDr. Fusaro's and Dr. Pearson's,Maritime History as Global History,below, thoughts on this maritime historiography.
Review. Michael N. Pearson, Emeritus Professor, University of New South Wales, "Notes on World History and Maritime History, "The Asian Review of World History,Vol. 3, No. 1, (January 2015), 137-151.

Jack Skeffington, "Fluid States: Modernity and the Self in the Literature of Port Cities," PhD dissertation for Department of English, Arizona University, (2012). Jack Skeffington examined Anglo Saxon poem, "The Seafarer," "Moby Dick," "Lord Jim," "Ulysses," and "The Alexandria Quartet" as context and back drop for port cities as space to grapple and contend with the crisis of modernity. See "The Seafarer" below:
Essay-"Paul Gilroy-Offshore Humanism: Human Rights and Hydrarchy," originally published for Port City by Arnolfini, (2007), edited by Tom Trevor, Tom Trevor website, April 6, 2014. European colonialism, the seas and port cities. See another perspective as to hydrarchy and revolution 1760's-1840's below:
Niklas Frykman, Clare Anderson, and Marcus Rediker, "Mutiny and Maritime Radicalism in the Age of Revolution: An Introduction, "International Review of Social History, 58, (2013), 1-14. Introduction to series of essays concerning radical maritime communities such as sailors, pirates, port city dock workers and their participation in revolutions from 1760's-1840's. See example of hydrarchy, below, via images and essays and as setting and causation for American Revolution whereby the Sons of Libertyare a moderating force against the radicalism of sailor and port city dock worker "mobs." See Google book:
Lawrence Osborne, "A Pirate's Progress-How the Maritime Rogue became a multicultural hero,"Lingua franca,1998. Osborne questioned the pirate as revolutionary "hero" posited by the hydrarchy historians.
"Hydrarchy," Slide share series of essays, ISSUU. Introduction by Anna Collins and Mia Jankowicz with essays by MarcusRediker and Iain Chamber.
Peter Linebaugh and Marcus Rediker," A Motley Crew in the American Revolution," Brooks College Prep, essay. British American portcity workers and sailors bring their "radicalism" (hydrarchy) to the forefront in the form of 1760's riots which set the stage for a more moderate, middle class revolution aimed at British colonial regulations of east coast ports.
"World Seaports-Ship's Store: Books, Publications and Prints," Maritime Heritage Project. Annotated listing of resources on world seaports.

The Period 1900-Present:
P. Papamichos Chronakis, University of Illinois at Chicago, Course Outline, "The Mediterranean City: Conflict and Coexistence in the long twentieth century," H1978K, (Fall 2013). See historiography assignment and readings as to 20th century Mediterranean port cities.
Port-City Case Studies, OECD Port-Cities Programme project directed by Olaf Merk. See port city case study papers from OECD, Shanghai to Helsinki, Finland.
Malcolm Tull, Murdoch Business School, Western Australia, "The Environmental Impact of Ports: An Australian Case Study," Paper presented to XIV EconomicHistory Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August, 2006.
Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue, Dr. Brian Slack, and Dr. Theo Nottenboom, "Port Terminals-Ports and Port Sites, Chapter 4, "The Geography of Transport Systems,"Global Studies and Geography, Hofstra University, New York. This detailed description of port cities modern needsand design is based on research by ean-Paul Rodrigue. Click on Contents tab at top of this page to see more from his work.

"The Workflow at a Container Terminal Becomes a Mesmerizing Mechanical Ballet," Aeon, 8:00 Video, accessed November 26, 2015. Director Jorge Wagner and Producer Dirk Manthey visual depiction of technology at port container terminal.
"Geo Stories-Port Cities,"National GeographicEducation. World port cities seen in interactive 'geostory' slide show.
Review. Megan Maruschke, review of Alice Mah,Port Cities and Global Legacies, Urban Identity, Waterfront Work, and Radicalism," Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, (2014) in H-Soz-Kult 19.06, (2015), uploaded to Academia by Megan Maruschke.

Google book. Richard Marshall, ed.,"Waterfronts in Post-Industrial Cities,"London and New York: Spons Press, 2001. Waterfront development in post-industrial port cities.
A. Remesar, ed.,"Waterfronts of Art, 1, Art for Social Facilitation,"(2005). First 96 pages, sections 1 and 2, of this book composed of papers presented at Waterfronts and Art, Barcelona conference 1999.
"Port Cities,"National GeographicEducation. Interactive site to examine largest port cities in the world.
"Port,"National GeographicEducation. Resources and explanation of different types of ports. website with global port information.
World Port Source website. Public information on US and world port cities, cargo containers, cruise lines.
Soumyajit Dasgupta, "What are Different Types of Ports for Ships?"Marine Insight, April 26, 2013. Very general summary of differing types of ports in our modern world.
Bill Roberts, "Production View: Allan Sekula's Fish Story and Thawing of Postmodernism," Art Review, Tate Papers, Issue 18, October 23, 2012. Allan Sekula took 6 years to photograph world port cities and publish those photos. His work was a look at how globalization effected traditional, historical port cities. Bill Roberts reviews the artist vision of Sekula. See slim description of Sekula's photographic artFish Storyand in Witte de With, Contemporary Art site, (2011) at
"Global Trends in Shipping and Impact on Port Cities," 1:38:09 Lecture, Dr. Martin Stopford, President, Clarkson Research Services Ltd., MND auditorium, Singapore, February 19, 2014, published on YouTube March 25, 2014.
"Plan the City with the Port Guide of Good Practices," AIVP, Worldwide Network of Port Cities, June 30, (2015). See articles on building port cities best practices. See AIVP Home page:
14th World Conference Papers for Cities and Ports, AIVP, November 3-6, 2014, Durban, South Africa. Papers available for download from this Port cities conference.
Waltraud Kokot, "Port Cities as Areas of Transitions-Comparative Ethnographic Research," Transcript-verlag, modern port cities.
"Competitiveness of Global Port Cites, Synthesis Report," OECD, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Report, (2010). A Report on global port cities in the 21stcentury. See OECD website:
Nautilus,Maritime Journal about Literature, History and Culture of the Sea.
Cesar Ducret, "The Port City in Multidisciplinary Analysis," seen in Research Gate, January (2011). Download available. Cesar Ducret analyzed modern research on port cites.
Stefania Ragozino and Gabriella Esposito De Vita, "Port Cities, Peoples and Cultures: Waterfront Regeneration and 'Glocal' Identity," Conference Paper for XI Forum Internazionale di Studi, Heritage, Architecture Landesign, June, 2013, uploaded

to Research Gate by Stefania Ragozino, March, 2015. Case studies as to port cities redesigning water front areas. Download paper and scroll down page to read it after listing of conference presenters and papers.
Michael Richardson, "Growing Vulnerability: Seaports and Terror Attacks," Yale Global Online, March 5, 2004. Short analysis of global ports and terrorism.
Armelle Labadie-Ouedraogo,, "Port Cities and Nature," Sustainable Cities Collective, The Nature of Cities, February 18, 2013. Best practices discussed as to port cities and biodiversity with examples from Brest, Marseille and Montreal.
Simulation app coming in 2015, "Plague of Species." Under construction simulation with port cities as beachheads against biological invasions. Under development by Kathryn Turner, Invasion Biologist, University of British Columbia and Elizabeth Steward, Design and Development PERQ corporation and game designer.


"A Deep-Draft Arctic Port System Study," US Army Corps of Engineers (March, 2013). As conditions change in Arctic and Alaska environmentally, Alaskan and Arctic ports are described within that changing climate and ice formations.
Natasha Geiling, "Arctic Shipping Good For Invasive Species, Bad for the Rest of Nature,"Smithsonian, Science, May 29, 2014. Two marine biologists explained relationship of Arctic shipping, port cities and invasive species.
Kang Hyun-Kyung, "Melting Arctic Ice Thrills Port Cities,"The Korea Times, first posted October 6, (2014) posted here in July 2015. Thawing Arctic seen as boon for Korean port cities engulfed in sluggish economy. Comparative between Geiling article and Hyun-Kyung as to Arctic shipping.
Jeremy Bender, "Chart/Maps of Russia's Fortification of the Arctic, (2015),"Business Insider,March 17, 2015. See port cities and fortifications being built up in Russian arctic in anticipation of melting and easier access to resources. Also, note more resources, infographic, maps on Russia and US in the Arctic:
Uri Friedman, "The Arctic Where the US and Russia Could Square Off,"The Atlantic, March 28, 2014.


8000 BCE-600 BCE:
Rosella Lorenzi, " Most Ancient Port Found in Egypt,"Discovery,April 12, 2013. Archaeologists and historians have found, what couldbe, the most ancient port city in world history at Wadi el-Jarf in Egypt. See slide share and brief article on that discovery.
James Ayre, "Sunken Ancient Egyptian Port City Reveals Some of its Secrets,"Planet Save,April 8, 2013. Thonis-Heracleion excavation by Oxford University team revealed cultural and economic hints as to importance of this ancient port city. See slim article from Archaeology, Egyptian ancient port city, March 25, 2013 on Thonis-Heracleion:
Thonis-Heracleion Ancient sunken Egyptian Port city, 46:00 YouTube video, 2014.
Gregory Mumford, "Beyond Egypt's Frontiers: A Late Old Kingdom Fort in South Sinai,"Minerva,Vol. 16, No. 3, (May/June 2005), 24-26. Uploaded to Academia by Gregory Mumford. A fort as a port? 2700-2200 BCE south Sinai fort built 200 meters from Old Kingdom Egypt shoreline safeguarded expedition ships, but more importantly guarded miners quarrying copper and turquoise from Bedouin raiders.Copper and turquoise shipped to Pharaoh's court under protection of this fortress port.
Justin King, "Ugarit,"Ancient History Encyclopedia, March 22, 2012. Ugarit was key port city and trading center during Egyptian and Hittite empires, 16-11th century BCE. Note "texts" found at this site in northern Levant.
John P. Cooper, "No Easy Option: Nile Versus Red Sea in Ancient and Medieval North-South Navigation," In W.V. Harris and K. Iara (eds.),Maritime Technology in the Ancient Economy: Ship Design and Navigation (Journal of Roman Archaeology Supplementary Series 84 (2011), 189-210. John Cooper examines the argument that Red Sea port navigation was more difficult than Nile River port navigation in ancient and medieval times.
Irene Forstner-Muller, "Avaris, its Harbours and the Peru Nefer Problem," Egyptian Archaeology, uploaded to Academia by I. Forstner-Muller. Avaris was harbour, naval port city and capitol city of Hyksos rulers of Egypt. See Egyptian Archaeology article on that important site.
Andre Dollinger, "Ancient Egyptian Overseas Trade," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, nd. Note ancient Egyptian problems with naval trade into the Mediterranean and cataracts of the Nile. See other links and articles on this page such as Asiatic sea trade with Egypt seen below:
Andre Dollinger, "Asiatic Traders in Ancient Egypt," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, nd. Short article with image showing Asiatic merchants with smaller ships able to sail up the Nile and dock at Nile political and port city of Thebes, 1402-1364 BCE.
Andre Dollinger, "Wenamen's Journey," Kibbutz Reshafim, Israel, last updated April, 2004. Papyrus story, probably fictitious, of 11th centuryBCE ship voyage by Wenamen, priest of Amen temple, Karnak, to purchase timber for a "solar vessel." Note small mapon upper right of page detailing eastern Mediterranean ports. Egypt had defeated invading Sea Peoples by 11th century BCE but, were in decline unable to defend possessions and ports in the east. This tale gave hints to that loss of power.
Nicole Boivin, Alison Crowther, Richard Helm, Dorian Q. Fuller, "East Africa and Madagascar in the Indian Ocean World," Journal of World Prehistory(2013), 213-281, and published online on November 28, 2013, Springer Science, NY. Monographcombining biological transfer of plants and animals and archaeology along the ancient Swahili coast beginning in 2000 BCE. Note map of Swahili coast ports and maritime islands.

600 BCE-600 CE:
Port City of Ephesus,
Yishak Yaried, "The Ancient Port of Adulis,", Eritrea Ministry of Information, December 7, 2012. The ancient port city of Adulis part of the Axumite Empire, now Eritrea, harbored Greek and Phoenician ships as early as the 7th century BCE.
Pierre Schneider, "Before the Somali Threat: Piracy in the Ancient Indian Ocean,"The Journal of the Hakluyt Society, July, 2014. Note numerous references and maps to port cities plied by Greek, Roman and other traders and Somali pirate coves and harbors.
"Alexandria, Egypt," Ancient Vine website (2015). See recreation images of Alexandria port city dating back to 331 BCE. Note problems with developing harbors, ports, and shipping shelters along the ancient Nile River, Magby Torah, "A Geomorphological Map of the Ancient Branches of the Nile Delta," uploaded to Academia by Magby Torah.
"The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century," Paul Halsall Primary Sources, Fordham University from W. H. Schoff, tr.& ed.,"The Periplus of the Erythraean Sea: Travel and Trade in the Indian Ocean by a Merchant of the First Century,"London, Bombay and Calcutta, 1912. Note references to Port cities. See short video clip on Somali Maritime Enterprise on Erythraean Sea below:
UBRB4zZnviQrsCSWpJ3m77ty2_TaQwGCO1zuzO6On4JplMM3gvWkly3hlLdc3olWS7ZvqWa 8x4LeY8UbFVAwhGkiBVeYYYxRKObm2wM62WU0c

"Somali Maritime Enterprise-Ancient Seafarers of the Erythraean Sea," 3:57 YouTube video, 2010.
Alexis D'Hautcourt, "Review Article-Recent Research on Trade in the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean (1st c.-7th c.)," download to Academia by Alexis D'Hautcourt, accessed July 8, (2015). D'Hautcourt reviewed three books, D. Peacock,L. Blue, eds.,The Ancient Red Sea Port of Adulis, Eritrea: Results of the Eritro-British Expedition (2004)-2205,Oxbow Books/Oxford, 2007); D. Peacock, D. Williams, eds.,"Food for the Gods. New Light on the Ancient Incense Trade,"Oxbow Books/Oxford, (2006); and R.T.J. Cappers,"Roman Food prints at Berenike. Archaeobotanical Evidence of Subsistenceand Trade in the Eastern Desert of Egypt," Cotsen Institute of Archaeology; University of California, Los Angeles; Monograph 55/Los Angeles, 2006.
Jason Baldridge, Report, "Berenike: Roman Trade in the Red Sea Coast of Egypt," June, 1995 report of archaeological evidence found at Berenike in 1995 Expedition seen Linguistics Department, Arts and Sciences, University of Pennsylvania. Berenike as chief port in this trade is highlighted.
Ross I. Thomas, "Port Communities and the Erythraean Sea Trade," Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan, 18, (2012), 169-199, The British Museum. Ross Thomas cited Greco-Roman accounts of the people and port cities of 3rd century BCE-5th century CE Egypt and Sudan in this article.
History of Carthage blogsite. See 2 short video clips of Carthage port reconstruction and scroll down to see post on Carthage reconstructed with maps of that Phoenician port city in North Africa.

600 CE-1450:
K. Kris Hirst, "Kilwa Kisiwani: Medieval Trade Center of East Africa," important maritime city and trade port of the 35 Swahili coastal trade communities in medieval Indian Ocean tradenetwork. See more sourceson Kilwa and Swahili port cities below this article. See example below:
K. Kris Hirst, "Swahili Towns-Medieval Trading Communities of the East African Coast," Architecture and lay out of Swahili port cities and maritime centers.
Basil Davidson, 7:21 youtube video, "Swahili Cities of East Africa," uploaded to youtube January 12, 2008).
Joan Celebi, "The Indian Ocean Trade: A Classroom Simulation," NEH Summer Institute Project, 1993, Boston University African Studies Program. Short introductionto African Swahili port cities and Asian trade 1000 CE-1500 CE and simulation.
"The African Diaspora in the Indian Ocean World," Exhibitions and resources, New York Public Library and The Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, ((2011)). African diaspora history usually brings to mind the 16th century Atlantic world trade network and slave trade. Beginning a 1000 years earlier was the east African voluntary and forced migrations into the Indian Ocean world. Note mention of east African and Indian Ocean port cities involved with this diaspora throughout the exhibition and resources.
Matt Pawlowicz, Department of Anthropology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, "Modeling the Swahili Past: The Archaeology of Mikindani in southern coastal Tanzania, Azana: Archaeological Review in Africa," (2012), 1-12. Uploaded to Academia by Matt Pawlowicz. Dr. Pawlowicz argued that Swahili port cities such as Mikindani focused more onhinterland trade within Africa than on Indian Ocean trade.
S. D. Goitein, "The Unity of the Mediterranean in the 'Middle' Middle Ages,"Studia Islamica, No. 12, 1960, 29-42, JSTOR. Scroll down to see entire monographwhich detailed North African and Levantine trade and port cities mostly in 11th-12th century which used primarysources, letters and deeds for example, found in the Cairo Geniza. Uploaded January (2015) to Spanish medievalist professor, Roger Louis Martinez's website:
Henry Trotter, Yale University, "Dockside Prostitution in South African Ports," History Compass, Vol. 6, Issue 3, (2008), 673-690, uploaded to Academia by Henry Trotter, accessed September 14, 2015. First brothel organized in 1650 Cape of Good Hope. Dr. Trotter's monograph focused on the female prostitute as a gender study within port cities of South Africa.
Dr. Michael E. Brooks, review, Michael N. Pearson, "Port Cities and Intruders: The Swahili Coast, India, and Portugal in the early modern world," Baltimore, MD: John Hopkins University Press, 1998. See History Mike blog, June ((2008)). Historian and journalist Michael Brooks reviews Dr. Pearson, University of New South Wales, emeritus professor'sanalysis of global significance of Portuguese involvement in history of Swahili port cities before 1700 and relationship of those coastal port cities and Africa's interior. Pearson took a World System's approach in his book.
Thomas Vernet, Universite Paris, Sorbonne, "Slave Trade and Slavery on the Swahili Coast, 1500-1700," Downloaded to Academia by Thomas Vernet. Dr. Vernet claimed historiography of Swahili port cities, coastal communities as slave trade centers focused on post 1770 periods. This monograph highlights Swahili ports, the coastal community's slave trade network beginning in early 16th century, and is focused on French and Omani trade.

Amira El Semellawy, "Alexandria a Port City-Ph.D proposal: Cosmopolitan Alexandria and its Eclectic Influences onBuildings and Urban Spaces, 1830-1930," downloaded by Amira El Semellawy to Academia.
"Africa: Somalia (Djibouti)," International Harbors and Sea Ports of the World, Maritime Heritage Project. History of Djibouti and Somalia as a coastal trade region with 19th century European primary sources.

Jonathan Miran, Western Washington University, faculty, "Endowing Property and Edifying Power in a Red Sea Port: 'Waqf,' Arab migrant entrepreneurs, and urbanauthority in Massawa, 1860's-1880,"International Journal of African History, Vol. 42, No. 2, 2009. Uploaded toAcademia by Jonathan Miran. Miran wove the Islamic inheritance practice of "waqf" around the tapestry of Massawaport city politics and economics. What is now Eritrea, Massawa was and still is, a port city on the African shores of the southernRed Sea. See Jonathan Miran encyclopedia entry on Eritrea including map of Red Sea ports, such as Massawa below:
Jonathan Miran, "Eritrea,"Encyclopaedia of Islam, Volume 3, Leiden: Brill, 2015. Summary of Muslim and Christian struggles in Eritrea including large map of Red Sea ports, including Massawa referenced in Miran's monograph above.
Philip Gooding, "Ujiji: Urban Frontier in the Era of Long Distance Commerce, East and Central Africa, c. 1830-1890, paper uploaded to Academia by Philip Gooding, accessed July 5, 2015. Dr. Gooding described and analyzed encounters between African Swahili coastal traders with interior indigenous people via case study of an "inland port" or urban center onnortheast shore of Lake Tanganyika.
Philip Gooding, "Ujiji, c. 1860-1890, The Rise and Decline of a Swahil Frontier Town," paper in conjunction with above cited work, "Ujiji: Urban Frontier in the Era of Long Distance Commerce, East and Central Africa, c. 1830-1890." Uploaded to Academia by Philip Gooding. Accessed July 5, 2015. Goodingdiscussed the decline of the inland port town of Ujiji on northeast Lake Tanganyika and its trade exchanges with Swahili coast traders.

Jonathan Hyslop, "Durban as a Portal of Globalization, Mines, Railways, Docks and Steamships in the Empire of Otto Siedle's Natal Direct Line, 1879-1927," uploaded to Academia by Jonathan Hyslop. Dr. Hyslop described minor British settler colony of Natal transformation, change over time to most important harbor of a powerful, industrialized South African state.

Andrew Macdonald, Department of History, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, "Smugglers in Johannesburg, Durban and Louren Marques, 1890's-1920's," Working Paper, uploaded to Academia by Andrew Macdonald. Portcity smuggling.

Daniel Castillo Hidalgo and Fatima Zohra Mohamed-Cherif, "The Evolution of the Port System of Northwest Africa: Maritime Traffics, Port Modernization and Colonial Extraction, 1880-1929," Power point slides for conference presentation, uploaded to Academia by Daniel Castillo Hidalgo, accessed August 19, 2015.

Marc Jason Gilbert, "Paper Trails: Exploring World History Through Documents and Images-The End of the African Slave Trade-East Africa,"World History Connected,Vol. 1, Issue 1, (November, 2002). Manumission document, 1911, and brief history of Bogamayo and Kilwa as slave port cities.

Jonathan Hyslop, Colgate University, "Navigating Empire: Ports, Ships, and Global History," Keynote Lecture for Social History, Society Conference, Portsmouth, April 1, 2015. Dr. Hyslop discussed early 20th century British steamship and maritime global trade around the port city of Durban, South Africa.
Frannie A. Leautier, Michael Schafer, and Wei Shen, "Part II, A Port City in the new maritime Silk Road: The Case of Bagamoyo," Uongozi Blog, November 17, 2015. China's new maritime silk road and east Africa. See Pt. 1 of this article on right side of page.
Lesson Classroom guide, "Sea Change Comes to Bagamoyo,"Aramco World, March/April, 2015). Aramco World lesson plan for article on East African sea port which was a leading trade center from 1300-1800's CE. Tanzanian government is planning to rebuild the port facility. See article by Amanda Leigh Lichtenstein below.
Amanda Leigh Lichtenstein, "Sea Change Comes to Bagamoyo,"Aramco World,March/April 2015. Tanzanian governmentplans 30 year rebuild of 800 year old sea port on East African coast.
Cosmas Okereafor, "How Chinese, Lebanese, Indians Dominate Our Economy,"Vanguard, Nigeria, August 22, 2015. Nigerian journalist claimed that Chinese, Lebanese, Indian and South African container ships allowed open access to Nigerian major ports which threaten Nigerian security and sovereignty.
Heidi Vogt, "Kenyan Port is Hub for Illicit Ivory Trade,"Wall Street Journal, November 18, (2015).


Roy Cook, "Pearl Harbor Before Dec. 7, 1941 and Native Americans after Dec. 7, 1941," American Indian Warrior Association. Native perspective as to Pearl Harbor history prior to December 7, Japanese attack. Second half of this article concerned Native American's struggle to fight in WW II.
"How Russian is Kauai's Fort Elizabeth," Russian History blog, February 28, 2012. A discussion of Russian forts protecting Russian ports in Hawaii and their extension of these forts protecting ports into Alaska and California.
"Marquesas Islands," International Harbors & Seaports of the World," Maritime Heritage.

Melissa A. McLeod, etc. al, "Protective Effect of Maritime Quarantine in South Pacific Jurisdictions, 1918-1919 Influenza Pandemic,"Emerging Infectious Diseases (March 2008). Policies by South Pacific island port cities allowed many to beprotected from influenza global pandemic.
"Ulithi," War Bird Information Exchange list serve, posted May 7, 2014. George Spangler "article" on secret Pacific naval facility, port, Ulithi, with maps and photographs from 1944 through March 1945 as invasion fleet begins sail to Japan at end of WW II.
"Safe Cities Project: Port Moresby, New Guinea, (2012)," YouTube video (15:26) posted August 23, 2012 as to Port Moresby's violence against women. 80% of that violence occurred in market stores where many poor women attempt to sell commodities.
Port Moresby's Colourful History, Infamous Scribbler's Blog, September 22, 2007). Slim post on Port Moresby history especially during WW II.

South Asia

8000 BCE-600 BCE:
Ancient Lothal, Text written by Anil Mulchandani and Photography by Dinesh Shukla. Ancient Indus port cityof Lothal as envisaged by The Archaeological Survey of India. 15 slides with text described Lothal in the state of Gujarat, India.
"Ancient Lothal," Vedanta-ced blog, February 14, 2010 posts on port city of Lothal's history.

600 BCE-600 CE:
Lesson 3-Winds of Trade, The Story of India, PBS with Michael Woods. See two part lesson module with student as Roman merchant writing letter about spice trade ports from Kerala, India to Egypt and note 2:06 video clip on ancient Kerala port city, Muziris, "the first Emporia to India."
Suesh Pillai, "Arikamedu: Ancient Port City of India," downloaded to Academia by Suesh Pillai. Monograph. Arikamedu was at it's peak as a port city from 100 BCE-100 CE trading with Rome and other Indian Ocean ports. Arikamedu was known as the "world's bead center." SueshPillai is an interdisciplinary artist. Monograph contained 9 chapters and appendix. Last chapter (9), "Arikamedu Beads,"and appendix not included in this download. See article with links on Arikamedu bead trade, "Excavations at Arikamedu,"The Bead Site, American Museum of Natural History, nd.: at
World Quest Study Guide, Indian Ocean History website, Sultan Qaboos Cultural Center, updated March ((2011)). Note description ofand see review of that website: major ancient port cities throughout the Indian Ocean trade network. See Indian Ocean in World History website:
Jews in India,Jewish Virtual Library.See section on Cochin Jews of south India who settled in port city of Cranganore not far from Cochin (today the port city of Kochi) after 70 CE and became active traders throughout the Indian Oceanregion.
"Maritime Trade of Ancient Kalinga and its Ports," Kalinga Calling blog, May 1, ((2011)). Slim blog post as to 2nd century CE-7th century CE Kalinga (Orissa, India) as a major South Asian port.
Patit Paban Mishra, Delhi University, "India-Southeast Asia Relations: An Overview,"Teaching South Asia-an Internet Journal of Pedagogy, Vol. 1, No. 1, Winter 2001. Posted in South Dakota State University course, "Project South Asia." An Overview of "Indianization," as Indians migrated throughout IndianOcean, specifically, to Southeast Asia. Note port city connections in that diaspora.

600 CE-1450:
Special Focus booklet: Teaching About the Indian Ocean, Professional Development booklet, AP College Board,(2006-2007). Training booklet with Lesson Plans, geography, handouts, historical background including port cities.
Google Book. Roxani Eleni Margariti, Emory University, "Aden and the Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in the Life of a MedievalArabian Port,"(Islamic Civilization and Muslim Networks), Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina Press, (2007), 342 pages. One reviewer saw Dr. Margariti's work as an excellent description of city as a port.

Roxani Eleni Margariti, Emory University, "Mercantile Networks, Port Cities, and 'Pirate' states: Conflict and Competition in the IndianOcean World of Trade before the Sixteenth Century,"Journal of the Economic and Social History of the Orient,51, 2008), 542-577, monograph downloaded to Academia by Roxani Margariti.
Thomas Anderson, "Teaching the Indian Ocean as World History,"World History Connected, Vol. 11, No. 1, February (2014).
Vinod Balakrishnan, "Trade and Development of Port Towns in Kerala," BA degree dissertation for University of Kerala College of Architecture and Engineering, November, (2007).

Sila Tripati and L. N. Raut, "Monsoon Wind and Maritime Trade: a case study of historical evidence from Orissa, India," Current Science, Vol. 90, No. 6, March 25, 2006, 864-871. Discussion of monsoons and its effects on Indian portcities with specific evidence from port city of Orissa.
Vaisali Krishnakumar, Research paper, "Conservation of Kuttichira, Kozhikode, India: A Mappila Muslim Settlement," May 31, 2014, uploaded to Academia by Vaisali Krishnakumar. Paper discussed how 16th and 17th century Arab traders in Calicut, specifically the port town of Zamorins led to a linking betweentwo cultures, Arabs and Nairs of Kerala. This port city relationship evolved into Mappila Muslims or Koyas who still livein southwest quarter of oldest part of Calicut.
Austin Poon, "Calicut: Indian Ocean Trade System," Prezi slide share, April 25, 2015. History of port city of Calicut as key maritime center in Indian Ocean Trade.
12:21 Video, Ottoman naval battle of Diu vs. Portuguese, YouTube. 1509 Naval battle fought off Indian Arabian Sea port cityof Diu. Portuguese victory allowed them to sail down African and Indian coastlines taking and controlling port cities andaccess to Spice Trade routes.
"Maritime Lanka: Maritime Archaeology & History of Sri Lanka,"Maritime Asia,last modified October 23,(2012. See maritime archaeology studies off port cities and harbors in Sri Lanka, especially Galle.
Andrew de la Garza, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, "Command of the Coast: The Mughal Navy and Regional Strategy,"World History Connected,Vol. 12, Issue 1 (February, 2015). Special Forum on Military History in World History. See description of 17th century Mughal "navy" and, especially," account of Mughal 1665 naval invasion of the port city of Chittagong.

University of Chicago Press slim description of Bhavani Raman, "Document Raj-Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India," (2012). Interesting research into British East India Company bureaucracy in Madras, power of paper, corruption andBritish training of Indian scribes and clerks in that corrupt paper world which continues in India today. Power of recordkeeping and bureaucracy in Port City and Colonial history. See review of Dr. Raman's work below.
Rama Sundari Manteua, University of Illinois, review of Bhavani Raman,"Document Raj-Writing and Scribes in Early Colonial South India," University of Chicago Press, 2012).
Nile Green, UCLA professor South Asian and Islamic History, "Maritime Worlds and Global History: Comparing the Mediterranean and Indian Ocean through Barcelona and Bombay,"Compass, Vol. 11, Issue 7 (2013), John Wiley & Sons Ltd. downloaded to Academia by Nile Green. Comparative looks at the two port cities from 1850-1920.
Marcus Vink Review of Anjana Singh, "Fort Cochin in Kerala, 1750-1830: The Social Conditions of a Dutch Community in an Indian Milieu," TANAP Monographs on the history of Asian-European interactions, no. 13, Leiden and Boston: Brill, (2010), seen inJournal of Portuguese History,Vol. 9, No. 1, Summer (2011), 99-103. Anjana Singh, Ph.D from University of Leiden, Netherlands, had researched Dutch East India Company (VOC) files and records at Leiden University to prepare a monograph on life in the costal port city fortress of Cochin. See Journal of Portuguese History eJournal:
Syllabus, Dr. Vandana Baweja, College of Design, Construction and Planning, University of Florida, "Modern India," (Spring 2013). See Week 2 Colonial Port Cities resources, Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta. Also, other resources can be applied to maritime port cities throughout this syllabus.
"Port Cities," Envisioning the Indian City, Conference on the Otherness of Port Cities, September 13, 2013. This ETIC, Envisioning the Indian City, Project was a collaboration between Liverpool University, UK and Jadavpur University, India. See summaries of presentations and images of Indian port cities and note ETIC links with more resources to right of this page.
Saumitra Jha, "Trade, complementarities and religious tolerance: evidence from India," Stanford Graduate School of Business research paper, January 27, 2010 seen in Haas School of Business website, University of California, Berkeley. Paper abstract described thesis question as can historical patterns of inter-ethnic trade have lasting effects on religious tolerance? Two centuries after the decline of Muslim overseas trade, this paper finds that medieval ports, despite being poorer and more ethnically diverse, were 25 percentage points less likely to experience a Hindu-Muslim riot, both throughout India (1850-1950), and in one state, Gujarat (2002).

1900 to Present:
Pervaiz Asghar, "Dominant Naval Presence in the Indian Ocean," Nautical Notes blog, November 5, (2012). Retired Rear Admiral of the Pakistani Navy "musings" on Indian Ocean ports and strategic importance. See other "posts" on right side of this page, especially, "Gwadar" a Pakistani container port.
Joshua L. Harris, "US Military Presence in Diego Garcia: National Interests vs. Human Rights," American University, ICE, Inventory of Conflict and Environment Cases, No. 120, (December, 2002). TED, Trade and Environment Database Cases, and ICE case studies highlight environmental degradation and human rights in military base, port occupation. See more TED and ICE case studies at the bottom of this page. This case is focused on US and use of Indian Ocean naval base/port of Diego Garcia. Diego Garcia is a shared base with the British.
Diego Garcia: A Secret US Naval Base, 9:25 YouTube video, posted June 9, 2013. Part of a series on US naval bases.
Nedesan Satyendra, "International Relations in an Emerging Multilateral World-The Indian Ocean in pictures," Tamil Nation, 1998--(2007)). Links, maps, digital resources for Indian Ocean trade history from Tamil perspective.
N. Sathiya Moorthy, "India, Sri Lanka, and the Indian Ocean,"The Sunday Leader,English language Sri LankanSunday newspaper, November 29, 2015. News article from Sri Lankan perspective as to Indian Ocean strategic value to India, US, China and Sri Lanka's role.
"The Indian Ocean Littoral: Cartography and Port Cities," University of Pennsylvania modules. A look at the IndianOcean through 12 port cities.
"The Indian Ocean Lucrative Shores,"Nikkei Asian Review, December 3, 2015. See map image of Indian Ocean nations and their (2014) populations and GDP. Background information for port cities in the region.

Southeast Asia

600 BCE-600 CE:
Johannes Widodo, National University of Singapore, Department of Architectural Studies, monograph, "Melaka-A Cosmopolitan City in Southeast Asia,"Revista de Culturaby, 40 (2011) downloaded byJohannes Widodo to Academia. 1st century through 16th century Melaka as a rich and cosmopolitan trade port. See discussion of Zheng He 1405-1433 and Chinese maritime trade.

600 CE-1450 CE:
Lim Tse Siang, "14th Century Singapore: The Temasek Paradigm," Thesis for MA, Department of History, National University of Singapore, (2012). "Temasek" is old Javanese word for "sea town" and is used in this thesis paper for early port of Singapore prior to European colonization. Lim Tse Siang used archaeological evidence to support 14th century Singapore as a rich and powerful trade port.
Mark Staniforth, Jun Kimura, Le Thi Lien, "Defeating the fleet of Kublai Khan: The Bach Dang River and Van Don Naval Battlefields Research Project,"Archaeologia Post medievale, 18 (2014), 29-44. Modern digital archaeological techniques explained in researching Kublai Khan's 1274 attempts to expand hegemony into Japan, Vietnam, Java by controlling river mouths and ports. This report focused on North Vietnam's Bach Dang River and ancient port of Van Don battles.
Jane A. Peterson, "In New Textbook the Story of Singapore Begins 500 Years Earlier,"NY Times,May 12, 2014. American professor in Singapore, historian John Miksic, encouraged revisionist Singapore history beginning 500 years prior to English colonial enterprisein Malay peninsula in early 19th century. Note reference to "Singapore: A 700-Year History referenced below. See similar article inThe Economist,November 29, 2013:
Tan Tai Yong, "Flashback Tan Tai Yong," Asia One,The Strait Times, Singapore, August 12, 2014. Reflections by authorsof "Singapore: A 700-Year History-From Early Emporium to Global City," by Tan Tai Yong, Kwa Chong Guan and Derek Heng.
"Spread of Islam," International World History Project. Note importance of port cities and Muslim merchants.
Johannes Widodo, National University of Singapore, "Morphogenesis and Hybridity of Southeast Asian Coastal Cities," Chapter 5 in Rahil Ismail, etc., eds., Southeast Asian Culture and Heritage in a Globalizing World,Ashgate (January, 2009). Urban and architectural development of port cities along coastal areas of South China Sea, Java Sea, and Malacca Strait.
Johannes Widodo, monograph, "Zheng He's Visits and the Shaping of Cosmopolitan Cities in Southeast Asia: Melaka Case-Facts and Fiction," presented in Conference, New Dimensions in Humanities Education, panel, organized by NIE/HSSE, Singapore, November 18-19, 2008. Chinese admiral Zheng He's effect on shaping port cities in Southeast Asia, 1405-1433.
"Melaka (Malacca) Indian Ocean World, 1300-1800," Hartwick Library guides, last updated September 5, 2012. Slim list of books, periodicals on Melaka port history.

Craig Lockard, "'The Sea Common to All:' Maritime Frontiers, Port Cities, and Chinese Traders in the Southeast Asian Age of Commerce, ca., 1400-1750,"Journal of World History, Vol. 21, No. 2 (2010), 219-247.
Dennis O'Flynn and Arturo Giraldez, University of the Pacific, "The Origin of World Trade in 1571,"Journal of WorldHistory, Vol. 6, No. 2 ( Fall 1995), 201-221. Classic monograph as to Manilla, Philippines port as beginningof true global trade linking all four world continents and importance of Spanish and Chinese silver trade.
Bobby C. Orilaneda, "Maritime Trade in Southeast Asia During Early Colonial Period," Underwater Archaeology Section, National Museum of the Philippines and Oxford Centre for Maritime Archaeology, University of Oxford, nd. Accessed July 19, 2015. Mr. Orilaneda was PhD. student at the time of this monograph being published. Manila, Philippines as first global port and research on that trade and ship wrecks referenced in this slim monograph.

Nopphanat Anuphangphat and Komatra Chuengsatiansup, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand Society and Health Institute, "Krom Luang Wongsa and the House of Snidvongs: Knowledge Transition and the Transformation of Medicine in Early Modern Siam," monograph downloaded to Academia by Komatra Chuengsatiansup. The early modern maritime trade center of Ayutthaya was known to Western merchants as the "Venice of the East." This monograph detailed European transmission of medical knowledge and medicine into Siam.
Miriam Stark, "The Archaeology of Early Modern Southeast Asia,"The Oxford Handbook of Historical Archaeology(October, 2014). This 12 page summary developed Miriam Stark's thesis as to 15th century collapse of empires and creation of multi-ethnic diasporic communities which developed in port cities. Ms. Stark has put forth the archaeological evidence to support that thesis.
Paulo Jorge de Sousa Pinto, "Ten Remarks on the Chinese Presence in Melaka and Manila, 16th-17th centuries," Paper presented at the International Conference on 'Portugal and SE Asia: 500 Years of History,' organized by the Department of Portuguese of the University of Macau (Macao, October 30-November 1, 2012. Download to Academia by Paulo Pinto.

Su Lin Lewis, "Print and Colonial Port Cultures of the Indian Ocean Littoral: Penang and Rangoon,"Moussons, No. 17 (January (2011), 127-144 uploaded to Academia by Dr. Su Lin Lewis.
Johannes Widodo, "Charles Dyce in Indonesia, 1845: The Journey Through Riau to Batavia, Kuripan and Buitenzorg,"in "Sketching the Straits: A compilation of the lecture series on the Charles Dyce collection," ed. Irene Lim ( Singapore: NUS Museum, National University of Singapore, 2004, 63-67).Downloaded to Academia by Dr. Widodo. Johannes Widodo described the historical context behind the seven watercolor port city drawings by Charles Dyce, a Scot merchant and artist (1816-1853).

1900-Present: Suahasil Nazara, ed., "Challenges for Recovery: Natural Disaster's Impact and Economic on Aids, Governance, Infrastructure," 7th Indonesian Regional Science Association International Conference, (2005), 152 pages uploaded to Academiaby Erlangga Landiyant. December (2004) tsunami and earthquake effects on coastal and port cities. Papers from that conference. See especially Erlangga Landiyant, Airlangga University, Economics, Chapter 7, "Economic Growth of Indonesian Port Cities,"p. 135 ff.
"A Tale of Two Cities,"The Economist, Indonesia, April 13, 2015. Indonesian port city of Surabaya has been overshadowed by Jakarta, yet recent political and economic issues in Jakarta are seen by Surabaya as opportunity to move out of the shadows.
Christopher W. Runckel, "Ports in Vietnam-Stunting Amid Economic Development,"Business in Asia (2006). Mr. Runckel, former seniorUS ambassador, now business consultant with vast experience in Asia, described Vietnam's hard work to maintain portsbut claimed their smaller ports and harbors cannot handle the new larger ships and cargoes.

East Asia

600-1450 CE:
Google Book. Fran'ois Gipouloux, "The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and Trading Networks in China, Japan and South Asia,13th-21st Centuries," Edward Elgar Publishing, January 1, 2011. Massive monograph "which synthesizes east and west maritime worlds." See review below.
Angela Schottenhammer, China Focus, University of Salzburg, Austria, Review of Fran'ois Gipouloux,"The Asian Mediterranean: Port Cities and Trading Networks in China, Japan and South Asia, 13th-21st Centuries," Edward Elgar Publishing, January1, 2011, seen inChina Perspectives,, February (2014).
Song China Maritime Trade, Asia For Educators website. Song China maritime trade exceeds overland trade in 12th through 15th centuries. Note references to port/coastal cities.,0
Jean Johnson, "Chinese Trade in the Indian Ocean," Asia Society. In 1402 Zhu Di became Chinese emperor. Wishing to authenticate his rule and increase the Chinese tribute system he ordered the building of a grand fleet headed by Zheng He. Jean Johnson described this trade network expansion to Africa and the Red Sea, its key ports, outlining each voyage upto Zhu Di's death and end of the Grand Fleet.
Lesson: "The Voyages of Zheng He."9th-10th grade worksheet pdf with five questions about map of Indian Ocean ports used by Chineseadmiral Zheng He. Seen in Mr. White's Global History website, Auburndale High School, Polk County Florida.
Paul Lunde, "The Admiral Zheng he,"Aramco World (July/August 2005). Note listing of Indian Ocean port cities that Zheng hevisited and conducted trade.
Dr. Alan J. Singer Course Pack article, "Zheng He Voyages Across the Indian Ocean 1405-1433," Hofstra University. Note small map of Indian Ocean port cities visited by Zheng He at very end of this two page summary.
Ethan Segal Review of Peter D. Shapinsky, "Lords of the Sea: Pirates, Violence, and Commerce in Late Medieval Japan," Ann Arbor: Center for Japanese Studies Publications, University of Michigan, 2014. Note Ethan Segal's mention of Japanese Sea Lords/Pirates control of coastal cities, ports as virtual sea daimyos.

"Canton/Guangzhou," Beyond Ricci-Rare books from the Jesuitica Collection at Boston College, 2015. See brief description of the importance of Guangzhou from Zheng He to the Portuguese and note maps on left side of page of Canton/Guangzhou.
"Macau: A Selection of Cartographic Images," Library of Congress-Alcove 9. Macau was oldest permanent European settlement, port city in Asia established by the Portuguese in 1557 and returned to China in 1999. See small selection of cartographic images of this port city.
Marc Jason Gilbert, "Paper Trails: Deshima Island: A Stepping Stone between Civilizations,"World History Connected, Vol. 3, No. 3 (July (2006).Deshima (Dejima) was a small, artificial island in Nagasaki, 150 feet by 500 feet. From 1641 to1845, it was the sole conduit of trade between Europe and Japan. Article traces cultural encounters and exchanges at the site, including the transfer of azaleas to Europe and ideas about electricity to Japan.
Kate Lim, Graduate Student, University of Philippines, Diliman, Review of Haneda Masashi, ed., "Asian Port Cities 1600-1800: Local and Foreign Cultural Interactions," Singapore: NUS Press and Kyoto: Kyoto University Press, 2009.European and Asian port city trade examined through 10 articles.

Google EBook, En-Sai Tai, "Treaty Ports in China: A Study in Diplomacy," University Printing Office, Columbia University, 1918. See review of En-Sai Tai's 1918 work below.
Stanley K. Hornbeck, Review of En-Sai Tai, "Treaty Ports in China: A Study in Diplomacy," New York: Columbia University Press, 1918 seen in "The American Journal of International Law," Vol. 12, No. 3 (July 1918), 697-699,
Robert Bickers, University of Bristol, "Migration Chinabound: Crossing Borders in Treaty Port China," Migration module, Institute ofHistorical Research (Fall (2006). Article on British residents living and attempting to maintain their "Britishness" in China. Note tabs at top of page and many other resources, globally, for British migration, some include port cities.
MIT Visualizing Cultures Project (2015). Project Home Page. See many port and maritime city related lessons, primarysources, themes. Note example of one unit:
"Rise and Fall of the Canton Trade Network-China in the World (1700-1860's)," MIT Visual Cultures Project. See essay by Peter C. Perdue and curriculum by Lynn Parisi. Three key port cities referenced. See Menu:
"After the Opium War: Treaty Ports and Compradors," Historical Collections Exhibit, Harvard Business School Library. See other "chapters" to this Treat Port/Canton system exhibit on left side of page.
Sibing He, "Russell and Company in Shanghai, 1843-1891: US Trade and Diplomacy in Treaty Port China," Paper presented to "A Tale of Ten Cities: Sino-American Exchange in the Treaty Port era, 1840-1950-An Interdisciplinary Colloquium," Hong Kong University, May 23-24, 2011. Note introduction reference to John K. Fairbanks book reviewed below.
E. Elena Songster Review of John K. Fairbanks,"Trade and Diplomacy on the China Coast: The Opening of the Treaty Ports, 1842-1854,"Stanford: Stanford University Press, 1953 seen in University of California, San Diego ModernChinese history blog site, January 29, 2010.
Sibing He, "Russell and Company in Shanghai, 1843-1891: US Trade and Diplomacy in Treaty Port China," Rough draft Paper presentedto "A Tale of Ten Cities: Sino-American Exchange in the Treaty Port Era, 1840-1950-An Interdisciplinary Colloquium,"Hong Kong University, May 23-24, 2011.
"A Chronicle of the China Trade-The Records of Augustine Heard & Co., 1840-1877," Historical Collections Exhibit, Harvard Business School. Note mention of China Treaty ports throughout records.

"Robert Bickers, University of Bristol, "Chinabound: Crossing Borders in Treaty Port China," UK,History in Focus, (Autumn 2006). Slim article on British in China's treaty ports, post-First World War China.
Rajeev Ranjan Chaturvedy, "Reviving the Maritime Silk Route,"The Hindu, April 11, 2014. Indian journalist on current Chinese interest in reviving the MSR, Maritime Silk Route, to increase China's geopolitical power in the Indian Ocean region by controlling port cities throughout the Indian Ocean.
Alexander McKinnon, "Hong Kong and Singapore Ports: Challenges, Opportunities and Global Competitiveness,"Working Paper, Hong Kong Centre for Maritime and Transportation Law, City University of Hong Kong, March, 2011.
Google book: Gregory Bracken, ed.,"Aspects of Urbanization in China-Shanghai, Hong Kong, Guangzhou,"International Institute for Asian Studies, Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2012. Chapters surrounding three themes; Global, Cultural and Architectural and descriptions of evolution of Chinese port cities into expanding urban areas due to internal migration in modern China.
Sung-Woo Lee, Dong-Wook Song, and Cesar Ducruet, "A Tale of Asia's World Ports: The Spatial Evolution in Global Hub Port Cities,"Geoform, Vol. 39, Issue 1 (2008), 372-385 downloaded to Research Gate by Cesar Ducruet, May 13, (2015). This study viewed modern model port city hubs, Singapore and Hong Kong, from an Asian perspective.
Olaf Merk and Jing Li, "The Competitiveness of Global Port-Cities: The Case of Hong Kong-China," OECD Regional Development Working Paper, (2013). Port city of Hong Kong as case study is ninth in a series of OECD Port-Cities Program work papers directed by Olaf Merk. See all OECD working papers:

Middle East

8000 BCE- 600 BCE:
"Joppa (Jaffa)," Bible Places website. Jaffa, now Tel Aviv, is one of the oldest ports in world history. See other Biblical sites on left of page and more resources on Jaffa as port city at end of this annotated photographic article.
Stefan Green, "The History and Excavation of Ugarit," Exegetiskteologi blog, January 21, 2008. Northern Syrian Bronze age portand maritime city which was link between Cyprus and Mesopotamian copper trade. As copper fell in value, so did Ugarit.
Joshua J. Mark, Marist College, New York, Professor of Philosophy, "Tyre,"Ancient History Encyclopedia, September 2, 2009. Summary of maritime center and port city of Tyre, Levant trading powerhouse with golden age from 10th century BCE to 8th century BCE.

600 BCE-600 CE:

Annalena Stefano De Luca, "The Harbor of the City of Magdala-Taricheae on the Shores of the Sea of Galilee from Hellenistic to the Byzantine Times. New Discoveries and Preliminary Results," Istanbul, 30.05-01.06, 2011. Chapter in Sabina Ladstatter, Felix Pirson, and Thomas Schmidt, eds.,"Ports and Port Cities in the eastern Mediterranean region from ancient times to the Byzantine period. New Discoveries and current research approaches,"Byzas, 19, (2014). Recent archaeologicaldiscoveries analyzed by Annalena Stefano De Luca at harbor and port of Magdala-Taricheae.
Lawrence G. Potter, "The Persian Gulf in History, Book-Fi," New York: Palgrave Macmillan, (2009). Seen in
Bala Menon, "The Lost City of Qalhat,", Sultanate of Oman, accessed May 30, (2015). Article on Omani port city developed in 2nd century originally seen in "Times of Oman."
Jennifer Pinkowski, "After Being Stricken by Drought, Istanbul Yields a Treasure Trove in Ancient Harbor,"New York Times, January 23,2012. Drought lowered sea level off Istanbul allowing archaeologists to explore and find 2nd century BCE harbor townof Bathonea.
"The Dardanelles," The History Network, Audio Podcasts, April 19, 2015. Podcast describing Dardanelles as conduit of trade preserved in primary sources since Homer.
University of Colorado, Boulder, "Ancient Mediterranean Port City May Have Been Holy Land Way Station," ScienceDaily,July 27, 2000. Excavations of submerged Aperlae, in present day Turkey, unveiled evidence (5 churches) that this ancient port may have been a 4th-6th century Roman way station for Mediterranean people traveling to the Holy Land.
"Who Were the Ancient Arab Sea Traders?" (2002), CanBooks. Ancient Arab Sea traders, their product, port cities and trade routes. See many more linked articles on Nabataean trade, ports, Indian Ocean trade network at bottom of this page.
"Bandar Lengeh and Bandar Kong, Pt. 1," YouTube video (7:41) of Iranian ports, uploaded January 4, (2009). "Bandar" means port in Arabic.
"Bandar Lengeh and Bandar Kong, Pt. 2, YouTube video (9:01) of Iranian ports, uploaded January 4, (2009).
Steve Addison, "How Christianity Became an Urban Movement and Conquered Rome," Movements, December 18, 2006. Port Cities tended to have Christian congregations sooner than inland cities. Slim article on spread of Christianity.
Reverend Dr. Mark D. Roberts, "Ancient Ephesus and the New Testament,"Patheos,(2011). Ephesus was key port city in transmission of Christianity. Today, it is not a port city, but in the time of Jesus it was a key port on Turkey's central west coast.

"Saudi Arabia-Aden, Dubai, Kuwait," International Harbors and Seaports of the World, Maritime Heritage. Description of Saudi Arabia port cities.,+monographs,+papers&ots=la6O

Google Book. Roxani Eleni Margariti, "Aden and the Indian Ocean Trade: 150 Years in the Life of a Medieval Arabian Port," University of North Carolina Press, 2007).
M. Weiskopf review of David Whitehouse, "Siraf: History, Topography and Environment," British Institute of Persian Studies, Archaeological Monograph Series 1, Oxford/Oakville, CT: Oxbow Books, 2009 as reviewed in Bryn Mawr ClassicalReview, (2010). David Whitehouse used evidence from 1966-1973 archaeological dig to describe the Sassanian and Islamicport city of Siraf on Iranian coast of Persian Gulf with special interest to global context of that trade which stretched to Indian and Chinese ports. Siraf was powerful port city and gate to the Indian Ocean trade from 800-1050 CE. See more tabs at bottom of page.
Hamid R. Pashazanous, University of Tehran, M. Montazer Zohouri Islamic, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, and Talia Ahmadi, "Sea Trade Between Iran and China in the Persian Gulf based on Excavations of Siraf City,"Indian Journal ofEconomics and Development,Vol. 2, Issue 2 (February 2014), 6-13. Late Sassanid portcity of Siraf described with archaeological and numismatic evidence.

Onur Inal, University of Arizona Graduate Student, "Women's Fashions in Transition: Ottoman Borderlands and the Anglo-Ottoman Exchange of Costumes,"Journal of World History,Vol. 22, No. 2 (2011) uploaded to Academia by Onur Inal. Note Onur Inal's remarks on Ottoman Port Cities as Borderlands.
Rudi Matthee, University of Delaware, Review of Willem Floor, "The Persian Gulf: A Political and Economic History of Five Port Cities 1500-1730," Washington DC: Mage Publishers, (2006), downloaded to by Rudi Matthee.
J. E. Peterson, "Chapter 6, Muscat as a Port City," in Lawrence G. Potter, ed.,"The Gulf in Modern Times: Peoples, Ports and History," New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014, 153-172. Muscat as major port opening into the Indian Ocean from 15th through 19th century.
"History of Port Sultan Qaboos," Oman Port Services Corporation (S.A.O.G.). Resources as to history and importance of Oman ports. See tabs to other Oman port pages on left of page.
Graca Almeida Borges, "The Iberian Union and the Portuguese Overseas Empire, 1600-1625: Ormuz and the Persian Gulf in the Global Politics of the Hispanic Monarchy,"eJournal of Portuguese History,Vol. 12, No. 2 (December 2014). Ormuz and Persian Gulf revisionist monograph concerning Habsburg Spain controlof former Portuguese colonies during the Ormus conflict 1600-1625 with comparison to other fortress port townsof Macao and Bahia. Traditional historiography had ignored the controlling influence of Madrid, Spain and theirHabsburg rulers over Portuguese colonial possessions. See more on Portuguese in Ormuz and 1622 defeat by combined English and Persian siege below:
Marco Ramerini, "The Portuguese in the Arab Peninsula and in the Persian Gulf," Portugal web. See history of Portugal colonial control over Persian Gulf area and port cities and specifics as to 1622 loss of Ormuz to Anglo-Persian forces.

Henk Driessen, "Mediterranean Port Cities: Cosmopolitanism reconsidered," Work Paper presented at Berlin Seminar November 13-16, 2002. Dr. Driessen was professor at Institute for Cultural and Social Anthropology & Mediterranean Studies Programme, University of Nijmegen, The Netherlands. He was encouraging discussion on importance of port cities in world history by using Izmir (ancient Smyrna) as a case study and then comparing Izmir to Alexandria and Trieste as to cosmopolitanism and community in those three port cities.
Pelin Kihtir Ozturk, "Urban Transformation of Ottoman Port Cities in the Nineteenth Century: Change form Ottoman Beirut to French Mandatory Beirut," Thesis submitted to Graduate School of Social Sciences of Middle East Technical University for Master of Science in Middle East Studies (September, 2006). Beirut as a port city case study in this change over time.
Malte Fuhrmann and Vangelis Kechriotis, "Editorial-The Late Ottoman Port-Cities and their Inhabitants: Subjectivity, Urbanity and Conflicting Orders,"Mediterranean History Review, Vol. 24, No. 2 (December 2009), 71-78. Review of historiography and research of Ottoman Port Cities, 1830-1918 in Memory of Faruk Tabak.
Shai Srougo, University of Haifa, Israel, "Professional Characteristics of the Jewish Guild in the Muslim World: Thessaloniki Dockers at the End of the Ottoman Era,"Mediterranean Historical Review,Vol. 26, No. 2 (December, 2011), 115-133. Monograph uploaded to Academia by Dr. Shai Srougo, accessed September 14, (2015).Description of Jewish guild dock workers in Ottoman port city of Thessaloniki.
Herve Georgelin, "Living Together in Urban Contexts: Port Cities versus Anatolian Places, 1880-1924,"Erytheia,32, ((2011), 357-383, uploaded to Academia by Herve Georgelin, accessed September 14, 2015. Writing within context of cosmopolitanism and the late Ottoman Empire, Dr. Georgelin compared port city of Smyrana (Izmir)to inner Anatolian Diyarbakir (ancient Amide) surrounding thesis that stated western coastal port cities had reached adifferent modus vivendi than inner Anatolian cities.

Niles Green, "The Hajj as its Own Undoing: Infrastructure and Integration on the Muslim Journey to Mecca,"Past andPresent Society,226, (2015). Steam technology of 1850's effected the Muslim Hajj in many ways. Niles Green described that change over time using pilgrim diaries to highlight steam journeys by ship and train through port cities and urban centers.

Johnny Mansour, "Hijaz-Palestine Railway and the Development of Haifa,"Jerusalem Quarterly,28, from Bahai Library. Beginning in 1900 Ottoman Sultan Abdel Hamid II began building Hijaz-Palestine Railway to solidify his importance as protectorof Islam, improve trade and security. One outcome was development of the port city of Haifa. See Academia version ofthis paper downloaded by Johnny Mansour:
Sotiris Dimitriadis, Audio Podcast, 40:44, "Salonica in the Age of Ports," Ottoman History Podcast, February 23, 2011. Sotiris Dimitriadis was PhD candidate at SOAS, London, who discussed Salonica (modern Greece) port city as urban space and that port's change over time as part of economic and social transformation of the Ottoman Empire during Tanzimat period. Scroll down page to see Images and note other podcasts from this series.
"Foundations-the Cornerstones,"Aramco World,November/December 1982. Article on Saudi Arabian governments building of new sea ports, highways and jet ports.
Frank Gardner, "How Vital is Syria's Tartus port to Russia?"BBC Middle East News, June 27, 2012.
Paul J. Saunders, "Cyprus Port Deal Gives Russian Navy Alternative to Tartus,"Al-Monitor,Middle East news, March 3, 2015. Russia expanding ports in Mediterranean as alternative to Tartus, Syria.
Peter Kenyon, "Istanbul, a City of Spies in Fact and Fiction," NPR, September 9, 2012. Audio podcast, 4:06, and short article on famed port city and it's penchant for spying.

Latin America/Caribbean

600-1450 CE:
Jennie Cohen, "Researchers Explore the Seafaring Culture of the Maya,", May 23, 2011. Slim article on Vista Alegre a bustling Mayan port city. See more digital resources at bottom of this page.
Dr. Jeffrey B. Glover, Maya Port City Vista Alegre, Ocean Explorer, NOAA, National Oceanic and AtmosphericAdministration, September 13, 2011. Exploration research as to Mayan coastal port city by NOAA.
"Evolution of Brazilian Port Legislation #16, NY and Geneva: UN, UNCTAD/SHIP/494 (16), Number 16 in a series of monographs on Port legislation worldwide.


Google Book. Franklin W. Knight and Peggy K. Liss, eds., Knoxville: University of Tennessee Press, 1991. Atlantic world port city chapters mostly in Latin America. Some chapters address Havana-18th century, Philadelphia and Havana, 1800,Guadeloupe 1650-1800. Preface written by Philip D. Curtin.
"South America: Argentina," Maritime Heritage Project, Port Cities. History of port cities of Argentina beginning in 16th century.
Nick Davis, "Jamaica's 'wickedest city,' Port Royal banks on heritage," BBC news, July 25, 2012. An early British 21st century point of view as to pirate haven port city, Port Royal.
April Holloway, "Underwater Pirate City: Port Royal,"Ancient Origins,August 7, 2014. June 7, 1692 an earthquake struck pirate port haven of Port Royal and sunk and destroyed two thirds of the city making it an important archaeological site.

1:01:37 Film, "Most Wicked Place on Earth-Sin City Jamaica Documentary," (2015). History of port city of Port Royal.

Port Royal, Sin city Jamaica-Pirate Paradise and the Sunken City, documentary film, 43:36.

Casey Sylvia Schmitt, "A Tale of Two Port Cities: Contraband Trade, The Asiento Contract, and Conflict in Early Modern Caribbean," Master's Thesis Paper for Department of History, University of Utah, May, 2011. Research utilizing British and Spanish sources described Jamaican merchants moving British commodities to Spanish residents of Cartagena. A case study approach.

Jacob A. Zumoff, "Black Caribbean Labor Radicalism in Panama,"Journal of Social History,Vol. 47, No. 2 (Winter, 2013), 429-457 uploaded to Academia by Jacob Zumoff. New Negro Movement, West Indian migrants, and other Black migrant labor in Panama's inter-oceanic port labor.
Fabiola Ortiz, "Planned Mega Port in Brazil Threatens Rich Ecological Region,"Truth out,May, 2015. Fifty square km. port terminal planned for rich environmental Bahia province in northern Brazil.
Brad Racino, "Canal Expansion Sets up Battle of Ports," NBC News, Business, July 12, 2012. Widening of Panama Canal to be completed in 2015 sets up competition among US ports for the business of handling supersized container ships filled with goods from Asia. This had been handled by West coast ports, but now Gulf of Mexico and eastern seaboard ports can be in the mix.
Andrea Hricko, "Progress and Pollution: Port Cities Prepare for Panama Canal Expansion,"Environmental Health Perspectives,Vol. 120, No. 12 (December, 2012), National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences. Concerns as to pollution and environmental degradation as Panama canal expansion continued. See another version of this article:

Central Asia


Yasemin Nemlioglu Koca, Kocaeli University, Barbaros Maritime School, Kocaeli, Turkey, "The Opening of the Black Sea to International Trade and Ports in the 18th Century," uploaded to Academia by Yasemin Memlioglu Accessed September 3, 2015.


Domna Lyratopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis, "Black Sea: Old Trade Routes and Current Perspectives of Socioeconomic Co-operation,"Procedia Economic and Finance,Vol. 9 (2014), 74-82. There have been 32 important medieval and Byzantine Port Cities lining the Black Sea trade network which links Europe with central Asia and China. This paper is a summary of literature review of economic history of some Black Sea port cities from 19th century to the present. Download PDF of full text.

"Research Programme en itled The Black Sea and its Port Cities, 1774-1914. Development, Convergence and Linkages with the Global Economy (2012-2015) financed by the Greek Ministry of Education and European Union," uploaded to Academia by Gelina Harlaftis. Project summary including analysis and synthesis of the economic and social development of 20 port cities of the Black Sea. See website for project:
"Warm Water Ports-Afghanistan-Balochistan," Global Security site moderated by John Pike. Short article on Russia and Britishin Great Game in central Asia to protect, threaten warm water ports.
David Fromkin, "Great Game in Asia,"Foreign Affairs, essay, Spring 1980. David Fromkin explained Russian and British struggle to protect warm water ports by geopolitical maneuvering in Central Asia and how this background played in 1980 US and Russian new Great Game.

Christian Bleuer, "Cental Asia's Seaport: Gwadar or Chabahar?"Registan,August 20, 2007. Iran and Pakistan two "new" seaports link them to Central Asian trade routes.


To 600 BCE:

Paddy Altern, "Which dynamics might offer satisfactory explanations for the development of successful Mediterraneanmercantile cities," (2014). Uploaded to Academia by Paddy Altern. Paper which examined Mediterranean port cities such as Ashkelon, Tyre, Byblos, Troy, Thapsos from the Bronze Age onward as to geography and technology implications as to their rise and fall in a comparative analysis.

600 BCE-600 CE:
William M. Murray, University of South Florida, "Do Modern Winds Equal Ancient Winds?"Mediterranean Historical Review,Vol. 2, December 1987.The importance of winds prior to steam power explained with charts and archaeological evidence. Wind was critical toancient maritime navigation, outcomes of sea battles, and seaborne communications between coastal port cities along the Mediterranean maritime network.
William M. Murray, "The Location of Nasos and Its Place in History," download to JSTOR April 23, (2013). Uploaded to Academia by William Murray. Importance of island port of Nasos to Romans and other Mediterranean states 300-200 BCE.

Pascal Arnaud, "Cities and Maritime Trade under the Roman Empire," seen in Schafer, Charles, ed., "Connecting the Ancient World: Mediterranean Shipping, Maritime Networks and Their Impact," Rahden, (2015), Verlag Marie Leidorf Pharos Studien zurgriechisch romischen, Antike. Dr. Arnaud, Universite' Lumiere-Lyon2, Senior Fellow, Institut Universitaire deFrance, described Roman ports and their role in maritime trade under Roman Empire in this chapter.
Taco Terpstra, "Roman Trade With the Far East: Evidence for Nabataean Middlemen in Puteoli," (2015) The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of NY, Chapter 5 in Federico De Romanis and Marco Miuro, ed., "Across the Ocean: NineEssays on Indo-Mediterranean Trade," Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2015).Dr. Terpstra discussed evidence in Puteoli, major harbour town serving Rome and an important port for trade with theEast which utilized Nabataean middlemen in that trade. Puteoli had a community of the northern Arabian and southernLevant Nabataean merchants.
Emily Thomas, "Archaeologists Unearth New Areas of Ancient Roman City,"Huffington Post, April 17, (2014). Portus Project unearths new evidence as to Roman port city, Ostia, historical importance to 5th century. See Portus Project global photos of new finds as to Ostia's size and residence on both sides of the Tiber River. See Portus Project, University ofSouthampton, website and details as to archaeology and research at Portus and Ostia, Italy:
Christoper Morhange and Nick Marriner, "Mind the Stratigraphic Gap: Roman Dredging in Ancient Mediterranean Harbours," Roma ((2008)) International Congress of Classic Archaeology Meetings Between Cultures in the Ancient Mediterranean, Bollettino Di Archeologia Online, (2010). Conference report on Roman dredging of harbors in port

cities of Marseilles, Naples, Sidon and Tyre from 4th century BCE onwards.

Catherine Bouras, "On the Urbanism of Roman Harbours: The Evolution of Space Organization in Harbours of the Aegean Sea," Harbors and Harbor Cities in the Eastern Mediterranean from Antiquity to the Byzantine Period: Recent and Current Approaches, Band 2, Istanbul, 2011, Conference presentation. Description of Aegean Sea Roman harbors and their access tothe sea and to maritime networks and trade as well as housing naval defenses. Note description of Rhodes.
Vlasta Begovic and Ivancica Schrunk, "Remote Sensing of the Archaeological Remains of Roman Maritime Villas on theEastern Adriatic Coast," seen in Konstantinos Perakis & Athanasios Moysiadis, eds., EARSel.,Advances in Geosciences, (2012). Huge maritime villas built by rich Roman politicians included harbors along the Adriatic trade route and became costal colonies with adjacent rural villas.
David J. Blackman, "Ancient Shipsheds," Harbors and Harbor Cities in the Eastern Mediterranean from Antiquity to the Byzantine Period: Recent and Current Approaches, Band 2, Istanbul, (2011). Conference presentation. Presentation with photographs of ancient shipsheds and dockyards in port cities on Turkish and east Aegean coast including Knidos,Kyzikos, Kos and Rhodes.
1:36:40 Hulu Film documentary, "London: A City in Time," (2012). Change over time history of London, from marsh to Roman "town," to Port City and skyscrapers.

600 CE-1450 CE:
Michael Dobbs, "Korcula, Venetian empire's island arsenal in Adriatic,"Smithsonian,November 24, (2015). Built 800 years ago on what is now the Croatian coast, the island port of Korcula or Curzola was arsenal for Venetian empire. Note importance of Adriatic winds to architecture and maritime routes.
"Genoa 'La Superba,' Pt. 1-Rival to Venice," Byzantin Emporia blog, July 31, 2015. Rise and fall of Genoa as a trade port rival to Venice.

Term Paper. "Marking the Water: Territoriality, Fortifications and Port Cities in early modern Italy," for History, Theory and Criticism of Art and Architecture, Massachussets Institute of Technology, Professor Lauren Jacobi, MIT open courseware. Paper described Italian port city architecture in world historical context of Spanish and Portuguese maritime competition during medieval and early modern history.
N. Zmic, K. Hoffman, S. Bosnjak, "A note on the history of handing in ports: from ancient to medieval cranes," 12th IFToMM World Congress, International Federation for the Promotion of Mechanism and Machine Science, Besancon, France, June 18-21, ((2007)). Ancient and medieval European port cranes described in thisconference report.
History of the Hanseatic League, Historical Re-enactors website moderated by Debra L. Prevot. See tabs on left side of page for more information and resources. The Hanse, an 80 port city alliance, existed from 12th-mid-17th century trading in northern Europe and to the Baltic Sea.

Port Cities in World History World History Association Conference, University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona, Spain, March 26-28, 2014. See abstracts/short summaries of all papers presented. Uploaded to Academia by Salles Vilaseca, University of Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona.
Margrit Schulte Beerbuehl, "Networks of the Hanseatic League," European History online, January 13, 2012. Port cities linking the European Hanse. See home page for this website:
"Latvia and the Hanseatic League,"Latvian History, December 18, (2009). See great map of Hanse trading and port cities innorthern Europe and article with other links describing Latvia's participation from 12th-13th centuries.
David Ditchburn, "Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440's,"De re Militari (March, 2014). Description of Hanse piracy and port cities of Bremen and Hamburg.
"Black Death," See article and videos on Black Death as it hit Sicilian port of Messina in 1347 and other European port cities.
Thomas K. Heeboll-Holm, University of Copenhagen,"Ports, Piracy and Maritime War-Piracy in the English Channel and the Atlantic, c. 1280-c. 1330,". See book review, in Spanish:
David Ditchburn, "Bremen Piracy and Scottish Periphery: The North Sea World in the 1440's,"de re militari,The Society for Medieval History, postedMarch 9, 2014 by Sandra Alvarez. Bremen and Hamburg were port centers of the Hanseatic Trade network in northern Europe. David Ditchburn, Trinity University, Dublin, Ireland, discussed those ports and Scottish piracy in the region.
Catia Antunes and Louis Sicking, "Ports on the Border of the State, 1200-1800, An Introduction,"International Journal of Maritime History,Vol. 19, No. 2 (December 2007), 273-286, downloaded from at Universiteit Leiden/LUMC on February 26, (2014). Uploaded to Academia by Louis Sicking. This Introduction to series of articles derived from Eighth International Conference on Urban History Forum which described historical continuities and changes of port cities of Europe in a comparative fashion.


Figure 2
  Figure 2: Painting Source: Maritime Heritage Project.
Lincoln Paine review of Pablo E. Perez-Mallaina, trans. by Carla Rahn Phillips, "Spain's Men of the Sea: Daily Life on the Indies Fleets in the 16th Century," Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2005. See World History Connected, Vol. 3, Issue 2 (February, 2006) in which Lincoln Paine praises Perez-Mallaina's description of Seville ,Spain as 16th century port city.
Michael-W. Serruys, "The Port and City of Ostend and the Process of State Consolidation in the Southern Netherlands in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries: A Geopolitical Approach,"International Journal of Maritime History, posted to June 13, 2013, accessedJune 7, 2015. Originally published in Vol. 19 (2007), 319-347.
Wendy Butler, Paper, "The Dutch and the World: Revising My View of European Participation in Global Trade," NEH Seminar, Leiden and London, (2013), University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth. Ms. Butler's assigned paper for this five week seminar revealing her new found understanding as to the periodization and depth of Dutch VOC (Dutch East India Company) Asian trade with a numberof primary source documents and images at the end.
Catia Antunes, "Early Modern Ports, 1500-1750," European History Online, Institute of European History, Mainz, Germany, December 3, (2010). Note tabs on right side of this essay for more images, maps. See Home page for this massive site:
Elina Gugliuzzo, "The Opening of the Harbour, the closing of the walls: Urban History of two Mediterranean Port Cities," Humanities-Anno,1, Numero 2, Giugno (2012), 100-115. Monograph comparing Valletta and Messina from 16th through18th centuries and port/harbor development and fortifying the cities.

Term Paper 4.663, "Marking the Water: Territoriality, Fortifications and Port Cities in Early Modern Italy," for Professor Lauren Jacobi, History, Theory and Criticism of Art and Architecture, MIT open courseware ( Spring 2014).
Hanno Brand, "Changing Patterns in Seaborne Trade (c. 1450-1800)," Baltic Connections. A description of Baltic Sea trade competition with references to key port cities beginning with rise and fall of the Hanse, Dutch inclusion mercantilism's effect on the region and ports and emergence of new Baltic sea powers including Russia. See Home page for Baltic Connections website below:
Website: "Baltic Connection 1450-1800," National Archief of the Netherlands, (2006). Cooperatively operated by nations surrounding the Baltic Sea and funded and supported by Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Ministry of Education, Culture and Science.
Dr. Gustave Milne, "The Gresham Ship: An Armed Elizabethan Merchantman Recovered From the Thames," Gresham College, UK audio podcast putting the 1545 sunken British ship into its political, economic and maritime context plus a description of the Tudor port city of London and war with Spain.
"Cradle of the Navy: The Hospital School then and now," Port Cities, London. London port city Hospital Schools begun in 1694 with a Hospital Charter legalizing care and education for children of dead or disabled seamen.
Review. Jorg P. Vogel, University of Dusseldorf, review of Richard Lawton and Robert Less, eds.,"Population and Society in Western Europe Port Cities, c. 1650 1939,Liverpool Studies in European Population, Vol. 2, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press, (2002) seen at Social History Portal, April, 2002).
"Picturing the 18th century port-Painting the Thames," Port Cities Project, London, UK. 17th century Dutch painting of the Thames followed by Canaletto's London and Samuel Scott's art increased popularity of Thames port city of London.
"The Riverside Wharves," Port Cities, London. Resources on London's riverside wharves.
"Bristol and the Slave Trade," Discovering Bristol, Port Cities Project UK. Slave Trade history of port city of Bristol, England.

"London and the Transatlantic Slave Trade," Port Cities, UK website. Importance of the port of London in the transatlantic slave trade network.
"Bibliography-books and sources for Bristol and the transatlantic slave trade," Discovering Bristol, UK. See other resources on this topic on left of page and tabs for other English ports at top of page.
Anthony Tibbles, "Ports of the Transatlantic Slave Trade," Liverpool Museums, UK. Anthony Tibbles conference paper presented at Text Ports Conference at Liverpool Hope University College, April 2000. Dr. Tibbles explained the few number of European ports involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Note other "talks" on left side of this page.
"The 19th Century Port," Port Cities,UK website. Overview of 19th century British port cities. See tabs for individual port cities and articles on docks and harbors.
Port Towns and Urban Cultures, Port Towns Project, UK. See articles on English ports and urban cultures. Note Resources tab at top of page for bibliographies on London/English port towns.
"Picturing the 18th Century Port-Painting the Thames," Port Cities Project, UK, Royal Museum Greenwich. See slim review of London port in art with painting examples on right of page. Clicking on each art work reveals a description of the art work.
Crime and Punishment in Port cities, Port Cities Project, UK. Crime along the Thames River, London port city.
"The Port in Literature," Port Cities, UK, Royal Museum Greenwich See links to Sherlock Holmes, Charles Dickens, Daniel Defoe, 'Chinatown'literature, Frost fair 'poetry' and note Joseph Conrad tab on right side of page.
Dr. Patricia Pulham and Dr. Brad Beavan, University of Portsmouth, "Dickens & the Victorian City-Poverty and the Poor," Port Project, UK. Port city of Portsmouth and the poor. Charles Dickens' 1838 "Oliver Twist" written in context of 1834 Poor Laws which Victorian liberals, like Dickens, felt criminalized the poor.
"The Jewish Community and the Port," Port Cities London website. Immigration of Jews to port of London.
"The Great Dock Strike of 1889," Port Cities, UK. London was scene of great port city dock strike in 1889. See other articles to right of this page for more resources as to London as port city. And note at top of page other British port city tabs for more.
Robert Van Ness, "French Revolution-War of the 1st Coalition, Sardinia, Toulon, and Introducing Napoleon Bonaparte," Clio's Lessons, May 7, 2012. Port cities and the opening salvos of the French Revolution.

Silvia Marzagalli, "Port Cities in the French Wars: The Responses of Merchants in Bordeaux, Hamburg, and Lovorno to Napoleon's Continental Blockade, 1806-1813,"The Northern Mariner/Le Marindunord, Vol. I, No. 4 (October 1996), 65-73. Silvia Margalli, Institut Universitaire de France History professor, downloaded this monograph to See more of her monographs:
Major John A. Tokar, Logistics, Army, Army Logistics University, Ft. Lee, Va., "Logistics and the British Defeat in the Revolutionary War," (September/October 1999). Note importanceof port cities such as Cork, Ireland and Boston, MA. as to logistical failures as a major cause for British Defeat in AmericanRevolution.
Professor Peter L. Guth, Department of Oceanography, US Naval Academy, "Navigation and Logbooks in the Age of Sail," United States Naval Academy introduction and overview of speakerPeter Reaveley who has spent the last 20 years researching the wreckage of John Paul Jones' "Bonhomme Richard"after Jones' victory over the French "Serapis" off coast of England in 1779. This "article" explained neatly with charts, how shipsnavigated coastal areas between port cities in the late 18th century using the Serapis and Bonhomme Richard asexamples. See more concerning Dr. Guth and Peter Reaveley research on wreckage of Bonhomme Richard from Geoff Ziezulewicz, "Expedition Continues Search for 220 Year Old Shipwreck,"Stars and Stripes, October 30, 2011:
Domna Lyratzopouoou and Grigoris Zarotiadis, "Black Sea: Old Trade Routes and current perspectives of socioeconomic cooperation,"Procedia Economics and Finance, Vol. 9 (2014), 74-82. See abstract and tabs to download article which summarized reviews of economic history literature from 19th-20th Black Sea port cities. There has been 32 important medieval and Byzantine port cities which had flourished in history.
"Russia's Quest for Warm Water Ports,"Global Security, page last modified September 7, 2011. Global Security website maintained by John Pike. See four other articles on "Warm Water Ports," Constantinople, Persia, Afghanistan, andFar East on right side of this page.
Maria C. Chatziioannou, "Patras: Greeks and foreigners in the port of Patras during the 19th century," in Eugenia Drakopoulou and Dimitris Dimitropoulos, eds.,Sailing in the Ionian with History at the helm,"National Hellenic Research Fund, Institute of Hellenic Research, Athens (2015), uploaded to Academia by Maria Chatziioannou.

Ruud Bruyns, "Battle for the Seaports,"Military History Online, published May 15, 2011. Slim review of WW II European campaign for seaports.
"Russia and Warm Water Ports,"Global Security,last modified September 7, 2011, site moderated by John Pike. Background as to Russian search for warm water ports over time. Note four links, upper right of this page for more informationon this topic.
Katherine Jacobson, "Tensions Boiling over Crimea Warm Water Port,"Al Jazeera, March 10, 2014) Crimea conflict in context of Russian warm water port at Sevastopol.
Website: Port Economics, Europe. Website dedicated to research, news about modern European ports and maritime centers.
Christof Parnreiter, Department of Geography, University of Hamburg, "Managing and governing commodity chains: the role of producer service firms in the secondary global city of Hamburg," Research article,Journal of the Geographic Societyof Berlin,Vol. 146, No. 1, published online February 16, 2015. Hamburg, Germany is the 14th largest container port city in the world. This article discussed role of insurance, real estate, and other business within the context of a modern port city, Hamburg,and their workings within a global commodity chain. This research is in line with theme of world or global cities and commodity chains and how they have restructured since 1970 and increased globalization. See paper below on similar theme:;jsessionid=ABBBD362461005B8995E07125C3C964D?doi=
Wouter Jacobs, Cesar Ducruet, and Peter de Langen, "Integrating World Cities into Producer Networks: The Case of Port Cities,"Global Networks,Vol. 10, Issue 1 (2010), 92-113. As in the Hamburg, Germany paper, above, this research focused on "world or global cities" since 1970 and producer services within port cities and commodity chains.
"Gay Life in Port Cities, Life at Sea," Liverpool Maritime Museums, UK.
Simon Smith, "Sailors on Shore Leave During the First World War: reinforcing stereotypes of Jack Tar?"PortTowns website, UK. British seamen stereotyped as immoral and drunk seen in Jack Tar stereotypesstumbling through port cities is challenged by Simon Smith.
Rob James, "Mapping Cinema Culture in Portsmouth's Sailortown in the Early Twentieth Century,"Port Towns & Urban Cultures,UK, July 7, 2015. Film popularity in port city of Portsmouth, England from WW I through 1930's.
Port Cities website, UK. See tabs on left side of this page for resources and information about Bristol, Hartlepool, Liverpool, London and Southampton Port Cities museums and sites.
"Statistical Data: Manchester/Liverpool," Working Paper of the Project,Shrinking Cities, Philipp Oswatt, ed., Berlin (March, 2004). Uploaded to Academia by one of the authors, Ed Ferrari. Description of changing urban form in port cities of Manchester and Liverpool, England with charts, graphs, photographs.
"Port Cities in the Global Age," Thinking Allowed, BBC Radio 4 interview. Laurie Taylor interviewed Alice Mah, Sociologist at University ofWarwick about transformations along port city waterfronts from Marseilles to Liverpool. Note this Interview is in secondhalf of audio podcast beginning around the 14 minute section of the 28 minute program. Mah is author of"PortCities and Global Legacies: Urban Identity, Waterfront Work and Radicalism." See more on Alice Mah:
See review of "Port Cities and Global Legacies" below:
Megan Maruschke, "Review of Alice Mah,Port Cities and Global Legacies: Urban Identity, Waterfront Work, and Radicalism," Palgrave Macmillan, 2014 in H-Soz-Kult, H-Net, Clio-online, June 19, 2015. See H-Soz-Kult version of this review:
Mah's discussion on port citydock worker's "radicalism" fits the hydrarchy theory mentioned in Introduction of this article.
Olaf Merk,, "The Competitiveness of Global Port Cities: The Case of the Seine Axis (Le Harve, Rouen, Paris, Caen)-France," Regional Development Working Paper, OECD Publishing, July ((2011)). These French port cities effects on surrounding region described.

Figure 3
  Figure 3: Portsmouth Point, by Thomas Rowlandson, in 1811.
Source for Portsmouth Point:Port Cities Project, UK

North America

Living in the Atlantic World, Smithsonian National Museum of American History. Website, "On the Water" with resources onAmerican port cities, riverine ports and coastal waterways from 1450-Present. See Home and site index:
"Exploring Early Manhattan Through Art,"National GeographicLesson Activity. This lesson involving two paintings by modern artist and architect Len Tantillo incorporated Dutch history in mid-17th century Manhattan, New Amsterdam, port city fora middle school class, but this lesson module could easily be upgraded for higher level students.
Kenneth Morgan, "British American Port Cities," Oxford Bibliographies, last modified August 26, 2011. Note short introduction followed by slim list of books on topic. Look to right of page to find other global port cities Oxford Bibliography "documents."
"American Coastal Cities," National Humanities Center, Becoming America, revised September, 2009. Primary sources on largest American port cities in 1775 with guided questions.
Christian Pinnen, "The Free People of Color in Colonial Natchez, 1700-1798,"Mississippi History Now.Article describing slaves and free blacks in Mississippi River maritime port city of Natchez.

Brian Palmer, "Were There Sex Shops in the Time of George Washington?"Slate, March 2, 2009. Answer is NO, but in the mid-18th century as American maritime trade expanded and port cities grew, sailors and dock workers became a growing customer clientele for brothels. A change over time in colonial American social history.
"A Safe Harbor: The Port Mission in Fells Point,"Underbelly, Maryland Historical Society Library(November 14, 2013). Story of port city of Fells Point founded as shipping hub in southeast Baltimore in 1730. Change over time by mid-19th century saw Fells Point riverine trade increase and population boom. But, this attracted seafarers, prostitutes and criminals into the outpost turning it into a drunken, brawling port. This article discussedthe Port Mission Gospel Hall's attempts to temper the lawlessness.
Eve Southworth, "Drunken Sailors and Fallen Women-The New London Whaling Industry and Prostitution, 1820-1860," Honors Paper, Connecticut College, Paper 1 (April 2005) published in Digital Commons and Connecticut College, May 1, 2005. Description of whalers and prostitution in New London, Connecticut port city.
"Worksheet-Warships in the Age of Sail," Lake Champlain Maritime Museum, Vergennes, Vermont. War of 1812 saw problem for Americans as to protecting and defending thevast coastline and America's numerous ports. Worksheet questions with short article on that history. This lesson good for elementary and high school history classes.
Los Angeles Port History, LAP Port History,Click on tabs at top of page for product history for Los Angeles harbor, port background.
Maritime Heritage Project. This website's focus is researching passenger lists of immigrants and opportunists sailing from world seaports into San Francisco Bay during the 1800's. See bibliographies of maritime port cities' books, captain's logs and much more.
"Shanghaiing,"Wikipedia.Crimping or Shanghaiing of people in American port cities in 19th century.
Great Lake Mighty Rivers, Inland Waterways, On the Water website. See series on waterways in American history. Part 4, 1820-1940 featured inland waterways, inland ports focusing on the Great Lakes.
Michael D. Thompson, "Working on the Dock of the Bay-Labor and Enterprise in an Antebellum Southern Port," TheUniversity of South Carolina Press (2015). The South Carolina Press described Dr. Thompson's book on role and struggles of enslaved labor prior to emancipation in Charleston. Black and white, native and immigrant, slave and free dock labor are described.
Justin S. Solonick and Gary J. Ohls, 2 Reviews of Spencer T. Tucker, "Short History of the Civil War at Sea,"Wilmington: SR Books, 2002. Seen in Steven E. Woodworth, Texas Christian University personal Civil War site.
Gary Ohls' second review includes more on specific American port cities in key Civil War naval battles.See Timeline of Naval Operations of the Civil War.
"Southern Ports and Harbors," Sons of the South website. Click on image and scroll down to seeHarper's Weekly, October 26, 1861, articles and maps of ports in the 1861 South in early Civil War America.
Barbara Maranzani, "Four Days of Fire: The New York City Draft Riots,", July 5, 2013. Beginning July 13, 1863, the port city of New Yorksaw America's worst civilian riot as white immigrant dock workers, many Irish Catholic, angry at 1863 Civil War DraftLaw and draft lists looted and killed aiming their wrath at the city's elite, Blacks and the very idea of the Civil War itself. The low paid dock workers had seen for themselves the commodities flowing out of New York city's port enriching the city's elite. Racial tensions were added to the mix as white immigrant dock workers had refused to work with Blacks with whom they had competed for port dock worker jobs.

James Russel Soley, USN, "Blockade! The Blockade of Southern Seaports During the Civil War,"Civil War Trust,nd. Up to this time, the Union naval blockade of Confederate seaports was the largest ever undertaken in world history.
"Into the Deep," PBS, American Experience website for Rick Burns' documentary film on American whaling, 17th century through 1870's. Note especially static map of whaling port cities. One can google the full documentary "Into the Deep," YouTube, 1:37:02.
Lesson Module for "Into the Deep," PBS, American Experience. See four lesson plans to accompany Rick Burns' documentary film on American Whaling history.

1900 to Present:
Marine Art-Tim Bell, Sea History, The National Maritime Historical Society. Tim Bell, Maryland, USA, Impressionistmarine artist. Click on links to see samples of his art of wharves, docks, port city seascapes and note other maritime artists on this site/page.
"Halifax Explosion," Maritime Museum of the Atlantic, Nova Scotia (2015). Resources for 1917 Halifax explosion in which two WW Iships crashed in port killing 2000 and wounding 9000 and flattening much of the port city. Prior to the explosion Nova Scotia, Canada was evolving into a world class port shipping resources and supplies to WWI Europe.
Longshoremen and their Unions,Waterfront Workers History Project, Harry Bridges Center for Labor Studies, University of Washington.
International Longshoremen and Warehouse Union website. History of the ILWU. See tab on upper right of this page, "Library and Archives" for resources on these port city workers including archived newspapers.
"Dock Worker's Strike and San Francisco General Strike, 1934, Jeremy Brecher,", posted September 3, 2013. San Francisco 1934 Port City dock workers strike summarized from Jeremy Brecher's history of that strike. Seeeffects of this strike and how automation changed port city longshoremen's lives after 1961 below:
"Effects of Automation on the Lives of Longshoremen,", posted October 23, 2012. After San Francisco dock worker's strike, detailed in article above, San Francisco longshoremen controlled the dock labor process from 1934 through 1961, but automation would change the port city longshoremen's world.
"Port and Maritime Safety and Security,"Center for Asymmetric Warfare,accessed July 6, 2015. American website about port and maritime security.
Maritime Terrorism website, Maritime Research Center, accessed September 20, 2015. Information, news on terror, maritime trade,and port cities.
Great Lakes Ships Initiative, Duluth Seaway Port Authority website. Duluth-Superior, Minnesota and Wisconsin has serious ship-mediated invasive species problems as ships from all over world in port dump water from their ballasts taking on commodities.

John Maunu is Digital Resources Editor for WHC and an AP World History College Board consultant. He can be reached at


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