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The Silk Road in World History


Digital Resources for the Silk Road in World History

John Maunu



     This resource is divided into digital resources which address the Silk Road hemispheric interactions c. 1000 to 1400 c.c. in the context of Mongols and Steppe cultures. It includes Primary Sources, Eyewitness/Traveler's accounts, sections on Religion and Women in the Mongol era, Academic Papers and Monographs, University course syllabi, a Bibliography and sources for related Mongol Historiography.

General Resources
"Why Teach the Silk Road," Joan O'Mara, ASIANetwork Exchange, Vol. XV, No. 2, Winter 2007.
Teaching the Silk Road: A Guide for College Teachers, Jacqueline M. Moore,Rebecca Woodward Wendelken (New York: State University of New York, 2012). Available as an E-book or print
David Christian, Macquarie University, "Silk Roads or Steppe Roads;The Silk Roads in World History," Bridging World History, The Annenberg Foundation, 2004, 27 pp.

See another version:
Dr. Valerie Hansen, Professor of History, Yale University, video lecture, 1:09:56, "The Silk Road-A New History, "Mongols and the Silk Road blog, May 2014.
Hemispheric Interactions, 1000 to 1400 c.c.
"Marco Polo and His Travels," article, Silk Road Foundation, nd. Summary of Marco Polo's travels to and within Yuan China beginning in 1271 and his return to Venice in 1295.
John Masson Smith, Jr., "The Mongols and the Silk Road," The Silk Road Foundation Newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 15, 2013.
Traditional Cultures of Central Asian pastoral nomads, Silk Road Foundation. See Home page for Silk Road Foundation ( Walter Chapin Simpson Center for the Humanities, University of Washington, Dr. Daniel Waugh, Project Director.
"William of Rubruck's Account of the Mongols," translated by William Woodville Rockhill, 1900, University of Washington Silk Road website moderated by Daniel C. Waugh. Flemish Franciscan monk's, ca. 1210-ca. 1270, book, "The Journey of William of Rubruck to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1235-55," was the most detailed and valuable of the early Western accounts of the Mongols.
"Mobility, Empire and Cross Cultural Contacts in Mongol Eurasia, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Website. See tabs forfurther resources.
CNN program series ravels from China to Italy.

Mongols, Nomads and Steppe Peoples in World History
Bryn Hammond, "Genghis Khan and the Tangut," Mongol China and the Silk Road, Archaeology and History of Silk Road blog, moderated by Hans van Roon, February 9, 2015.
The Mongols in World History, Asia for Educators, Columbia University.
"The Mongols in World History," transcript of page found in Asia for Educators, Columbia University seen above.
Mongols, Interactive Maps and Images, Asia for Educators, Columbia University. See 5 Mongol interactive maps.
Morris Rossabi, "All the Khan's Horses," The Mongol in World History, Asian Topics in World History, Columbia University, Asia for Educators, originally seen in Natural History, October 1994.
Robert Guisepi, "The Mongols: The Last Great Nomadic Challenges-From Chinggis Khan to Timur," World History Center, 1992. See other essay tabs on left side of page.
Timothy May, University of North Georgia, "The Mongol Empire in World History," Vol. 5, no. 2, World History Connected, February 2008. Dr. Mayplaced the Mongols contextually in world history in this article.
George Tait Edwards, "A Brief Guide to Early Chinese History: The Mongol Conquest of China and Its Consequences," London Progressive Journal, October 17, 2013.
Bryan Walsh, "How Climate Change Drove the Rise of Genghis Khan," Time, March 10, 2014.
Nicola Di Cosmo, "Climate Change and the Rise of Empire," Institute for Advanced Study, Spring 2014. Analysis of research as to climate and rise of the Mongols.
Jack Weatherford, "Genghis Khan: Law and Order," LA Times, December 29, 2006. Saddam Hussein's last televised speech to Iraqis in 2003, found him comparing the US to the Mongols. He said the US are Mongols of this age. Dr. Weatherford, Mongol historian, found the comparison lacking, in that the US did not have the "organizational genius of Genghis Khan."
Mike Edwards, "Genghis Khan," National Geographic, December 1996, 18 pages. Photographs of Mongolia and history of Genghis Khan and the Mongol Empire.
Nikolai N. Kradin, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia, "Mongols, Empire and Debates of the Nomadic State Origins, 2015," Papers in honour of Maurizio Tosi for his 70th birthday, BAR International Series 2690, 2014, 369-376. Dr. Kradin evaluated the debate on Chinggis Khan's empire as a "state." Who is Maurizio Tosi, University of Bologna? and papers:
Phillip P. Marzluf, Kansas State University, English department, "The Oratory of Khans and Queens: Reading the Secret History of the MongolsRhetorically," Education About Asia, Vol. 18, Number 3, Winter 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Phillip Marzluf. Dr. Marzluf explained how the Secret History of the Mongols' language and tone was an example of how Mongol leaders used language to persuade, control and dominate their subjects and other peoples.
Mr. Welsh AP World History website, 2011, "Chapter 12, The Mongols,"google site. Summary of Mongol history.
History of the Mongols, History World. Three-page summary of Turk/Mongol History, 6th-13th centuries.
Thomas J. Barfield, Boston University, "Something new under the Sun: The Mongol Empire's Innovations in Steppe Political Organization and Military Strategy," presented at The 8th International Congress of Mongolists, Ulaan Baatar, August 5-12, 2002, Mongolian Culture.
Big Era Five: Landscape Unit 5.4, Mongol Empire Builder-Friends from Hell or Cultural Brokers?, 1200-1400 CE, World History for Us All, San Diego State University website.
Ronald Findlay and Mats Lundahl, "The First Globalization Episode: The Creation of the Mongol Empire, or the Economy of Chinggis Khan," Yale Global online academic paper, 40 pages.
Michal Biran, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Asian Studies, Islamic and Middle East Studies, "The Mongol Transformation: From the Steppe to Eurasian Empire," Medieval Encounters, Vol. 10,Nos. 1-3, November 5, 2004. Uploaded to Academia by Michal Biran. For Michal Biran academic papers, many on Mongols, Academia. See
Nikolay Kradin, Far Eastern Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Archaeology, "Chinggis Khan: World System Analysis and Preindustrial Globalization," Entelequia, No. 15, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Nikolay Kradin.
Stefan Leder, "Nomadic and Settled People in Steppe Landscapes and within Statehood," Scientia Halensis, January 2005, 19-22, seen in Collaborative Research Centre (SFB), University of Leipzig and Halle-Wittenberg. Importance of nomads and their contacts with settled societies over time from Morocco to northern China where nomadic societies still exist.
Anatoly M. Khazanov, "Nomads in the History of the Sedentary World," Ch. 1, Curzon-IIAS, International Institute for Asian Studies, Asian Studies Series, ed. by Anatoly Khazanov and Andre Wink, 1-23, 2001. Uploaded to Academia by Anatoly Khazanov. First Chapter scanned introducing nomads over time with comments on the Mongols included.
Paul D. Buell, Horst-Gorst-Stiftungs-Institute, Charite Medical University, Berlin, "How Cinggis-qan Has Changed the World," uploaded to Academia by Paul D. Buell.
Paul D. Buell, "Central Eurasia Genocide as a way of life," monograph/paper, uploaded to Academia by Paul D. Buell. Dr. Buell focused on Mongols and genocide in central Eurasian history.
Lt. Col. Darrel C. Benfield, United States Marine Corp, "The Mongols: Early Practitioners of Maneuver Warfare," School of Advanced Military Studies, US Army Command and General Staff College, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 2012. Monograph.
Vu-Hong-Lien Warder, Archaeology, "The Mongol Navy: Kublai Khan's Failed Invasions in Southeast Asia," Paper, 2014, uploaded to Academia by Vu-Hong-Lien Warder.
Paul D. Buell, Mongols in Vietnam: End of one Era, Beginning of Another," uploaded to Academia by Paul Buell. Later 13th and 14th century attempts by Mongols to expand their influence into Southeast Asia, Indonesia and South Seas. See more Mongol academic papers by Paul D Buell below:
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University, "The Date of the 'Secret History of the Mongols' Reconsidered," Journal of Song-Yuan Studies, 37, 2007 seen in Scholar Works, Indiana University. Dr. Atwood examined the historiography of studies as to when the Secret History was written, then analyzed historical context of the text and came up with his own thesis.
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University, Central Eurasian Studies, 75 academic writings, most on Mongol culture and history, uploaded to Academia by Christopher P.Atwood.

Travelers' Accounts as Primary Sources
"Marco Polo eText-Primary Source," Excerpt from "The Book of Ser Marco Polo the Venetian Concerning the Kingdoms and Marvels of the East," published 1903. Polo's accounts with annotated comments from eNotes of his time in the Great Khan'scourt, 1271 returning to Venice in 1295.
"Medieval Sourcebook: Marco Polo: The Glories of KinsayHangchow] (c. 1300), Paul Halsall, Fordam University Library. Note comments about reliability of Polo's account.
"The Travels of Ch'ang Ch'un to the West, 1220-1223," Diary recorded by Taoist monk's disciple Li Chi Ch'ang, translated by E. Bretschneider, 1888, Silk Road Seattle, 2003. Aging Chinese Daoist monk Ch'ang Ch'un was ordered to Chinggis Khan's court, at the time in Central Asia and his disciple recorded Ch'ang's eyewitness account of Central Asia, geography, life of ordinary people, Mongol administration, and perceptions of Chinggis. E. Bretschnieider valued this Asian account of the Mongolsand Chinggis Khan over "European mediaeval travelers." This "diary" was published by Sun si in 1228 and included in the Tao tsang siyao.
"Daoist Master Changchun is Summoned to Visit Chinggis Khan," trans. Arthur Waley, 1931, University of British Columbia, Canada. Two excerpts of Li Chi Ch'ang'sdiary/recordings of Changchun's thoughts and perceptions of central Asia and Mongols.
"Ibn Battuta's Travels East," ORIAS website, University of California, Berkeley, moderated by Nick Bartel, 2012. See especially Chapter 3, 6 and 9 as to Mongols.
Paul Kahn, "The Secret History of the Mongols-The Origin of Chinggis Khan-an Adaptation of the Yuan Ch'ao Shih,"13th century Mongol account of Mongol origins and Chinggis Khan based primarily on the English translation by Francis Woodman Cleaves written sometime after Chinggis Khan's death in 1227. See background on that earliest Mongol account:
"The Secret History of the Mongols-The Life and Times of Chinggis Khan," trans., edited, with Introduction by Urgunge Onon, London & New York: RoutledgeCurzon, first published 2001, this edition Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2005. 307 pp. Seen in Shanyoma E-Library. See another version at:
Sabine Du Bourbonnais, "Friar William of Rubruck's 13thC Travels to the Mongolian Courts," Three Gold Bees blog, nd. Medieval Heraldist, Sabine Du Bourbonnais, described Friar Rubruck's travels and perspectives of the Mongol court of GreatKhan Mongke 1253-1255. Rubruck's predecessors, Andrew of Longiumeau and John di Plano Carpini, envoys of Pope Innocent had attempted Christian conversion of the Mongols. Rubruck was sent by French King Louis IX to convert the Mongols and gauge their willingness to support French crusade missions.
"The Journey of Friar John of Pian de Carpine to the Court of Kuyak Khan, 1245-1247," trans. by William Woodville Rockhill,1900, excerpted from "The Journey of William of Rubruch to the Eastern Parts of the World, 1235-55," London: Hakluyt Society, 1900. Seen in University of Washington Silk Road website. See analysis of John of Plano's report as an intelligence gathering mission for the Pope, below.
Stephen Bennett, Queen Mary, University of London, History Graduate Student, "The Report of Friar John of Plano Carpini: Analysis of an Intelligence Gathering Mission Conducted on Behalf of the Papacy in the Mid-Thirteenth Century," uploadedto Academia by Stephen Bennett. Paper analyzing the reliability and value of Franciscan Friar John of Plano Carpini's extensive "report" on the Mongols for Pope Innocent IV. Context of friar as spy.
"How the Mongols Ate," Three (3) primary source eyewitness accounts of the Mongol diet and eating habits from Michael McInneshin, Global History to 1500 course syllabus, LaSalle University. Arabic scholar Ibn al-Athir, "On the Tatars [Mongols], 1220-1221 CE, Pope Innocent IV diplomatic emissary, 1245, Giovanni, "The History of the Mongols," ca. 1248, and Franciscan monk emissary of French King Louis IX, William of Rusbruck, 1253-1255.

Cross-Cultural Perceptions and Exchanges
Kaye Jones, "The Seige of Kaffa and the Black Death," History in a Hour website, August 5, 2011. Slim article on Mongols, seige of Kaffa and the Black Death. It should be noted that Mongol and Black Death history has controversy.
Stefano Carboni and Qamar Adamjee, Department of Islamic Art, "Folios from the Great Mongol Shahnama (Book of Kings)," Metropolitan Museum of Art, October 2003. History of the Mongol Ilkhanid Persian era written/designed in the 14thcentury by vizier Rashid al-Din, 1304-1316 as to Mongols. See You Tube video, 2:36, published September 25, 2013, picturing that folio:
David Morgan, "Persian Perceptions of Mongols and Europeans," Chapter VI of Stuart B. Schwartz (ed.), "Implicit Understandings: Observing, Reporting, and Reflections on the Encounters Between Europeans and Other People in the Early Modern Era," Cambridge University Press, 1994, 201-217. David Morgan described Juwayni, Rashid al-Din, Rabban Sauma and Juzjani's perceptions of the Mongols and their control of their lands.
Ibn al-Athir, "On the Tatars," 1220-1221, Fordham Primary Source Library, Paul Halsall.
Qiu Yihao, Fudan University, History Faculty, "Mongol Empire in the view of Sadi's Poems, Wen hui, Shanghai, January 2016," [Special] Sadi Poetry and the the Mongol Empire, January 29, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Qiu Yihao. Page translates into English. Persian poet, Sadi or Saadi (1210-1291 or 1292) referenced the Mongols in his works. See biography of Saadi below:
Liu Yingsheng and Peter Jackson, "Chinese-Iranian Relations iii. In the Mongol Period, Iranica online, December 5, 1991, last updated October 14, 2011.
The Legacy of Chinggis Khan and Mongolia, Asian Art Museum exhibit, San Francisco, July 19-October 15, 1995. See two links to annotated images of art, pottery of Mongolia under Chinggis Khan.
Timothy May, "The Chinggis Exchange: The Mongol Empire and Global Impact on Warfare," World History Connected, Vol. 12, no. 1, February 2015. Forum on Military in world history article.
"Mongol Invasion and Destruction of Baghdad," Lost Islamic History, November 17, 2012.
"Mongke Khan," Military Wiki. Fourth great Mongol Khan, 1209-2159, ruled from 1251-1259, noted for reforms in administration and expansion into Syria, Iraq and parts of China.
Amir Butler, "The Mongol Invasion of Iraq: Lessons Never Learned,", May 12, 2004. Comparative of Mongol and American invasions of Iraq.
Reuven Amitai, "Dangerous Liaisons: Armenian, Mongol and Mamluk Relations, 1260-1292," in Gerard Dedeyan and Claude Mutafian, eds., LaMediterranee des Armeniens, XIIe-XVe siecle. "Orient Chretien Medieval," Paris: Geuthner, 2014, 191-206. Uploaded to Academia by Reuven Amitai.
Himayatullah Yaqubi, "Mongol-Afghan Conflict During Period of the Delhi Sultanates," History of Pashtuns blog, August 19, 2015.
"Mongols in India," Horses and Swords blog, March 5, 2006. Description of Mongols invasion of India.
John Masson Smith, Jr., University of California, Berkeley, "Mongol Armies and Indian Campaigns," Mongolian Culture.

Women of the Silk Road in the Mongol era
"Encountering Mongol Women: Two European Observations-Giovanni DiPlano and Marco Polo," Connecting Women to the Silk Road, Women in World History Curriculum. See also: For use of primary sources, see
Women Revive a Thread to Silk Road.
Jack Weatherford, "The Women Who Ruled the Mongol Empire," The Globalist, June 20, 2005. Toregene, Christian widow of Ogedei, ruled the Mongols with a Tajik Shiite Persian advisor, Fatima. Two of the other three Mongol regions were also ruledby Christian widows, Sorkhokhtani, northern China and eastern Mongolia, Ebuskun, Central Asia or Turkestan.
Per Inge Oestmoen, "Mongol Women," Cold Siberia, last updated January 23, 2001.
Jack Weatherford, "The Wrestler Princess," Lapham Quarterly, Roundtable, September 27, 2010.
"The Wrestler Princess Khutulun," Asian History, June 9, 2011, originally seen in Lapham's Quarterly. Undefeated wrestler and Mongolian warrior, princess Khutulun.
"Mongol Society: Women, Men and Children," slim article, History on the Net.

Video/Film/Audio Podcasts/Images:
"In the Footsteps of Marco Polo," WLIW21, WNET, New York Public Media. See entire documentary film, 1:27:18, from November 2008 as adventurers Deninis Belliveau and Francis O'Donnell retrace Marco Polo's trek to Mongol China. See also various Director's cuts video such as Spice Route, Did Polo actually go to China? among others.
Prester John, BBC 4, 41:56 audio podcast interview with scholars as to myth of Prester John and the East in medieval times. See list of readings which included books on the Mongols, Christian Missionaries, Mongols and Prester John.
Jack Weatherford lecture, Embry-Riddle Honor Series, 1:15:05 video, posted on You Tube, February 27, 2013. Dr. Weatherford defended thesis that Genghis Khan was greatest conqueror in history.
Ed Vajda, Western Washington University, "Mongol Impact on World History," 52:30 video published on You Tube October 27, 2009.
"The Secret History of Genghis Khan: Documentary of World's Great Conqueror," 48:34 published on You Tube September 16, 2013. Documentary history claimed much of Genghis Khan's "story" was kept secret or detailed by Chinese dynasties and historians who were not friendly to the Mongol warlord.
The Mongols, 2007, 1:56:34 Film published on You Tube, November 14, 2015. Russian semi-historical film about early life of Tenujim later known as Chinggis Khan. Film based on controversial writings by Russian historian Lev Gumilyov. See number of Film Reviews in "Film Review" section of this article.
John Green, "Wait for It-The Mongols-Crash Course in World History #17," You Tube 11:31 Video, published on You Tube May 17, 2012.
John Green, "Russia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols-Crash Course in World History #20," You Tube 10:46 Video, published on You Tube June 7, 2012.
Barbarians series-The Mongols, 43:39 Video documentary, published on You Tube, June 29, 2011.
China vs. Mongol-War History, 27:42 You Tube Video, published November 3, 2013. See another version of this video and look to right of page to see others Mongol videos:
"China's Great Wall 2007/The Mongols," 49:49 You Tube Video, published March 24, 2012.
"The Mongol Empire 'Kublai Khan,'" History Channel, 47:18 You Tube Video, published November 14, 2013.
"Genghis Khan," 58:06 documentary, Top Documentary Films, BBC, 2005.
1:18:00 Audio podcast, "Mongols: Ilkhanate," Ask Historians, November 22, 2014. Professor Rakony discussed the Persian Ilkanate.
Cindy Tieu, "Mongol Four Khanates," 2:53 You Tube Video, published June 6, 2013. Short video clip summarizing the four Mongol khanates.
Paul Cobb, University of Pennsylvania, 49:09 video lecture, "The Detours of Ibn Battuta," Penn Museum lecture series, Great Voyages, 2013-2014, Mongols China and the Silk Road blog, moderated by Hans van Roon.
"Horse-head fiddle," To Mongolia blog, April 2010. View 5:34 Horse-head fiddle performance, You Tube, and read article on 13th century Mongol empire origins of the fiddle.
"Horse-head fiddle player, B. Bayarsaikhan performing in a rural Mongol ger," 4:59, You Tube video, February 19, 2012. Bayarsaikhan is a master Mongolian fiddle maker and performer. Filmed by University of California, East Bay professor of music, Peter K. Marsh. Horse-head fiddle in video is owned by the head of this Mongol household.
"Horse-head fiddle with throat singing," You Tube video, October 8, 2009, 3:59. Filmed by Wolf Price in Karikorum, Mongolia showing two adult males performing in a ger (yurt).
Image/Drawing. "Mongol Trebuchet,", World History textbook, online, Ancient History to 1600, The Mongol Empire.
Ryan Wolfe, Mongol Seige Machines, Ancient Mongol Weaponry blog. See photographs of catapult, trebuchet, and mangonel and note tabs at top of this blog page for other slim Mongol weaponry.

Lesson Plans/WebQuests:
Mike Vergin, Mounds Park Academy High School, "The Mongol Moment, Lesson #9," April 13, 2012. Lesson plan using "The Mongols in World History" website and Jigsaw strategy. See Lesson #10 on right side of page, "Impact of the Mongols."
Mongol colorful power point with images, primary source documents and 17 questions lesson, Forest Hills High School, January 13, 2016.
Steve Buenning, "The Trial of Chinggis Khan: A Classroom Simulation," World History Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 1,February 2012. AP world history teacher Steve Buenning explained Chinggis Khan trial simulation, pedagogy, and resources for classroom use.
Another version of the "Mock Trial" above.
Lesson Module. "Mongol Empire Builders: Fiends from Hell or Culture Brokers, 1200-1400?" Big Era Five: Landscape Unit 5.4,World History for us All, San Diego State University.
Mrs. Walker, Pre IB World History, Valparaiso High School, Indiana, "Mongols Reading," Various lessons using many perspectives and primary source eyewitness accounts of theMongols based on World History for us all, Big Era 5 Landscape 4.
"The Mongol Invasions," Lesson Module by Ethan Segal, Asian Studies-Windows on Asia, Michigan State University.
Mongol WebQuest lesson module, Creighton Prep, Mrs. Mlnarik, World History, Fall 2007.
Samuel L. Green, Camas High School, Oregon, Mongols in World History WebQuest and Socratic Seminar, See two page WebQuest lesson.
Kristen Hock, Colerain High School, Mongol Empire Lesson Plan.
Mr. Holman, Mr. Pennington and Mr. Armstrong, The Mongols and the Black Death," Students for Tomorrow website, Beachwood, Chardon and Dublin, Ohio Middle Schools collaboration project for world history, December 16, 2011.
USC US-China Institute lesson, "How to Rule China." Students research and role play Mongol historical characters and respond to questions seen in this lesson module with a partner in a "Fishbowl" or "ring/circle" strategy.
DBQ. "Were the Mongols 'civilized?'" Woodbridge, New Jersey schools.
Mr. Casey, "Conquerors DBQ: Mongols and Ottomans," February 2015. Four page "worksheet" lesson using Mongol and Ottoman primary source documents in a guided Document Based Question (DBQ) format. See Mr. Casey's Global History website for more on this lesson:
NY State Regents Exam Prep, Global History and Geography, August 2011. Document based Question, Mongols, Spanish and OttomanEmpires reasons for conquering other people and lands. See rubrics for grading this DBQ (Document Based Question)and sample student responses.
"The Mongols: How Barbaric Were the 'Barbarians?'" Document Based Essay Question (DBQ), DBQ Project, 15 pages.
W. Trucillo, Lakeland Schools, Document Based Essay Question with Student Guide sheet essay as background, "How Barbaric Were the Mongols?"
Andrew Troxel, Fort Madison High School, World History, Mongol Empires Document Based Essay Question. How did Mongols conquer so muchterritory?
Mrs. Kavanagh, Global History Document Based Essay Question, "Tang, Song and Mongols," March 8, 2010. Click on "Here" to see google doc. DBQ.
Guided documents worksheet on Mongols, Seaford High, NY.
Richard P. Wilds, Capital City High School, Topeka, Kansas, "Mongol Lesson Plan: Medieval Travels, the Mongols and the Silk RoadAcross Asia," Center for Russian, Eastern European and Eurasian Studies, University of Kansas. See lesson, with questions and extensive bibliography on Mongols in World History.
Mongols for Kids, Mr. Donn website lesson resources.
Chapter 12 Mongols in Eurasia, 73 slide share, published November 30, 2009,
"Studying the Material Culture of Three Nomadic Cultures," American Museum of Natural History, 2002 Curriculum Collections. Comparative lesson-Gabra (Central East Africa), Mongols and Blackfeet.

Papers on Religion and the Silk Road under Mongol Rule
Timothy May, "Converting the Khan: Christian Missionaries and the Mongol Empire," World History Connected, Vol. 12, no. 2, June 2015. World History Connected Forum on Religious Mission and Conversion in world history.
"When Prester John Ruled India," First City Magazine, Delhi, April 2004 seen in Devdutt. Myth of Prester John, the Catholics, India and the Mongols.
Francesca Friaschetti, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, "The Borders of Rebellion: The Yuan Dynasty and the Rhetoric of Empire," paper, uploaded to Academia by F. Friaschetti. Dr. Friaschetti described the "strategies" used by the Mongol Yuan in their foreign policy and how they defined themselves to outsiders. Also, Yuan histories are included to define how the Yuan view the "Other" or foreigners outside their empire.
Amanda Power, Oxford University, Associate Professor of History, "Encounters in the Ruins: Latin Captives, Franciscan Friars, and the Dangers of Religious Plurality in the early Mongol Empire," nd. Essay/Paper uploaded to Academia by AmandaPower.
"The Monks of Kublai Khan or The History of the Life and Travels of Rabban Sawma envoy and plenipotentiary of the Mongol Khans to the Kings of Europe...," translated from the Syriac by Sir
Christopher P. Atwood, Indiana University, "Validation by Holiness or Sovereignty: Religious Toleration as political theology in the Mongol World of the thirteenth century," uploaded to Academia by Bolormaa Khasgaa. Dr. Atwood analyzed religious toleration of the Mongols as a political tool.
Maria Magdolna Tatar, "The Ancient and New Reputation of the Northern Mongol Shamans," Shamans Unbound,Shamanistic Papers at the VI. Shamanistic Congress, Dobogoko 2007, Budapest 2009, Akademiai Kiado. Uploaded to Academia by Maria Magdolna Tatar.
Denise Aigle, Ecole Pratique Des Hautes Etudes, Paris, Sorbonne, "The Mongol Invasions of Bilad al-Shan (Syria) by Ghazan Khan and Ibn Taymiyah's Three Anti-Mongol Fatwas," Mamluk Studies Review, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2007, 89-120, in Middle East Documentation Center, The University of Chicago. Mongol Rulers of Persia invasions of Syria, 1260-1312, and scholar Ibn Taymiyah's fatwas aimed at them described byDenise Aigle.
Jon Hoover, University of Nottingham, Islamic Studies, "Ibn Taymiyya's Three anti-Mongol fatwas," Taymiyyan Studies, google site. Mongols invaded Syria three times, 1299-1303.
"Tengrism,", Tengri community post. Community moderated by Solyomfi-Nagi Zoltan. Tengrism was shamanistic religionof Central Asia. Note, especially, two Khan letters to Pope and King of France which included references to Tengrism.
Lewis Dowell III, Aberdeen University, "Visions of Temujin and the Rise ofGenghis Khan: Contemporary Perspectives on the Meaning and Influence of Genghis Khan in Mongolian Shamanism," Master's Research Dissertation, Anthropology, 2012-2013, 40 pages.
"Heaven," First Year Course on Genghis Khan (Chinggis Khaan), Macalester College, Minnesota. Historical significance of Mongol notion of heaven explained.
Timothy May, "A Mongol-Isma ili Alliance? Thoughts on the Mongols and the Assassins," JRAS, Series 3, Vol. 14, Issue 3, The Royal Asiatic Society Journal, 2004, 231-239. Dr. May described and analyzed Mongol and Assassins' links and alliances fromtheir beginning through the Mongol destruction of the Assassins.
Peter Konieczny, "The Prince, the Assassin and the Mongols,", May 16, 2011. Paper given at De Re Miltari: High Medieval Warfare session at the 46th International Congress on Medieval Studies, 2011. Context of Crusades.
James Holloway, Baylor University, undergraduate, "Formation and Rule of the Mongol Ilkhanate," Baylor University History Department paper, April 16, 2014. Uploaded to Academia by James Holloway.
Jennifer Purtle, University of Toronto, Art, "The Far Side Expatriate: Medieval Art and Its Languages in Sino-Mongol China," Medieval Encounter, 17, 2011, 167-197, Brill Publishing, monograph. Dr. Purtle described how European medieval art in Yuan/Mongol China "spoke languages" to its European visitors to the Yuan court.
Jana Valtrova, Department for Study of Religions, Faculty of Arts, Masaryk University, Czech Republic, "Beyond theHorizons of Legends: Traditional Imagery and Direct Experience in Medieval Accounts of Asia," Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010. Uploaded to Academia by Jana Valtrova. Dr. Valtrova analyzed encounters of European travelers such as William of Rubruck, John Plano, Odoric of Pordenone, John of Marignola, Jordanus Catalanus, and others as to their traditional ideas of the Asian/Mongol Other and the reality of what they saw.
Lewis Dowell III, "The Milk of Mongolia: Culture, Customs, Rituals and Traditions," uploaded to Academia by Lewis Dowell III, 14 pages, nd.
Pavel Rykin, "The Social Group and its Designation in Middle Mongolian: The Concepts 'Irgn and Oboq,'" No. 1 Forum, For Anthropology and Culture. Dr. Pavel Rykin, professor at the Institute for Linguistic Studies, Russian Academy of Sciencesand Languages of Russia, European University at St. Petersburg, analyzed Mongol societal structure through linguistic research on two Mongol words, Irgn and Oboq, denoting differing definitions of clan.

E. A. Wallis Budge, Assyrian International News Agency online book, 1928. Syriac history of two Nestorian Chinese monks, Bar Sawma and Markos, which revealed details of the Il-Khans of Persia and their dealings with the Mongol Christians. See three page sketch summary of the two monks, below:
Gareth Huges, "An Introductory Sketch-The Monks of Kublai Khan from Beijing to Baghdad and Beyond," Oxford University, 2009, 3 pages.
Scott Parker, "The Indigenous Christians of the Arabic Middle East in an Age of Crusaders, Mongols, and Mamluks, 1244-1366," Thesis paper submitted for Doctorate of Philosophy, Royal Holloway College, University of London, September 2012. (300 + pages)
Mikko Vasko, HS Karlsruhe, Project SKATING, "Writing a Christianized History of the Mongols: The Mongols in Syriac texts in the late 13th and early 14thcentury," January 24, 2006. Uploaded to Academia by Mikko Vasko. Thesis paper describing and analyzing historiography of SyrianChristian authors under Mongol rule using image research as methodology. Mikko Vasko relied on Bar Hraeus and "Monksof Kublai Khan" by an unknown Nestorian writer.
Mikko Vasko, "The Image of the Mongols in Syriac Texts in the Late Thirteenth and Early Fourteenth Century," uploaded to Academia by Mikko Vasko. Relying on Bar Hraeus and image research, Mikko Vasko described Syrian Christian wrtier's perceptions and mental images that they created of the Mongols.
George Grigore, University of Bucharest, Arabic Department, The Historical Context of 'Fatwa of Mardin' Given by Ibn Taymiyya," 1st International Symposium of Mardin Papers, Istanbul 2006, 343-351. Paper described Mongol invasion of Syria and context of Ibn Taymiyya (1263-1328) fatwa of Mardin.
Cory Johnson, University of Auckland, Graduate Student, "For God at Your Pleasure: The Humiliation of a Franciscan Friar in the Mongol Empire," dissertation, October 30, 2015. Mr. Johnson described William of Rubruck's (1220-1293) experiences at Great Khan Mongke's court in Karakorum, 1253-1255.
Sunil Kumar, Delhi University, Delhi, India, "The Ignored Elites, Turks, Mongols and a Persian Secretarial Class in the Early Delhi Sultanate," Modern Asian Studies, No. 43, Issue 1, 2009, 45-77. Paper uploaded to Academia by Sunil Kumar. Sunil Kumar described consolidation of Delhi Sultanate in context of Mongol devastation of Transoxiana, Iran, and Afghanistan and focused on an analysis of Persian literature of 13th-14th centuries and that literature's perspective on the court of the Delhi Sultanate which does not credit the Turk and Mongol ethnicity of those elites.
Nagoya University, Graduate Student, "The Mongols Approach to Anatolia and the Last Campaign of Emperor John III Vatatzes," Greek, Roman, and Byzantine Studies, 55, 2015, 470-488. Byzantine historian Georgios Akropolites (ca. 1217/20-1282) in his "History" described campaign and diplomacy of the Emperor of an exiled Byzantine government, John III Vatatzes (r. 1221-1254) to the East in context of the Mongols.
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, "Mongols and Merchants on the Black Sea Frontier," Amitai, June 21, 2004, 391-424. Uploaded to Academia by Nicola Di Cosmo.
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, "Connecting Maritime and Continental History: The Black Sea Region at the Time of the Mongol Empire," Chapter 6 in Peter N. Miller, ed., "The Sea: Thalassography and Historiography," Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Nicola Di Cosmo. See more Nicola Di Cosmo papers below:
Nicola Di Cosmo, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ. Academic papers and monographs, many on Mongols.
Dr. Dashdondog Bayarsaikhan, National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, "Some Dynamics of Mongol-Armenian Interactions,"Revue d'Etudes Armeniennes Bazmavep, 3-4, Saint Lazre, Venice, 2010, 597-627. Uploaded to Academia by Dr.Bayarsaikhan. Discussion of historiography of Armenian historians and chronologists as to Mongols. 12-14th centuries saw a rich period for Armenian historiography in that ten historians and chronologists were active in that period. See more of Dr. Baya Dash's works on Armenians and Mongols below.
Dr. Dashdondog Bayarsaikhan (Baya Dash), National University of Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Armenian and Mongol resources. Note 2 book reviews, 7 papers and 1 Book. Uploaded to Academia by Baya Dash.
Lauren Prezbindowski, University of Louisville Master's Thesis, "The Ilkhanid Mongols, the Christian Armenians, and the Islamic Mamluks: A Study of their relations, 1220-1335," Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 1152, December 2012, University of Louisville Library.

Course Syllabus:
David Christian, "The Silk Roads in World History," syllabus, Fall 2001, San Diego University, Department of History.
College Syllabus, Silk Road, University of Washington, last updated November 15, 2002 by Daniel C. Waugh. A number of Eurasian and Silk Road university syllabus many including Mongol history.
Jack Weatherford, "The Mongols: Past and Present," Syllabus, Anthropology Department, Macalester College, St. Paul, MN, Fall 2001, seen in Central Eurasian Studies World Wide website, Harvard University. See site:
James Millward, "The History of Central Eurasia," Georgetown University, syllabus Spring 2001.
Darlene L. Brooks Hedstrom, "Mongols in World History," syllabus with primary source writing assignments, Wittenberg University, Fall 2005.
Drs. van den Berg and Gommans, University of Leiden, e-Prospectus, "Arts and Culture in Area Studies: Culture andConquest-the Impact of the Mongols and Their Descendants," 2015-2016.
Michael Brose, University of Wyoming, "Mongol History Seminar Syllabus," Fall 2012.
Monica H. Green, American Academy in Berlin, "The Black Death: Pandemic Disease in the Medieval World-Reading List for Group Projects,"Syllabus and Reading List, Spring 2015, last updated January 22, 2015. See especially resources and annotated comments for Mongols and the Black Death.
Dr Bruno DeNicola, University of St. Andrews, "Summer Course, 2016: Universitesi HIST 48K.01, SP.TP: The Mongols and Their World Empire," Course proposal, syllabus for Bogazici University, summer 2016.

"The Mongol Empire in World History: The State of the Field," Mobility, Empire and Cross Cultural Contacts in Mongol Eurasia, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, last updated April 4, 2016.
Michael J. Bechtel, University of Chicago, Department of Near Eastern Languages and Civilizations, Bibliography of Mongol Studies, last updated December 1, 2014. Large number of resources on the Mongols.
Suggested Readings for Problems in Islamic History-The Mongol Empire in recent research, H 858, University of Wisconsin, Spring 2008.
"Mongol Empire," Infography, published by Fields of Knowledge, nd. Mongol expert chose six "Superlative Sources" and many other "Excellent Sources" for Mongol empire.
"Mongolian History-Online Resources, Indo-Mongolian Society of New York, 2004. Many Mongol digital resources.
Paul D. Buell, "Age of Mongolian Empire: A Bibliographic Essay," Silk Road Foundation newsletter, Vol. 1, No. 1, January 15, 2003. Dr. Buell discussed historiography and resources on Mongol history.
"The Steppe, Nomadism, The Xiongnu, and the Mongols, Bibliography, Silk Road Foundation.
Jana Russ, Mongols bibliography, World Civilizations Courses, The University of Akron, Ohio, last update June 2001. See slim list of historical fiction books plus more.

Mongol Historiography:
Charles Melville, "Historiography iv. Mongol Period," Encyclopaeadia Iranica, Iranica online, originally published December 15, 2003, last updatedMarch 22, 2013. Persian historiography reached its maturity in the 13th-15th centuries known as Turkic-Mongol era.
Michal Biran, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, "The Mongol Empire: The State of the Research," History Compass, Vol. 11, No. 11, 2013, 1021-1033. Dr. Biran discussed the state of the field and historiography of the Mongols in world history. See pdf version of that analysis:
Achintya Tca, University of Delhi, Department of History, Graduate Student, "The Mongols in Sources," uploaded to Academia by Achintya Tca.Slim summary of Muslim (Arabic and Persian) and European source's reactions to the Mongols.
Paul Steeves, Stetson University, Florida, "Mongol Impact," Stetson University. Three perspectives of the Historiography of Mongol impact on Russia. Summary ofSoviet View, Eurasian View and Vernadsky View.
Geoff Humble, University of Leeds, "A Princely Sacrifice: The Death of Tolui in Imperial Mongol Historiography," Traces of Empire, June 7,2010. Dr. Humble considered and evaluated the various sources which dealt with the alcoholic death of Tolui and referenced these sources and their comments as a good historiography of Mongol writing.
Nathan Light, Uppsala University, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology, Researcher, "Muslim Histories of China: Historiography across Boundaries in Central Eurasia," originally published in "Frontiers and Boundaries: Encounters on China's Margins," Zsombor Rajkai and Ildiko Beller-Hann, eds., Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 2012. Dr. Light described Muslim historians and historiography of Chinese and Central Eurasia including Mongols and Yuan.


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