World History Connected Home    
Home List journal issues Table of contents
Printer-friendly format  Article citation        

Comparative Study of Genocide


Digital Resources for Settler Colonialism, Effects on Indigenous peoples, and the Issue of Genocide in World History

John Maunu


     Paul Marks, writing for New Scientist, noted that an MIT team running a computer simulation found that if current plans the 2024 Martian settler colonial base ("Mars One") are to be followed, the settlement was doomed, not because of the planet's hostile environment or, as science fiction would have it, resistance from its indigenous inhabitants, but because Mars One's proposed crop growth system will produce too much oxygen, poisoning settler colonists after 68 days. 1 Here on Earth, settler colonization efforts have often failed due to poor planning and environmental challenges, and historically have overcome indigenous resistance. It is the latter that is the focus of this article, which offers resources that explore the relationship between settler colonialism and the material and psychological methods it has employed to overcome indigenous resistance. The article's intent is to enable scholars to engage the issue of whether or not, or to what degree, settler colonialism can be described as ecocide and/or genocide within the context of world historical studies.

     In 2013, Edward Cavanagh and Lorenzo Veracini, writing as editors of the journal Settler Colonial Studies, noted that:

Settler colonialism is a global and transnational phenomenon, and as much a thing of the past as a thing of the present. There is no such thing as neo-settler colonialism or post-settler colonialism because settler colonialism is a resilient formation that rarely ends. Not all migrants are settlers; as Patrick Wolfe has noted, settlers come to stay. They are founders of political orders who carry with them a distinct sovereign capacity. And settler colonialism is not colonialism: settlers want Indigenous people to vanish (but can make use of their labour before they are made to disappear). Sometimes settler colonial forms operate within colonial ones, sometimes they subvert them, sometimes they replace them. But even if colonialism and settler colonialism interpenetrate and overlap, they remain separate as they co-define each other. 2

     Settler Colonial historiography runs in parallel with the rise of a revisionist alternative perspective referenced as subaltern studies or history as seen and written by indigenous historians, poets, authors, and even former colonial peoples from all classes and varied social status (see digital resources for subaltern studies in Historiography section of this article). Settler colonialism studies also delve into gender as indicated through indigenous, settler colonial and colonial empire literature, letters, and narratives (see "Decolonizing Feminism" article by Maile Arvin and others in US section of this article). They frequently draw upon art, film, literature, music, and theatre in their examinations of settler colonialism and the indigenous reaction.

     Many of the articles referenced below claim that settler colonialism destroys the main resource, food source, cultural hearth, environment of the indigenous people (ecocide when taking over the lands of indigenous people. Accompanying this process is the depiction and colonial histories of the indigenous as a subject "other" inferior to settler culture which was employed as a justification for the settlers' right to that land and resources. Examples of this work can be found in the Russian section of this resource in articles on 20th century Russian color photography in Central Asia by Margaret Dikovitskaya, depicting Central Asian "others" and an article on British Columbia indigenous artist Sonny Assu's reactive graffiti art to those portrayals in Pacific Northwest in the Canada section.

     This article is organized into the following sections: Digital resources for the Other in World History, Settler Colonialism historiography, blogs, Journals and websites, university syllabus, Global Settler Colonial digital sources, and settler colonialism resources divided into regions. The article concludes with references to previous articles on digital sources that have appeared in World History Connected of relevance to this subject.

Lorenzo Veracini, "Settler Colonialism and Decolonisation," borderlands, Vol. 6, no. 2, 2007. Veracini addresses the evolution and historiography of settler colonial studies during the second half of the 20th century and defended settler colonial studies being linked to decolonization studies.
"Lorenzo Veracini on settler colonialism-'Here from Elsewhere: Settlerism as a Platform for South-South Dialogue," Southern Perspectives, October 22, 2010. Discussion Roundtable at the Institute for Postcolonial Studies, Melbourne, Australia, October 10, 2012 with James Belich, Lorezo Veracini, and Kate Darian Smith. Discussion focused on a historiography of settler colonialism. See more from comment page:
Lorenzo Veracini, "Defending settler colonial studies," Australian Historical Studies, 45, 2014. Uploaded to Academia by Lorenzo Veracini. Dr. Veracini, Swinburne University.
Alissa Macoun and Elizabeth Strakosch, "The Ethical Demands of Settler Colonial Theory," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, nos. 3-4 (2013), 426-443. Australian scholars weigh the merits of settler colonial historiography. Note thesis, "This article explores the strengths and limitations of settler colonial theory (SCT) as a tool for non-Indigenous scholars seeking to disturb rather than reenact colonial privilege. See also Veracini above and Tim Rowse, on settler colonial historiography that serves as foundation for this article.
Andrew Woolford, "The Next Generation: Criminology, Genocide Studies, and Settler Colonialism," Revista Critica Penal y Poder, no. 5, (2013), 163-185. Special Issue: Redefining the Criminal Matter: State Crime, Mass Atrocities and Social Harm. Dr. Woolford claimed that criminology of genocide suffers from the first generation of genocide scholarship which exhibit sweeping comparatives, narrow legalism, and inattention to genocide processes. Woolford highlights and focuses on second generation genocide historical research with special attention to schools in Canada, especially the Fort Alexander Indian Residential School. See more Dr. Woolford articles and resources especially on Canadian settler colonialism and genocide at
Andrew Woolford and Jeff Benvenuto, "Canada and Colonial Genocide," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 17, Issue 4 (2015), 373-390, Special Issue on Canada and Colonial Genocide, published online December 11, 2015. This Introductory article gave an overview and historiography of debates about genocide and settler colonialism in Canada. The authors claimed that Canada has been a marginal case in this field, but urge historians to take more interest in Canadian settler colonialism and genocide as comparative to other regions.
Tim Neale, Deakin University, "Notes on Settler Colonialism," Tim D. Neale blog, March 1, 2016. Dr. Neale discussed the settler colonial "ontology" debate in Australia.
"Historiography of settler-colonialism,", February 28, 2016. In the 1960's historians and scholars in related disciplines began to analyze the recent decolonization happening across the globe. Frederick Cooper asked, "How can we study colonial societies keeping in mind ... that the tools of analysis we use emerged from the history we are trying to examine?" Slim article on the historiography of settler colonialism and decolonization.
Frederick Cooper, "Conflict and Connection: Rethinking Colonial African History," The American Historical Review, Vol. 99, no. 5 (December 1994), 1516-1545. Frederick Cooper described historiography of colonial African history in light of modern Latin American colonial insights.
Dipesh Chakrabarty, "Subaltern Studies and Post-Colonial Historiography," Position Paper in Nepantia: Views from the South, Vol. 1, Issue 1 (2000). Subaltern Studies: Writings on Indian History and Society began in 1982 inspired by Ranajit Guha (b. 1923) which challenged settler colonial and imperial histories of India. In 1984 Guha stated, "We are...opposed to much of the prevailing academic practice in historiography...for its failure to acknowledge the subaltern as the maker of his own destiny." See another perspective on beginnings of Subaltern Studies by David Ludden immediately below.
David Ludden, "Reading Subaltern Studies-Critical History, Contested Meaning and the Globalization of South Asia," Anthem Press. Introductory chapter, "Introduction-A Brief History of Subalternity," accessed at Northern Arizona University education site. David Ludden stated that Subaltern Studies began in England in the 1970's as English and Indian historians collaborated to challenge settler colonial and British imperial histories of India. By 1993, this "movement" had inspired a Latin American Subaltern Studies group. See series of essays "Latin American Subaltern Studies Revisited," below:
"Latin American Subaltern Studies Revisited," Dispositio/n 52, American Journal of Cultural History and Theories, Vol. XXV, no. 52, 2005, edited by Gustavo Verdesio, University of Michigan, Romance Languages and Literature, American Culture. Uploaded to Academia by Gustavo Verdesio. A number of essays critiquing Latin American Subaltern Studies. See Gustavo Verdesio article below as to lack of history, subaltern studies written by victims of colonialism, i.e., "the wretched of the earth."
Gustavo Verdesio, University of Michigan, "Colonialism Now and Then-Colonial Latin American Studies in the Light of the Predicament of Latin Americanism," uploaded to Academia by Gustavo Verdesio. Dr. Verdesio critiqued Latin American Subaltern Studies and researchers/students of colonial texts as not coming from the social strata and ethnic groups that were victims of settler colonialism, i. e., "the wretched of the earth."
John R. Chavez, Southern Methodist University, "Aliens in Their Native Lands: The Persistence of Internal Colonial Theory," History Faculty Publications, Paper 5, Southern Methodist University, December 2011, originally published in Journal of World History, Vol. 22, no. 4, December 2011, 785-809. The 1960's saw the development of Internal Colonialism as a historical theory which researched ethnic and racial inequality in colonial states. By the 1980's the theory was dismissed, but John Chavez defended Internal Colonial theory in this article.
Maile Arvin, Eve Tuck, and Angie Morrill, "Decolonizing Feminism: Challenging Connections between Settler Colonialism and Heteropatriarchy," Feminist Formations, Vol. 25, Issue 1, Spring 2013, seen at Project Muse. This article by three indigenous female scholars explored two intertwined ideas: that the United States is a settler colonial nation-state and that settler colonialism has been and continues to be a "gendered process." The authors describe historiography and perspectives of historians in these fields.
Andrea Smith, "Queer Theory and Native Studies: The Heteronormativity of Settler Colonialism," A Journal of Lesbian and Gay Studies, Vol. 16, no. 1-2, 2010, 42-68. Andrea Smith challenged Settler Colonial and Native Studies historians to include "Queer Theory" in their works.
Tate A. LeFevre, "Settler Colonialism," Oxford Bibliographies, last modified May 29, 2015. Slim bibliography of key settler colonial works with an introduction and General Overview by Tate A. LeFevre as to the definition of settler colonialism and historiography.
David Armitage, Harvard University, History, "From Colonial History to Postcolonial History: A Turn Too Far?" William and Mary Quarterly, March 26, 2007. Dr. Armitage warns of "a specter" haunting American history. That specter is Postcolonialism which historiography embraces global/world historical context, comparative history, especially as to settler colonial studies of South and Southeast Asia, Africa and the Middle East, inclusion of entire North American continent, hemispheric America, the Atlantic world, British empire for example. That postcolonial/settler colonial historiography is filled with stories of Europeans forcibly shaping indigenous peoples in those colonial regions. Armitage included fears that US History would have to be revised with a new narrative about the peoples and territories now occupied by the US.

Blogs, websites, and Journals
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal is the official journal of The International Association of Genocide Scholars founded in 1994. See another version with articles available in pdf:
Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal is the official journal of the International Association of Genocide Scholars, Scholar Commons. Read articles in pdf for this edition.
"Major Genocide Journals," Concordia University, Montreal, Canada. Institute for Genocide and Human Rights Studies.
International Network of Genocide Scholars website. See tabs at top of this page for resources and Journal.
General Genocide, Holocaust, and Human Rights Resources Links, Cummings Institute for World Justice, LLC, Woburn, Mass. Note "Rwanda" resources on left side of page. See "About Us" page with more links, resources:
Preventing Genocide Blog, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. See Home Page for Museum:
"Articles on Genocide," Genocide Watch Home Page, Genocide Watch-International Alliance to End Genocide, Washington DC. Note tabs at top of this website for more genocide resources.
Gendercide Watch website. Confronting gender-selective atrocities worldwide.
Native American and Indigenous Studies Association. Note Journal for this website and blog:
Aboriginal Perspectives, National Film Board of Canada website. See resources on left side of this page as to Canadian colonialism from an aboriginal perspective.
The Decolonial Atlas website, blog begun in 2014 to present maps which picture colonialism, settler colonialism and decolonialism.
Intercontinental Cry-A Publication for the Center for World Indigenous Studies. IC is an indigenous rights publication that strives to enrich global media ecosystem, support for Indigenous Peoples and protect the diversity of nature.
Ecocide Alert. This website was designed to support campaigns to make ecocide a crime, to highlight instances of ecocide, and to warn of potential threats of ecocide. Much on settler colonialism and genocide also. Canadian site.
Jeff Corntassel website. Dr. Corntassel, a Tsalgi (Cherokee) received PhD from the University of Arizona, 1998, and is professor in School of Indigenous Governance at the University of Victoria, Canada. Look to left of page for more resources, articles.
Wicazo Sa Review, published by University of Minnesota. See free sample issue on upper right side of this page. Journal dedicated to American "Indian past" and "relationship to the vital present." Seen at Project Muse.
Colonial and Settler Studies Network, CASS, University of Wollongong, Australia. The Colonial and Settler Studies Network promotes critical inquiry into the history, theoretical framing, and contemporary legacies of colonialism on a global scale.
Settler Colonial Studies blog and journal. Established in Melbourne, Australia in 2010 under direction of settler colonial studies historians Lorenzo Veracini and Ed Cavanagh. See home page:
Settler Colonial Studies Journal, History On-line, UK. See many articles from previous editions of Settler Colonial Studies Journal.

Note digital atlas, newspapers, and old texts from settler colonists provided by Australian, Dr. Luke Keogh, Harvard University, February 14, 2017:
Queensland Historical Atlas. Note tabs to see resources that pertain to settler colonialism and development of Australia.
This is the National Library of Australia resource and searchable. One really good source on settler information is the newspapers:

And the New Zealand papers:

There are many good sources to find here too:
You might be able to find some interesting old texts from colonists.
Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History. See abstracts to articles from 2000 to Present.
Critical Ethnic Studies-University of Minnesota Press Journal. Exploration of guiding question of critical ethnic studies and how colonial histories and ethnic studies combine.
Website. Unsettling America. Site dedicated to a "mental and territorial decolonization throughout Turtle Island and the 'Americas.' See "Settler Colonialism Primer," by Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque (June 6, 2014) which urged unsettling the Klamath River Coyuntura Colonialism and Settler Colonialism in northern California and Oregon. See "About" section from Unsettling America blog:
Post Colonial and Postimperial Literature: An Overview, Postcolonial web, created by George Landau, Professor of English and Art History, Brown University dating back to 1985.
"Subaltern Studies," Cultural Anthropology website and Journal. This page cited Cultural Anthropology contribution to Subaltern Studies.
World Postcolonial literature in English Journals, series, webpages, University of Rochester, River Campus Library. See Subaltern website.
Website/Blog. #Standing Rock Syllabus-NYC Stands with Standing Rock, November 2016. See history resources and videos of lectures on Standing Rock protests, especially #4 Standing Rock Teach In, "Gendered Violence and Settler Colonialism," with Lou Catherine Cornum.
Family and Colonialism Research Network. Website dedicated to history of families in colonial contexts. Tag Archives articles seen here are "settler colonialism." See also "Book Reviews" tab at top of page for reviews on Settler Colonialism.
Settler Colonial Art History website. Settler Art Historians from New Zealand, Australia, Canada, South Africa and US combine indigenous art with settler art.
Rebe Taylor Blog. Historian with interest in settler colonialism in Tasmania. See posts as to Ernest Westlake archived letters and journals as he traveled from England to Tasmania, March 23, 2017.
Cultural Survival website with goal of advancing indigenous people's rights and cultures worldwide. Cambridge, Mass. based.
H-Empire, H-Net online website/network for Colonial and Imperial Studies. See all of H-Net networks many of which would include settler colonial resources:
Arena Journal, Australia.
borderlands e-journal home page, Australia. Transdisciplinary research, politics, feminism, and cultural and postcolonial studies.
Southlink, Southern Perspectives online website. Originating in Australia Southern Perspectives had a network of organizations and individuals engaged in ways of thinking that are alternative to "Western Universalism" and promotion of South-South dialogue, i.e. states and individuals in the southern hemisphere. Many articles on settler colonialism.
The Journal of Retracing Africa (JORA) a peer-reviewed African studies journal, Eastern Kentucky University. One can find settler colonialism articles in editions of this journal which can be accessed online.
Mixed Race Studies website. Articles evident as to settler colonialism.
Colonial Voyage website moderated by Marco Ramerini, Firenze, Italy with "particular reference to the Portuguese and Dutch trading colonies," geographical discoveries, and settler colonies.
Aboriginal History Journal, Australia.

Teaching Syllabus
Matt Hooley, Settler Colonialism and the Environment: Violence, Culture, Resistance, online syllabus, Tufts University, American Studies 194.
Alison Bashford, etc. al, "World Environment History," syllabus, University of Cambridge, 2015. See especially Part 2, Frontiers, focus on environmental legacy of settler colonial history with resources. Note, throughout this syllabus are resources which link to settler colonialism.
J. M. Bacon, "Decolonizing Environmental Justice," Syllabus, University of Oregon, 2016. Focus on course is studying how indigenous peoples have been harmed by settler colonial damage to the ecology and building coalitions and alliances to defend and protect the environment.
Dr. Miranda Johnson, "His 600 Settler Colonialism at Work," syllabus, University of Wisconsin, Spring 2011. See another version of this syllabus which focused on comparing settler colonialism in New Zealand and Wisconsin in the 19th century:
Adam Gaudry, "The Indigenous-State Relationship," IGOV 383, University of Victoria, Fall 2011. Dr. Gaudry's course, Indigenous Governance (IGOV) focused on Canadian colonial relationship with reference to other settler colonial histories and colonial and Imperialism over the last 500 years and its effects on Indigenous peoples and Canadians today.
Circe Sturm, "The Politics and Conditions of Indigeneity," Anthropology, University of Texas, Austin, Fall 2012. World relationships of Indigenous peoples with their respective settler state.
Leena Dallasheh, "Comparative Conflict: Palestine-Israel, Algeria, South Africa, and (Northern) Ireland," Syllabus, Oberlin College, Spring 2012. Focus on settler colonialism in the four regions in a comparative fashion.
Gary Marquardt, Westminster College, Syllabus, "Homelands and Contested Spaces, History Topics Course," Spring 2012. Settler states of US, Australia, and South Africa, 1600-Present, and their reservations and indigenous homelands. How do settler ancestors and indigenous populations see and experience these spaces today?
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, "Themes in World History: Settler Colonialism," syllabus, McGill University, May 2014.
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, syllabi, History, University of Ottawa. See Dr. Ruck's syllabi many dealing with settler colonialism, 2014-2017.
Dr. Daniel Rueck/Ruck, "Seminar in Aboriginal Studies: Settler Colonialism and Indian Law in Canada," syllabus, University of Ottawa, Canada, Winter 2017.
Ramona Beatty, Course Outline for Indigenous Studies 397, Parallel Narratives: The Stories of Canadian First Nations, Metis, Inuit (Aboriginal), and Settlers-Past and Present, University of Calgary, Canada, Spring 2014. Course focused on key debates within field of Indigenous and Settler Colonial Studies.
Emilie Pigeon, York University, Canada, "Indigenous Responses to Settler Colonialism in Canada," syllabus, Institute of Canada and Aboriginal Studies, York University, Winter 2015. The Canadian state has long relied on the mechanisms of settler colonialism to impose its will on indigenous peoples within its territory through borders, policies, settler narratives and violence.
Steven Williams, "Surviving America: Introduction to Native Studies," syllabus, Oberlin University, Indigenous peoples of North America and effects of settler colonialism from indigenous perspective. Misrepresentations and mistreatment of Native Peoples under settler colonial society.
Kathleen DuVal, "Native North America," syllabus, University of North Carolina, Fall 2009. Course focus on North American Indian peoples and their encounters with one another, Europeans, and Africans from early times to the 21st century.
Emilie Cameron, "Empire and Colonialism," Syllabus, Draft, Geography and Environmental Studies, Carleton College, Winter 2016.
Abaki Beck, Syllabi-POC Online Classroom, last updated October 10, 2016. Abaki Beck, Blackfeet & Red River Metis, moderated this online classroom site focused on Native Lives Matter and teaching the history and effects of Settler Colonialism in the Americas.
NYC Stands with Standing RockCollective, 2016. "#Standing Rock Syllabus." See resources on US settler colonial history, timeline, readings in context of Standing Rock protest of Dakota Pipeline.
Paul Hadweh, Course Facilitator, Dr. Hatem Bazian, Faculty Sponsor, "Palestine: A Settler Colonial Analysis," syllabus, University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2016. See more on this course below:
Jillian D'Amours, "UC Berkeley reinstates course on settler colonialism in Palestine," Middle East Eye, September 19, 2016. Political pressure had caused a decision to suspend the course. See Course description/syllabus for that reinstated course:
"Palestine: A Settler Colonial Analysis," Ethnic Studies course description, University of California, Berkeley, Fall 2016.
Arnon Degani, UCLA, California, History, Middle East, "Syllabus: 'This Land is my Land': Global Histories of Settler Colonialism," Introduction to Historical Methods, Fall 2016. Object of seminar is to explore the global historical phenomenon of settler colonialism and gain an understanding of the relatively new interdisciplinary field of settler colonial studies.
Ashley Greene, Holocaust and Genocide Studies, "The Global History of Genocide," Syllabus, Keene State College. Main text: Ben Kiernan, Blood and Soil: A World History of Genocide and Extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, 2007. Course covered question "Is Genocide natural?" Chimpanze behavior, Genocide in Hebrew Bibl, Spanish conquest, Asia, Herero genocide in German East Africa, Holocaust, Latin America, Gender and Sexuality.
Professor Dirk Moses, European University Institute, Syllabus, Genocide in Global Perspective, Seminar, Autumn/Spring 2010-2011. A comparative study of genocide over the last 250 years.
Jobb Arnold, "Genocide, War, and Conflict," Syllabus, Menno Simons College, University of Winnipeg, posted as Teaching Genocide Studies, International Association of Genocide Scholars website.

Global Settler Colonialism

Figure 1
  Figure 1: Image source from article below
Nuunja Kahina, "Indigenous Settler Decolonization and the Politics of Exile," Intercontinental Cry-Journal of the Center for World Indigenous Studies, May 28, 2013. Slim article summarizing all indigenous struggle against settler colonialism.
Danielle Celermajer, Human Rights, University of Sydney, "A Nation Apologizes for Wrongdoing-Is that a mistake?" Aeon (website) April 3, 2017. General essay on the notion of nations apologizing for wrong doing. Note photo of British apology to Kenyans for abuses during the Mau Mau uprising in Kenya aimed at fighting British settler colonialism.
JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz, "Academic Space and the Cambodian Genocide," World History Bulletin, Vol. XXX, no. 1, Spring 2014. Uploaded to Academia by JoAnn DiGeorgio-Lutz. This upload contained entire Special Section, "Genocide in World History," five articles seen in pages 5-25 of this edition of the World History Bulletin, including Lutz's Cambodian article. Note, especially, first article by Mohamed Adhikari, University of Cape Town, "Settler Colonialism and Genocide: When Hunter-Gatherers and Commercial Stock Farmers Clash," 5-9. Adhikari noted that in his global research on this subject, specifically, 17th-18th century Dutch cattle farmers and Cape San hunter gatherers, that "settler colonial confrontations-those in which livestock farmers linked to the global capitalist markets clashed with hunter-gathers-were particularly catastrophic..." See slim review of Adhikari's comparative research globally as to hunter gatherers and settler commercial livestock farmers:
Book Review. Henning Melber, Settler Colonialism and Genocide: When Hunter-Gatherers and Commercial Stock Farmers Clash," Cape Town: UCT Press, 2015, 356 pages, Africa Spectrum 2, 2015, 137-139 seen in University of Hamburg, Germany Journal. Note Norbert Finzsch monograph below disagreeing with genocide and ecocide thesis:
Norbert Finzsch, University of Cologne, Germany, "'The intrusion therefore of cattle is by itself sufficient to produce the extirpation of the native race,'" Settler Colonial Studies, 2015 uploaded to Academia by Norbert Finzsch. The complete title of this work was "'The intrusion therefore of cattle is by itself sufficient to produce the extirpation of the native race': Social Ecological Systems and ecocide in conflict between Hunter-Gathers and commercial stock farmers in Australia." Dr. Finzsch stated that Settler colonialism should be referenced as "Settler Imperialism" and that charging commercial stock farmers with genocide or ecocide is too strong of an indictment. He cited "Social Ecological Systems" definitions and theory to claim that the farmers were not out to destroy the indigenous hunter-gatherers but unknowingly changed the biological habitats in Australia and Africa.
James Hughes, "Genocide and ethnic conflict," London School of Economics Research Online, 2010 originally seen in Karl Cordell and Stefan Wolff, eds., "Routledge Handbook of ethnic conflict," 2010.
Google Book. Edward Cavanagh and Lorenzo Veracini, eds., Routledge Handbook of the History of Settler Colonialism, Routledge, 2016, 486 pages. Beginning in ancient times this settler colonial handbook focused on Australia, New Zealand, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Liberia, Algeria, Canada, and the USA.
"Terra nullius," Wikipedia. Latin expression derived from Roman law meaning "nobody's land," which was used over time by, especially, European nations to claim indigenous land and "legally" control that land as property.
Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Giraldez, "Born with a 'Silver Spoon': The Origins of World Trade in 1571," Journal of World History, Vol. 6, no. 2, 1995. Settler colonialism in a big picture definition began in earliest times as humans moved, migrated to "settle" other regions. Flynn and Giraldez set the stage, context, for global colonialism, migrations, settler colonialism in our modern world.
John Docker, Australian Intellectual, "Raphael Lemkin's History of Genocide and colonialism," Paper presented to United States Holocaust Museum Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, Washington DC, February 26, 2004. Raphael Lemkin was a Polish-Jewish jurist (1900-1959) who linked settler colonialism, colonialism and genocide. John Docker and others had asked in their own works if settler colonialism was inherently genocidal?
Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque, "Settler Colonialism Primer," Unsettling America blog, June 6, 2014. Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque support Unsettling the Klamath River Coyuntura Colonialism and Settler Colonialism movements. Much of their article placed indigenous people in context of global colonialism and defined types of colonialism including settler colonialism. "Settler Colonialism sees "land, not labor, [as] key" and the indigenous people "are erased."
David Jefferess, University of British Columbia, Critical Studies, "Introduction to Settler Melankelownia, Colonialism, Memory and Heritage in the Okanagan," Cultural Studies course, University of British Columbia, Winter term 2013-2014. Uploaded to Academia by David Jefferess. Student poetry, graphic texts, essays, articles about cultural aspects of European colonialism in the Americas, Caribbean, Africa, and South Asia including settler colonist stories about themselves and about the 'others' they "discovered and colonized." See more resources from David Jefferess at
Christopher Lloyd, and Jacob Metzer, "Settler Economies in World History," Settler Colonization and Societies in History: Patterns and Concepts," XIVth International Economic History Congress, Helsinki, Finland, August 21-25, 2006, Session 97. A description of settler colonization in world history over time branching away from the original historiographic rigor of settler colonization being locked into British settler colonization in North America, Australia, New Zealand, Dutch in South Africa, Spain in Latin-South America. Lloyd and Metzer describe other settler colonial history outside this framework focusing on an economic analysis.
Chapter 1, Christopher Lloyd and Jacob Metzer, "Settler Colonialism and Societies in World History: Patterns and Concepts," 1-34, in Lloyd, Metzer, and Richard Sutch, eds., "Settler Economies in World History," Leiden and Boston: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2012). See Table of contents for that book. Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Metzer define settler colonialism and cite case studies in world history as an introduction to book. See Google eBook:
Christopher Lloyd, "Institutional Patterns of Settler Societies: Hybridized Political Economies and Civil Societies on Parallel and Convergent Paths? The Common Institutional Pattern of the Settler Societies," Chapter 19 in Lloyd, Jacob Metzer, and Richard Sutch, eds., Settler Economies in World History, Leiden and Boston: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2012, 545-578. Christopher Lloyd in this chapter described how settler societies developed economic and institutions across the settler world.
Isabel Altamirano-Jimenez, University of Alberta, Political Science and Native Studies, "Indigenous Encounters with Neoliberalism: Place, Women, and the Environment in Canada and Mexico," University of British Columbia Press, 2013. A comparative and case study approach to describing indigenous, especially women, responses to neoliberal settler colonialism. Altamirano-Jimenez used 4 case studies, two from each country, Nunavut and Nisaga's in Canada and Zapatista Caracoles in Chiapas and Zapotec Juchitan in Mexico to compare indigenous responses to settler colonialism and neoliberal states. Plus, University of British Columbia Press included a link to a sample chapter, 24 page pdf.
Keith Windschuttle, "In Defense of Colonialism," American Outlook, Sagamore Institute, August 1, 2002. Keith Windschuttle defended Western settler colonialism based on a thesis which stated, "Rather than feel guilty about the legacy of Western colonialism, modern-day Westerners should recognize that it made the world a better place." American Outlook is journal published by Indianapolis, Indiana think tank, the Sagamore Institute. This digital resource could have easily been placed in earlier section on Historiography.
"Lorenzo Veracini's response to the skepticism of Tequila Sovereign," Settler Colonial Studies, April 20, 2011. Dr. Veracini, Swinburne University Institute for Social Research responded to a critique of settler colonialism as interpretative category and paradigm by a blogger named "Tequila Sovereign." See two responses to this defense at bottom of this slim comment by Patrick Wolfe and Tobold Rollo. A sample of Veracini's reply: "Tequila Sovereign identifies a clearly discernible scholarly trend: after the publication of Patrick Wolfe's Settler Colonialism and the Transformation of Anthropology (1999), several books and articles have developed settler colonialism as an interpretative category. Sovereign contends that this debate displaces "imperialism", "colonialism" and "nation-state" as paradigms and she is not ready to let them go (even though I am not sure whether anyone has asked her to do so). Settler colonialism is not unique (or "specific", see below), the conceptual categories that were used until what could be defined as the "settler colonial turn" were perfectly capable, she argues, of appraising what happens when people move somewhere else and decide to stay and found a new political order. Sovereign is also of the opinion that anticolonial and anti-imperialist rhetorics are more effective in supporting the struggles for indigenous self-determination and empowerment. This is fair enough, except that no scholar of settler colonialism (that is, not a single one) has ever said that "imperialism" or "colonialism" should be considered useless concepts, or suggested the language indigenous militancy should or should not use (Sovereign indeed overstates settler colonial studies' capacity to displace). If anything, the study of settler colonialism as a specific formation aims to expand the available conceptual toolbox, certainly not to restrict it."
Book Review. Eric Richards, Flinders University, South Australia, James Belich, "Replenishing the Earth: The Settler Revolution and the Rise of the Anglo-World, 1783-1939," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009, 592 pages seen in Reviews of History, UK. A "grand" perspective of US and British settler colonialism.
John Hinkson's, Introduction to Arena Journal Editorial, "Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler Colonial Present," Arena Journal, Issue 37/38, 2012. Note Hinkson's comparative as to Adolph Hitler's settler colonialism of Slavs to the East and US westward colonialism of the American indigenous peoples.
Note 3 part series by Pan African author Chinweizu, Nigeria, comparing Arab and European effects on Africa. Chinweizu has 3 strands within his comparative: 1.) Racism, 2.) Enslavement of Blacks, 3.) Colonialism.
"Comparative Digest [1] Racism: Arab and European Compared, Pan India Hindu blog, May 1, 2014.
"Comparative Digest [2] Black Enslavement: Arab and European Compared," Pan India Hindu blog, May 3, 2014. Part 2 of three-part comparative digest series in which Nigerian Pan Africanist author Chinweizu discussed African historical comparatives between Arab and European colonialism.
"Colonialism: Arab & European Compared," Secular African blog, July 12, 2014. Part 3 of Comparative by Pan African writer Chinweizu, Nigeria, on Arab and European colonialism.
Felipe Garzo Montalvo and Haleh Zandi, "The Modern/Colonial Food System in a Paradigm of War," Planting Justice, nd. Settler Colonialism and destruction and control of indigenous culture's food and crops.
Gender, Women & Sexuality Studies, University of Minnesota Humanities digital e-learning modules. See first module "Empire" which focused on Orientalism, Settler Colonialism and imperialism.
Anne Hickling-Hudson, Julie Matthews and Annette Woods, "Disrupting Preconceptions: Postcolonialism and Education," Post Pressed flaxton, 2003 seen in Research Gate. 264 page book with essays on settler colonialism, postcolonialism and education globally using case studies as examples.
Amanda Dominguez-Chio, "District 9: A Post-Colonial Analysis," The Artifice, June 9, 2014. Sci-Fi film, District 9 as a settler colonial history. Neil Blomkamp directed film narrated the story of an alien invasion where humans treat the "invaders" as the Other.
Nancy Shoemaker, University of Connecticut, History, "A Typology of Colonialism," Perspectives on History, news magazine of American Historical Association, October 2015. Slim article describing settler colonialism and other 'types' of colonialism.
Patrick Wolfe, "Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 8, no. 4, (December 2006), 387-409. Settler colonialism and genocide are often linked in world history. Dr. Wolfe compared Australia, Israel-Palestine, and US settler colonialism.
Patrick Wolfe, "Recuperating Binarism: a heretical introduction," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 3-04, (2013), 257-279. Patrick Wolfe described his thesis as to settler colonial societies eventual goal of eliminating the native and attacks from binary Western thought, but claimed not one native historian or source has criticized or objected to his elimination thesis.
"Wolfe, Patrick," Global Social Theory, Slim article on Patrick Wolfe, Australian anthropologist and ethnographer whose work sparked a surge in studies of settler colonial societies. Short summary with questions as to Wolfe's theories on colonialism and effects on natives.
Ana Levy, Review, "Patrick Wolfe Traces of History: Elementary Structures of Race, Verso, 2016," New Books Network, November 7, 2016. Slim review by Ana Levy on Patrick Wolfe's, settler colonial historian who famously stated that settler colonialism is "a structure, not an event," new book published just before his passing, February 2016. Dr. Wolfe had continued his analysis of settler colonialism via a comparative approach using five cases: Australia, Brazil, Europe, North America, and Palestine/Israel. See, also, at bottom of this page a 48:39 audio podcast interview of Patrick Wolfe with colleagues Aziz Rana, Professor of Law, Cornell University Law School and Lynette Russel, Anthropologist and Indigenous historian, Director, Monash Indigenous Centre, Monash University. See review from Mixed Race Studies, December 1, 2016:
Book Review. Adam Shatz, "Where Life is Seized," review of Frantz Fanon, 'Ecrits l'alienation et la liberte,' eds. Robert Young and Jean Khalfa, la Decouverte, October 2015, 688 in London Review of Books, Vol. 39, no. 2, January 19, 2017. Frantz Fanon has been recognized as preaching resistance in the face of settler colonialism, colonialism, and Imperialism, but some claim violence was never Fanon's remedy for the Third World; it was a rite of passage for colonized communities and individuals who become mentally ill. . . as a result of the settler-colonial project saturated with violence and racism. Remember, Fanon was a psychologist who observed the Algerian Civil War against France in the 1950's.
Erin Hurt, University of Texas, Austin, "The Shape of Resistance Literature," E3W Review of Books, Vol. 8, Spring 2008. E3W is Ethnic and Third World Literature website at University of Texas, Austin. Erin Hurt reviewed foundational text in the field of postcolonial writing, Barbara Harlow's Resistance Literature, broke new ground in western literary studies. Harlow had asked for more serious consideration of previously ignored Third World texts which she claimed was an "arena of struggle" for people who seek liberation from oppressive settler colonialism and colonial rule. See example of Harlow's writing as to Palestinians, Spring 1987:
Barbara Harlow, "Narratives of Resistance," New Formations, number 1, Spring 1987. Essay written in context of remembering Frantz Fanon. Harlow described Palestinian struggles against neo-colonial states.
William Grimes, "Barbara Harlow, Scholar on Perils of Resistance Writing, Dies at 68," NY Times, February 9, 2017. Harlow supported more Third World narratives to add insights into postcolonial history and the fight against settler colonialism.
Lorenzo Veracini, Queen Elizabeth II Fellow, Swinburne University of Technology, Melbourne, "Introduction-The Settler Colonial Situation," in Settler Colonialism: A Theoretical Overview, Palgrave Connect, 2010. Dr. Veracini defined settler colonialism and explained nuances between immigration, colonization and settler colonialism.
Jesse Curtis, PhD candidate, Temple University, Philadelphia, "A Settler Colonial Global History," Jesse Curtis blog, April 6, 2016. Jesse Curtis argued that settler colonial studies can allow for a revised history of indigenous peoples and American, African and global history across the 19th and 20th centuries. Curtis "sketches" what that history would look like.
"Settler Colonialism," CiCo3, 2016. Blog posts on settler colonialism such as John Brown, October 28, 2016, being most recent and posts/articles on Zionism, the Herero and Nama Genocide by Germans, French, Detroit, Algeria, Palestine: A Specter of Settler Colonialism, Patrick Wolfe eulogy with links to his works on settler colonialism, and more.
J. Kehaulani Kauani, "A Structure, Not an Event: Settler Colonialism and Enduring Indigeneity," Forum-Alt Humanities: Settler Colonialism, Enduring Indigeneity, Lateral, Journal of the Cultural Studies Association, Emergent Critical Analysis for Alt Humanities, Issue 5, No. 1, Spring 2016. Slim article prepared for Alt Humanities Forum described Patrick Wolfe (see above article) discussion of genocide done via settler colonialism, especially in Australia, Israel-Palestine and US and his phrase which noted that "system" as "a structure, not an event."
Awad Issa Mansour, "Orientalism, Total War and the Production of Settler Colonialism Existence: The United States, Australia, Apartheid South Africa, and the Zionist Case," PhD thesis presented to University of Exeter, UK, February 2011. Awad Issa Mansour's thesis stated that settler colonialism is "total war" on the indigenous peoples with the US, Australia, and Apartheid South Africa as case studies. Zionist Israel is viewed as an ongoing, current model of settler colonialism.
Daniel Geiger, "Turner in the Tropics: The Frontier Concept Revisited," PhD dissertation, University of Luzern, December 9, 2009. Daniel Geiger challenged Frederick Turner's Frontier "myth" and used case studies of indigenous peoples and settlers in South and Southeast Asia to discuss boundaries, state border, borderlands, frontiers, settler nations and the ethnic other in a sweeping dissertation of 227 pages.
Book reviews. Tom Laichas, Crossroads School, Santa Monica, California, Senior Editor World History Connected, Book Review, World History Connected, Vol. 12, no. 1, February 2015. Mr. Laichas reviewed Elkins and Peterson, eds., Settler Colonialism in the Twentieth Century, Routledge, 2005, 303 pages, Lloyd, Metzer, Smith, eds., Settler Economies in World History, Brill 2013, 605 pages, and Pilkington and Bateman, eds., Studies in Settler Colonialism: Politics, Identity, and Culture, Palgrave MacMillan, 2011, 307 pages. Note comment as to slim use of settler colonialism studies in our current historiographies and curriculums and reason why.
Julia Sherwood, "A Dispatch from European Literature Days 2016: On Colonialism and Literature, Asymptote Journal blog, December 5, 2016. Cultural appropriation and colonialism in world literature discussed and described by global authors.
Eve Tuck, State University of New York and University of Toronto, "Neoliberalism as nihilism? A commentary on education accountability, teacher education, and school reform," Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2013. Eve Tuck described market driven neoliberalism as an extension of settler colonialism and its effect on teacher education globally.
Angie Morrill, U. of California, Davis and Program Director of Indian Education, Portland Public Schools, Eve Tuck, and the Super Futures Haunt Collective, "Before Dispossession or Surviving it," Liminalities: A Journal of Performance Studies, Vol. 12, no. 1, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Angie Morrill.
A quote caught my eye from this interesting article: "Settler Colonialism societies are haunted by the host of gone peoples..."
Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, eds., University of Queensland, Australia, "Post Colonial Drama-Theory, practice and politics," London and New York: Routledge, 1996, seen in blog. Tompkins and Gilbert described "methods by which post-colonial drama resists imperialism and its effects," in other words how drama was "Re-Acting" to Empire and "settler-invader colonies." 335 page pdf.
Deane Williams, review, "Making Settler Cinemas: Film and Colonial Encounters in the US, Australia, and New Zealand," by Peter Limbrick, Palgrave MacMillan, 2010 seen in Screening the Past, August 2011. See Table of Contents and Introduction from Peter Limbrick's book below:
Table of contents and Introduction to Peter Limbrick, "Making Settler Cinemas: Film and Colonial Encounters in the US, Australia, and New Zealand," Palgrave MacMillan, 2010.
"Lorenzo Veracini on settler colonialism," Southern Perspectives, October 22, 2010. Australian based website which encouraged dialogue between peoples in southern hemispheres including Settler Colonial topics.
Taiaiake Alfred and Jeff Corntassel, "Being Indigenous: Resurgences Against Contemporary Colonialism," Chapter in Politics of Identity, Government and Opposition Ltd, Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK and Malden, MA., 2005, 598-614, an ongoing series edited by Rich Bellamy. Posted on Jeff Corntassel blog. Taiaiake Alfred and Corntassel discussed resurgent politics against colonial governments in Canada, US, Latin America and elsewhere. See Jeff Corntassel site:
Corey Snelgrove, University of British Columbia, Rita Kaur Dhamoon, University of Victoria, and Jeff Corntassel, University of Victoria, "Unsettling Settler Colonialism: The discourse and politics of settlers and solidarity with Indigenous Nations," originally seen in Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, Vol. 3, no. 2, (2014), 1-32, posted in NYC Stands with Standing Rock blog, October 2016. Original comments on all citizens standing together to rid global culture of settler colonial racism, education, history by a Cherokee man, Corntassel, white male, Snelgrove, and woman of Sikh heritage, Dhamoon.
Scott Lauria Morgensen, Department of Gender Studies, Queen's University, "Theorizing Gender, Sexuality and Settler Colonialism: An Introduction," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 2, (2012), 2-7, in Special Issue: Karangatia: Calling Out Gender and Sexuality in Settler Societies, downloaded to, December 16, 2016. Focus of this Introduction to Special Issue is Canada and the US, but references are made to Australia, New Zealand, Palestine.
Desley Deacon, The Australian National University, Emeritus, History, "Review of Margaret D. Jacobs, White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940," Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press, 2009, seen in Australasian Journal of Victorian Studies, Vol. 18, no. 1, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Desley Deacon.
Trish Luker, University of Queensland, Book Review, Margaret D. Jacobs, "White Mother to a Dark Race: Settler Colonialism, Maternalism and the Removal of Indigenous Children in the American West and Australia, 1880-1940," University of Nebraska Press, 2009, in International Journal of Critical Indigenous Studies, Vol. 3, no. 1, 2010.
Maile Arvin, "The Future is Indigenous: Decolonizing Thanksgiving," Truth out, Nov. 24, 2016. In context of Thanksgiving think about settler colonialism, colonial myths, decolonizing and indigenous people looking to the future.
Tate A. LeFevre, "Settler Colonialism-Anthropology," Oxford Bibliographies, last modified May 29, 2015. Slim bibliography of anthropologist perspectives as to settler colonialism.
Bibliography (16 pages) from Zoe Laidlaw and Alan Lester, eds., Indigenous Communities and Settler Colonialism, Palgrave Macmillan, 2015. Many entries are from subaltern and native perspectives. See Laidlaw and Lester google book below:
Google book. Zoe Laidlaw and Alan Lester, eds., "Indigenous Communities and Settler Colonialism: Land Holding, Loss and Survival in an Interconnected World," Palgrave Macmillan, 2015.
Fiona Bateman and Lionel Pilkington, eds., Studies in Settler Colonialism-Politics, Identity and Culture, Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. See Palgrave Macmillan publisher table of contents and Introduction for this book.
Introductory chapter, Tracey Banivanua Mar, La Trobe University, Australia, and Penelope Edmonds, University of Melbourne, eds., "Making Space in Settler Colonies," 1-24 in Making Settler Colonial Space-Perspectives on Race, Place and Identity, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010. Only Introduction is seen in this digital resource, but book included settler colonial essays about Antarctic, Australia, New South Wales, British Columbia, New Zealand settler colonialism and a chapter, "Indigenous Music as a Space of Resistance," by Crystal McKinnon.
Eric Tagliacozzo, Cornell University, Book Review, Robert Peckham, ed., "Empires of Panic-Epidemic and Colonial Anxieties,"Hong Kong University Press, 2016, in Asia Pacific Perspectives, Vol. 14, No. 1, Fall 2016, 119-120. Peckham collected essays about pandemic disease as perceived by Europeans and settler colonists in 19th-20th century India, Dutch Indonesia, and 19th century China. Book not exactly focused on settler colonialism theme, but an area, disease, that should be considered.
Luise White, University of Florida, Gainseville, Book Reviews. "Sex, Soap, and Colonial Studies, Journal of British Studies, nd., 479-486 posted in Anne McClintock's University of Wisconsin English Department site. Colonial studies linked to settler colonialism as Dr. White stated in this review of 5 books, "colonialism came to be seen as a moment of forced cultural exchange."
Beenash Jafri, PhD thesis, York University, Toronto, Ontario, "Brown Cowboys on Film: Race, Heteronormativity and Settler Colonialism," York Space, July 2014. Settler colonialism as depicted in global film.
See articles on Indigenous reconciliation and settler colonialism as to US, Sami in northern Finland, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, The Conversation, May 2016. Series in line with Settler colonialism theme.
Jesse Curtis, Temple University, Philadelphia, PhD student, "walk on: A Settler Colonial Global History," Jesse Curtis blog, April 6, 2016. On September 13, 2007, the UN approved the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples with over-whelming support from member states. Four dissenting votes from US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, all genocidal settler colonial states with policies which have injured indigenous populations over time.
"Unit One: Settler Colonialism, Indigenous Peoples, and Genocide," 10:11 You Tube video, Gratz College, Philadelphia, PA., Jewish Studies College, published August 29, 2015. Introductory power point and supplemental video lecture for this course. One can see other Gratz College power points and video lectures below, plus, one can google "Gratz College You Tube Videos, Settler Colonialism, indigenous Peoples, and Genocide" for more of these resources.
"Module 1: Settler Colonialism," 18:13 Video lecture, Gratz College, published August 29, 2015. Module 1 focused on two Patrick Wolfe articles on Settler Colonialism.
Jeff Benvenuto, "Native American Genocides," 13:15 You Tube Video, Gratz College, Fall 2015, published August 28, 2015. Power point for this course.
Native American Genocides, Class 5, Nazi Holocaust and Colonial Genocide Studies, REVISE2," 45:06 You Tube Video, Gratz College, published February 10, 2014. Another power point for this course.
Book Review. Guy Lancaster, "Review of Redefining Genocide: Settler Colonialism, Social Death and Ecocide," by Damien Short, London: ZED Books, 2016, 261 pages. Academic Council on the United Nations System, ACUNS, September 27, 2016. Settler colonialism as an attack on the totality of indigenous existence including the environment and social structures.
Book Review. Michael S. Bryant, Bryant University, Review of John Cox, "To Kill a People: Genocide in the Twentieth Century," New York: Oxford University Press, 2017, 215 pages, seen in World History Connected, Vol. 14, no. 1 (February 2017). Dr. Bryant highly recommended this genocide history for courses on Genocide in 20th century world history.

Africa Settler Colonialism

An Overview:
Leander Heldring and James A. Robinson, "Colonialism and Economic Development in Africa," Working Paper, National Bureau of Economic Research, November 2012. Heldring and Robinson analyzed legacy of settler colonialism and colonialism on Sub-Saharan Africa and concluded that colonialism had a negative effect on Africa.
Groups=&sortBy=&search_within _results=&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX
"Colonialism and Imperialism," New Encyclopedia of Africa, edited by John Milleton and Joseph C. Miller, 2nd ed., Vol. 1, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008, 467-484, World History in Context, Gale Group. This entry on African Colonialism and Imperialism is broken into sections, "Overview," an introduction and historiography, "African Experience," each with bibliographies.
Ehiedu E. G. Iweriebor, Hunter College, "The Colonization of Africa," Africana Age-Africa and African Diaspora-Transformation in the 20th Century, Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, New York Public Library. Between 1870 and 1900 Africa faced European imperialist aggression, diplomatic pressures and settler colonialism.

African history through African Eyes-Videos.
The Story of Africa: Early History, 1:48:41 You Tube video. See more videos in this series on right side of this page.

Note part 20 in this series:
27:08 video, "Life under Colonization-Between the World Wars, 1914-1945," The Story of Africa, Pt. 20, June 28, 2016. African voices remember European colonialism.

Other Digital Resources:
Dominik J. Schaller, "Raphael Lemkin's view of European colonial rule in Africa: between condemnation and admiration," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 7, no. 4, (December 2005), 531-538. Polish-Jewish specialist in international law (1950-1959) had many unpublished works on settler colonialism and genocide throughout the world. Dominik J. Schaller described his thoughts on European colonial and settler colonialism in Africa.
Ewout Frankema, University of Wageningen, Netherlands, Erik Green, Lund University, Sweden, and Ellen Hillbom, Lund University, "Endogenous Process of Colonial Settlement: The Success and Failure of European Settler Farming in Sub-Saharan Africa," 10th New Frontiers in African Economic History Workshop, Wageningen University, October 30-31, 2015. This paper presented three comparative case studies, West, East, and South Africa, to describe and analyze the confrontations between European settler farming and indigenous African farming. The workshop at Mageningen University was focused on the question, "Is Africa Growing out of Poverty? An Economic Transition in Historical Perspective."
"The Maji Maji Rebellion," Violence in Twentieth Century Africa scholar blog, Emory University. See other tabs for more resources many linked to settler colonialism. This slim resource describes the background to Maji Maji rebellion against German settler colonialism in East Africa.
Module Eleven, Activity Six, Exploring Africa, Michigan State University. Lesson module revolving around Magi Magi revolt against German settler colonialism in East Africa. Read play, Kinjeketile by Ebrahim M. Hussein, Tanzanian author about that 1904-1905 rebellion and its leader Kinjeketile Ngwale.
Timothy Mitchell, "Colonising Egypt," Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991, 218 pages, University of California E-Books Collection 1982-2004. Entire book on-line. Dr. Mitchell extended deconstructive theory to historical and political analysis to examine the peculiarity of Western conceptions of order and truth through a re-reading of Europe's colonial encounter with 19th century Egypt. See review of book:
"The Empty Land Myth," South African History online, last updated May 11, 2016. British and Afrikaner settler colonial identity and perspective in 19th century South Africa. The Empty land or Vacant Land Theory was a theory propagated by European settlers in nineteenth century South Africa to support their claims to land.
Laura J. Mitchell, University of California, Irvine, "Kinship and Identity: A van der Merwe Story," Chapter 5 in Belongings-Property, Family, and Identity in colonial South Africa, An Exploration of Frontiers, 1725-c. 1830," Columbia University Press, 2008, Gutenberg-eHome. Marriage norms in Cape Town South African settler society.
Rodney Harrison, University College, London, Archaeology and Lotte Hughes, Senior Research Fellow, The Open University, Chapter 7, "Heritage, colonialism and postcolonialism," in Understanding the Politics of Heritage, Rodney Harrison, ed., Manchester University Press, UK, Understanding Global Heritage series, 2009, 234-269, 238 pages. This essay based on Lotte Hughes research comparing settler colonial and administrative colonial perspectives with indigenous Kenyan perspectives as to colonial and postcolonial history in Kenya. In the conclusion of this chapter, these alternative narratives are referenced as "indigenous people in former settler colonial and local communities in Kenya have challenged centralized, state-led initiatives to create 'safe' or unifying narratives...of the past."
Cassidy Flood, "African Women's Role in Resistance Against Colonization," The Classic Journal, March 23, 2016 seen in University of Georgia education post. Settler colonists and English colonization attempts to westernize Africa failed to acknowledge African women and their substantial role in society. The English colonizers projected their misogynistic gender onto a complex society in an attempt to plant capitalism in African soil. Note reference to Mau Mau in Cassidy Flood's essay. One could read colonial protest "Song for Murang'a Women" (Kenyan Song), ca. 1950, below:
Source: Todd Shepard, Voices of Decolonization-A Brief History with Documents, Bedford, 2015, 73-74.

"As women of Kikuyu, we were taken to Murang'a
Because we had refused to have our cows and
goats vaccinated.
And upon refusing, we were all imprisoned.

Our children cried a lot as they had no milk to suckle.
Oh God, we beseech you to emancipate us from this slavery.

When we got to prison, they dressed us in white uniforms
And asked us, "Are you the movement that is
demanding freedom?"

Many patriots who were already in prison gathered at
the entrance to our cell
Because they were shocked to hear our children wailing.

After dressing us, they moved us to Tambarare
[lowland area].
There we found fellow patriots, who were moved
away as soon as we arrived.

We fell asleep, and just before dawn porridge was
brought in a bucket.
There was nothing to drink from, and so we drank it
from our hands.

And when it was 8 a.m., we saw soldiers in formations.
They ordered us to quickly start clearing the grass
that was around us.
Kikuyu music and dance-Traditional Music & Cultures of Kenya, Blue gecko. Scroll down page to see Kikuyu resistance songs to British colonialism.
"Colonialism in Kenya," Source Watch. Wikipedia style entry as to Kenyan resistance to settler colonialism and British colonialism which lasted roughly 68 years until independence in 1963.
Ashley Sanders, "Between Two Fires: The Origins of Settler Colonialism in the United States and French Algeria," Claremont University publishing, PhD dissertation, Michigan State University, May 2015.
Lee Lawrence, Review, "Picturing Algeria," Aramco World, March 2017. Slide share style review of Pierre Bourdieu, Picturing Algeria, Columbia University Press, 2012 described Bourdieu's sociological description of 1950's Algeria documented and annotated by photographs. Settler Colonialism, documentary photography, social science all a part of this Photo exhibit of 1950's Algeria.
Fiona Barclay, Charlotte Ann Chopin, and Martin Evans, "Introduction: Settler Colonialism and French Algeria," Settler Colonial Studies, (January 12, 2017), 1-16, seen in Taylor and Francis Publishing online. Paper divided into abstract, 1830-1870 invasion, annexation and the military regime, 1870-1908 consolidation of settler authority, and 1908-1945 rise of Algerian nationalism.
Elodie Saubatte, Paris Institute of Advanced Study, Workshop description. "French Algeria in Comparative Perspective: A Specific form of Settler Colonialism?" H-Net, May 21, 2016. Note slim description of settler colonialism in French Algeria with workshop presentation topics, titles which could be of interest.
Christine Whyte, Review, Bronwen Everill, "Abolition and Empire in Sierra Leone and Liberia," Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012, 248 pages in Reviews in History, UK, February 2013. Comparative as to West African settler colonialism in Sierra Leone and Liberia.
Aparna Venkat, "Colonialism in aChebe's Things Fall Apart," Creative Writing blog, October 19, 2014. Aparna Venkat, MA in English, posted this analysis of Achebe's novel set in the context of European settler colonialism in Igbo West Africa. Note comparison to "stereotypical" settler colonial perspectives and attitudes from Joseph Conrad's "The Heart of Darkness," 1899, and 1952 Mister Johnson.
Obododimma Oha, "Oduche, Chinua Achebe's character in Arrow of God, Writes to His Father," X-pens blog, March 10, 2017. Oduche explained in the letter about the white man settler colonialism and his schooling. Obododimma Oha is an online English teacher, English Communications Polytechnic of Namibia. See resources for Arrow of God, 1964, Achebe's 3rd book, together, they have been called The African Trilogy-Things Fall Apart, No Longer at Ease, and Arrow of God.
Lynnette Grate, "Arrow of God," Western Michigan University Colonial and Post-Colonial Dialogue Literature website, last updated February 2002. Note references to settler colonialism in Nigeria, the setting for Arrow of God and analysis and deconstruction of the novel. See Western Michigan Colonial/Post Colonial Literary Dialogue website:
Shah Obaidul Mustafa, "Critical Study about the Colonialism in Heart of Darkness," Letter Pile blog, October 1, 2016. Shah Obaidul Mustafa, an English student at Dhaka University, described Joseph Conrad's 1899 novel Heart of Darkness as a settler colonial interpretation of African trade, imperialism, capitalism and Africa.
Mohamed-Salah Omri, "History, Literature, and Settler Colonialism in North Africa, Modern Language Quarterly, Vol. 66, no. 3, (September 2005), 273-298. Uploaded to Academia by Mohamed-Salah Omri. Literature and French settler colonialism in Algeria and North Africa.
J. B. Peires, "The Central Beliefs of the Xhosa Cattle-Killing," Journal of African History, 28, (1987), 43-63. The only reliable and authentic account of the vision of Nongqawuse, prophetess of the great Xhosa cattle-killing of 1856-57. Reaction to settler colonial expansion in South Africa.
Edward McNamara, University of Cambridge, "South African Settler Colonialism, 1880's-2015," Routledge Handbook of History of Settler Colonialism, 2016, 291-309.
"The Empty Land Myth," South African History online, last updated May 11, 2016. British and Afrikaner settler colonial identity and perspective in 19th century South Africa. The Empty land or Vacant Land Theory was a theory propagated by European settlers in nineteenth century South Africa to support their claims to land.
Ingrid Jonker, "The Child Who Was Shot Dead by Soldiers in Nyanga," Poetry International web. 1960 poem by Afrikaans-speaking white South African female poet reacting to shooting at Nyanga in Apartheid South Africa (1948-1991). Poems' inscription of 'Afrika' was taken by many to mean that Jonker saw what was happening, police and soldiers shootings of blacks to protect settler colonial system, as a continent-wide struggle.
Liz Stanley, "Settler Colonialism and Migrant Letters: The Forbes Family and letter-writing in South Africa 1850-1922," The History of the Family Journal, Vol. 21, Issue 3, (2016): Migrant Letters. A "new" historiography in Settler Colonialism history which uses family letter writing as evidence. See articles from that Issue below:
The History of the Family Journal, Vol. 21, No. 3, (2016). See open access articles on Settler Colonialism and migrant letters.
Neilesh Bose, University of North Texas, "New Settler Colonial Histories at the Edges of Empire: 'Asiatics,' Settlers and law in colonial South Africa," Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Vol. 15, no. 1, (Spring 2014) seen at Project Muse. The history of Indians in colonial South Africa betrays a long history of settlement, from at least the mid-seventeenth century.
Christopher Allen, University of Pennsylvania, "Missions and the Mediation of Modernity in Colonial Kenya," Penn History Review, Vol. 20, Issue 1, (Spring 2013). Dr. Allen's first sentence set the stage for this article: "European missionaries played a crucial role in colonial development." He went to state that "settlers, colonial authorities, and missionaries were inextricably connected." Christopher Allen does describe the friction between the three, inherent in Kenya's settler colonial community as well.
Rodney Harrison, Archaeology, Australian Studies, University College, London, and Lotte Hughes, African Studies, specializing in Kenya, Open University, Oxford, UK, "Heritage, Colonialism, and Postcolonialism," Chapter 7. Uploaded to Academia by Rodney Harrison. This chapter is a case study of settler colonialism in Kenya by Lotte Hughes seen in Rodney Harrison, ed., "Understanding the Politics of Heritage," Manchester University Press, 2009, 328 pages.

From Mombasa is the starting-point of one of the most wonderful railways in the world [...] a sure, swift road along which the white man and all that he brings with him, for good or ill, may penetrate into the heart of Africa as easily and safely as he may travel from London to Vienna. [...] The British art of "muddling through" is here seen in one of its finest expositions. Through everything - through the forests, through the ravines, through troops of marauding lions, through famine, through war, through five years of excoriating Parliamentary debate, muddled and marched the railway.

Winston Churchill, My African Journey, 1908
Quote seen in Remi Jedwab working paper below:
Remi Jedwab, George Washington University, Edmund Kerby, London School of Economics, Alexander Moradi, University of Sussex, "History, Path Dependence and Development: Evidence from Colonial Railroads, Settlers and Cities in Kenya," Institute for International Economic Policy Working Paper, Elliott School of International Affairs, George Washington University, January 2014. Economic historian's perspective as to economic activities across space in Kenya. Description of movement of settlers and commodities via railroad transport in colonial Kenya, Africa. See 2016 reference to this economic research by same authors, below:
Remi Jedwab, Edmund Kerby, Alexander Moradi, "3 Policy Lessons from Africa's Colonial Railways," The International Growth Centre, 2016. Slim article with maps as to international development organisations and African economic development. The Railroad was a technology for transport of settler colonial commodities in most regions.

See below, two slim articles from Curating Kisumu [Kenya] as to land alienation, the Kisumu port, and European settler colonialism:
Carol Martincic, Leonard Obiero, and George Ochieng, "Land Alientation and its Impact in Kisumu-Miwani Sugar," Macleki/Curating Kisumu, accessed December 25, 2016. Kenyan Port city of Kisumu in the Great Lakes region, European settler colonialism and land alienation.
Joseph Ochieng Odwar, etc., "The Kisumu Port," Macleki/Curating Kisumu, accessed December 25, 2016. The Kisumu Port, the Kenya-Ugandan Railway, Kenya's Lake Trade, and European settler colonialism.
John Lonsdale and Bruce Berman, "Coping with the Contradictions: The Development of the Colonial State in Kenya, 1895-1914," Journal of African History, 20, (1979), 487-505. Article accessed in Cambridge University Press, September 7, 2011.
Barbara Celarent, University of Atlantis, "Facing Mount Kenya by Jomo Kenyatta, American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 116, no. 2, (September 2010), 722-728. Celarent reviewed "rare anthropological study of Africans by an African," Jomo Kenyatta's 1938 study of his central Kenyan Kikuyu people. Kenyatta articulated from his African perspective the dangers of European influence, settler colonialism, over a population of people whose entire lives are based on social customs and religious ideas. Barbara Celarent was pen name of U. of Chicago sociologist and editor of the American Journal of Sociology, Andrew Abbott, born 1948. She his/her essays, reviews here:
Study guide, free sample, "Facing Mount Kenya: the Tribal Life of the Gikuyu," Book Rags Summary and Study Guides.
Jomo Kenyatta, The Gentlemen of the Jungle. An African man made a friendship with an elephant. Parable as to colonial African history and European settler colonialism.
"The Gentlemen of the Jungle," You Tube, 7:42 animation, published February 20, 2016.
3 Lesson modules, Stanford University. Gandhi and Imperialism in India, Kenya, inc. The Gentlemen of the Jungle, and Athenian Democracy.
"What are 'Settler Colonies'? Answer the Question making reference to a specific case study," Art History and Theory, March 2013. Essay response with sourcing written by Emily Sinclair in 2010. Kenya British East Africa is the case study described. Note 1952-1959 Mau Mau insurgency mentioned as an anti-British settler colonial revolt.
Bernard C. Moore, Book Review, "Review of Colonial Africa, 1884-1994 by Dennis Laumann," Middle Ground Journal, no. 12, (Spring 2016). Colonial Africa, 1884-1994, New York: Oxford University Press, 2012 has first chapter on historiographical debates, economic motives with following chapters on colonial administration and collaborators in settler vs. non-settler societies.
Jeanne Garane, "The Invisibility of the African Interpreter," Translation, Interdisciplinary Journal. One overlooked aspect of settler colonialism, Imperialism, etc. would be the power of the interpreter who "manipulated the contacts between (in this case) French settler colonists and African populations in colonial French West Africa. Note author of book below, Dr. Tamba M'bayo, referenced in this article.,+Arabic+translators+in+French+
Google Book. Tamba M'bayo, "Muslim Interpreters in Colonial Senegal, 1850-1920: Mediations of Knowledge and Power in the Lower and Middle Senegal River Valley, Lexington Books. 2016.
Professor Peter Adamson, "Arabic Translators did far more than just preserve Greek," Aeon, Ideas, November 4, 2016. Note comparative for power of Muslim Interpreters in West Africa to Abbasids who "wanted to establish their own cultural hegemony, in competition with Persian culture and with the Byzantines. The Abbasids wanted to show they could carry on Hellenic culture better than the Greek-speaking Byzantines..." All this to further strengthen their settler colonial empire and expansion. See more as to history and metamorphoses of West African languages into written status and West African acquisition of translations skills during spread of Islam and Christianity below:
Adewuni Salawu, "The Spread of Revealed Religions in West Africa and its implications for the Development of Translation," Journal of Translation, Vol. 3, no. 2, (2007). Description of metamorphoses of West African languages into written status and acquisition of translation skills by West Africans during the spread of Islam and Christianity.
Winta Woldeyesus, "Italian Administration in Eritrea," Shabait, Eritrea Ministry of Information, November 13, 2009. Italian colonization in Eritrea was aimed at getting access to the virgin resources of the country, besides securing farmland and cheap labor for Italian settler colonists.
Dr. Giulia Barrera, Archivist and African Historian, PhD, Rome, "Mussolini's colonial race laws and state-settler relations in Africa Orientale Italiana (1935-41), Journal of Modern Italian Studies, Vol. 8, no. 3, (2003), 425-443. Uploaded to Academia by Giulia Barrera. Dr. Barrera described Mussolini's Fascist Italy Eritrea Settler Colonial laws governing settlers in Eritrea and the Africa Orientale Italiana (AOI). See more resources from Giulia Barrera below:
Giulia Barrera, Archivist, See documents researched by Ms. Barrera, especially as to Italian settler colonialism in Eritrea.
Danielle Sanchez, Book Review. Matthew Stanard, "Selling the Congo: A History of European Pro-Empire Propaganda and the Making of Belgian Imperialism," Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 2011, 387 pages seen in Journal of Retracing Africa, Vol. 3, Issue 1, (2016).
Colonialism in the Congo: Conquest, Conflict, and Commerce-Ethical Culture Fieldston School, CHOICES, Brown University, Watson Institute for International Studies, November 2005. 146- page lesson module.
Ryan Hill and Yemi Katarere, "Colonialism and Inequity in Zimbabwe," IISD, (2002), 248-271. The battle over access to land resources in Zimbabwe demonstrated how gross inequalities with respect to land distribution occurred in settler colonial history. Note short article at end of this Zimbabwe tract by Ted Ganlin, "Solomon Islands and Environmental Insecurity-Logging and Urban Sprawl."
Sam Moyo, Executive Director of Africa-Institute for Agrarian Studies, Harare, Zimbabwe, PhD, University of Northumbira, UK in Rural Development and Environmental Management, "Perspectives on South-South relations: China's presence in Africa," Inter-Asia Cultural Studies, Vol. 17, Issue 1, (2016), 58-67. Paper explored the broad questions on China's presence in Africa from the perspectives on South-South relations.
African Economic Development and Colonial Legacies, Dossier/Africa: 50 Years of Independence, International Development Policy, January 2010.

East Asian Settler Colonialism

Figure 2
  Figure 2: China's Propaganda painting depicting all the "ethnic minorities"
Source of Poster:, seen in article by Dawa Lokyitsang below.
Dawa Lokyitsang, "The Art of (China's) Colonialism: Constructing Invisibilities in (Tibetan) history and geography," Lhakar Diaries, December 19, 2012. Dawa Lokyitsang dedicated her Lhakar Diaries blog to a non-violent resistance to Chinese settler colonialism in Tibet in the 21st century. The poster, above, shown in her article, is far different from the self-immolation protests (June 2012) by Tibetans against Chinese colonialism and continuing Tibetan protests. Lokyitsang defined "Invisibilities" as Chinese "erasure, silences" of Tibetan nationalism, history, geography and protest.
Yeshe Choesang, "Chinese Colonialism in Tibet causes cultural identity crisis," The Tibet Post, March 17, 2014. Article stated two reasons for Chinese colonialism, settler colonialism in Tibet from Tibetan POV: 1.) access to Tibetan natural resources from Himalayan region, 2.) a buffer separating China from "every possible threat."
"The Spread of Chinese Civilization: Korea and Vietnam," See especially 111 BCE-939 CE section in middle of this 9 page pdf which summarized Chinese settler colonialism, migration into North Vietnam and growing resistance to that settler colonization.
Edward Vickers, Kyushu University and Institute of Education, University of London, Book Review, Yangbin Chen, "Muslim Uyghur Students in a Chinese Boarding School: Social Recapitalization as a Response to Ethnic Integration," New York: Rowman and Littlefield, 2008, 211 pages. Seen in series, Emerging Perspectives on Education in China. Uploaded to Academia by Edward Vickers. Chinese settler colonialism education plan to "normalize" relations between Muslim Uyghur students and settler Han students.
"Circling the Wagons," The Economist, China, May 25, 2013. Chinese government run settler colonialism in Xingjiang has produced ethnic strife and tensions.
"East Turkestan: China Whitewashes Uyghur Reality in 66th Annexation Anniversary," UNPO, October 2, 2015. Chinese communist settler colonialism in Xingjiang and East Turkestan.
Book Review. "Howard W. French, China's Second Continent: How a million Migrants are Building a New Empire in Africa," New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2014, 285 pages seen in Journal of Retracing Africa, Vol. 3, Issue 1, (2016).
Tomonori Sugimoto, Master's Thesis, Anthropology, University of California, San Diego, "The Yellow Man's Burden: The Politics of Settler Colonialism in Hokkaido and Taiwan," University of California, San Diego electronic Theses and Dissertations, 2013. Description of 150 years of Japanese settler colonialism in Hokkaido and Taiwan. Note effects on native Ainu of Hokkaido and Taiwan's yuanzhumin and Koreans and Okinawans.
Edward Vickers, University of London, "Original Sin on the Island Paradise? Qing Taiwan's colonial history in comparative perspective," Taiwan in Comparative Perspectives, Vol. 2, (December 2008), 65-86. Uploaded to Academia by Edward Vickers. Chinese settler colonialism on Taiwan compared to Chinese mainland settler colonialism in Tibet.
"The First Nations of Taiwan: A Special Report on Taiwan's Indigenous Peoples," Cultural Survival Quarterly Magazine, June 2002. A history of settler colonialism on Taiwan.
Stephen Holden, Review, "Machismo, Obtained via Machete-'Warriors of the Rainbow: Seediq Bale,'" by Wei Te-Sheng, NY Times, April 27, 2012. Blockbuster Taiwanese film set in 1930 central Taiwan where 300 "aboriginal warriors" of the Seediq people confronted the Japanese army in the Wushu Incident. In 1895 China had ceded Taiwan to the Japanese who moved Japanese military and settler colonists onto the island.
David Y H Wu, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Book Review, Hiromitsu Iwamoto, Nanshin: Japanese Settlers in Papua and New Guinea, 1890-1949, Canberra: Journal of Pacific History, (1999), 179 pages. Slim review seen on scholarspace. 200 Japanese settlers in Papua and New Guinea.
Ryan W. Kitkowski, "Today is the Day to Shout Mansei: The Culture of Resistance in Korea during the Japanese Imperial Period, 1905-1945," Honors College Thesis, August 2015 for B.A. in History, University of Arizona Library open repository. Ryan Kitkowski described how Koreans "resisted" the Japanese Imperial military and settler colonialism from 1905 through the end of World War II.
John Hennessey, Linnaeus University, Book Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers of Empire: Japanese settler colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Harvard East Asian Monograph Series, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011, 481 pages, published on H-Empire, H-Net, April 2014.
John Hennessey, Linnaeus University, Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Harvard East Asian Monograph Series, Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011, 481 pages in H-Net and H-Empire, April 2014.
Erik Esselstrom, University of Vermont, Review, Jun Uchida, "Brokers of Empire: Japanese Settler Colonialism in Korea, 1876-1945," Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2011, seen in Reviews of History, UK, June 2013.

South Asian Settler Colonialism
Amardeep Singh, "Getting Into It With Niall Ferguson/Facts about Empire," Amardeep Singh blog, Lehigh University, June 30, 2006. Dr. Singh linked to Priyamvada Gopal's perspective on British settler colonialism and Empire, which argued that neocon ideologues, like Niall Ferguson, are rewriting Britain's Empire history and whitewashing its crimes. Singh also weighed the merits of British settler colonialism on India with "facts" about the British imprint on Indian society, economy, and politics.
Shashi Tharoor, "'But what about the railways...?' The Myth of Britain's gift to India," The Guardian, March 8, 2017. See :54 Video Shashi Tharoor's demand that the British pay damages to India for settler/colonial rule. Britain left a society with 16% literacy, a life expectancy of 27 years, and over 90% living below the poverty line. Apologists for empire and settler colonialism like to claim that the British brought democracy, the rule of law, and trains to India.
Dr. Ricardo Roque, book review, Christopher Bayly, "Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996, 428 pages seen in Reviews in History, UK, December 2016. Ricardo Roque set Bayly's work in colonial historical context and referenced Bernard S. Cohen and his student Nicholas Dirks works, among others, on how the British colonial state relied on cultural technology and classificatory techniques to conquer, dominate, and rule indigenous people in India. See Nicholas B. Dirks Introduction, chapter 1 to "Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India," below:
Nicholas B. Dirks, Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India," Princeton University Press, 2001, Chapter 1, Introduction in which Nicholas Dirks explained and set the stage for how British settler colonialism used the Indian caste system to control indigenous Indians.
Shilipi Rajpal, Researcher, History, University of Delhi, review of Satadru Sen, "Savagery and Colonialism in the Indian Ocean: Power, Pleasure and the Andaman Islanders," London and New York: Routledge, 2010, 278 pages. Uploaded to Academia by Shilipi Rajpal. Over time the colonizer, settler colonist, has made the indigenous native the "Savage" as a strategy and tactic of colonialism. Satadru Sen described British and Indian racializing of the Andamanese.
"Ecocide or Genocide? The Onge in the Andaman Islands," Cultural Survival, December 1990. Slim article on British settler colonialism destroying the Onge natives in the Andaman Islands. Settler colonists moved into Onge "reserve" lands for boars, honey, fish and turtles.
Leela Prasad, "The Authorial Other in Folktale Collections in Colonial India: Tracing Narration and its Dis/Continuities," Cultural Dynamics, Vol. 15, no. 1, (2003), 5-39, uploaded to Academia by Leela Prasad. 1860-1920 British administrators, missionaries, wives and daughters of British officials, and Indian scholars collected Indian folktales. Dr. Prasad researched and analyzed two Folktale collections and commented on the "delineated alterity and subjectivity while they experience[d] shifting subaltern positions." Settler colonist's perspectives on indigenous folktales say much as to their view of the Other.
Sanjay Joshi, History department, University of Northern Arizona, "Colonial Notion of South Asia," South Asia Journal, nd., seen in Penn Arts & Sciences site, Dr. David Ludden, South Asian historian. Dr. Joshi described in this slim article how post-colonial India and the Cold War shaped the definition of an entire region by European and US "colonizers." See more from Dr. David Ludden, South Asia historian, as to Empires, frontiers and borderlands below:
David Ludden, "The Process of Empire: Frontiers and Borderlands," seen in Bang and Bayly, eds., Tributary Empires in Global History, London: Palgrave Macmillan, (2011), 132-150. Professor Dr. Ludden uses the word "process" instead of settler colonialism in this chapter on empire, colonizing in South Asia.
Neilesh Bose, "New Settler Colonial Histories at the Edges of Empire: 'Asiatics,' settlers and law in colonial South Africa," Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Vol. 15, no. 1, (2014). Uploaded to Academia by Neilesh Bose. Dr. Bose described Indian settler colonialism in South Africa. Many would trace the path of Gandhi from India to British law degree and South Africa where he, as a lawyer, represented Indians against civil rights abuse in South Africa.
Jaswant Rathod, Govt. Arts and Commerce College, Gujrat, India, "Positioning the Subaltern in Post-Colonial India: A Socio-Cultural and Environmental Study of Mahasweta Devi's Pterodactyl," Research Scholar, Vol. I, Issue II, (May 2013). A description of Mahasweta Devi's struggle to protect and defend the "subaltern" Indian "tribals who were effected by British settler colonialism and are still threatened by post-colonial India. The 21st century Indian government as settler colonists abusing 8.2% of the population, tribal indigenous Indians. See current article on Indian "subaltern tribals" below:
Anuradha Sengupta, "They Lost Their Jungles to Plantations, But These Indigenous Women Grew Them Back, Truth out, December 2016.
Lisa Fletcher, University of Tasmania, "Reading the postcolonial island in Amitav Ghosh's The Hungry Tide," Island Studies Journal, Vol. 6, no. 1, (2011), 3-16. Paper argued that literature has much to contribute to the theoretical work of Island Studies and not just because literary texts provide evidence of the ways islands are conceptualized in different historical and cultural contexts. Ghosh's historical fiction has background of Sundarban islands and Dalit people under West Bengal government in latter 20th century and settler colonialism.
Md. Ashrafuzzaman, MA Science Thesis, Development Studies, Social Anthropology, "The Tragedy of the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh: Land Rights of Indigenous People," Lund University, 2014. Research paper described abusive colonial settlement by British, Pakistani's, and Bangladesh government in the indigenous Chittagong Hill Tracts, Bangladesh.
Christian Bleuer, "State Building, Migration and Economic Development on the Frontiers of Northern Afghanistan and Southern Tajikistan," Journal of Eurasian Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 1, (January 2012), 69-79 seen in Science Direct. See especially section 2.2 of this article on Amir Abdur Rahman Khan (1880-1901) Afghan Pashtun leader "settler colonization" of northern Afghanistan and southern Tajikistan referenced as "internal imperialism," Afghanization, Pashtun colonization, Pashtunization, and Afghanization.

Pacific Settler Colonialism
Patrick Kirch, "When Did the Polynesians Settle Hawaii?" Uploaded to Academia by Patrick Kirch. The Polynesians, like the African Bantu, were indeed ancient, early settler colonists. Patrick Kirch provides background, archaeological evidence as to Polynesian settlement of Hawaii.
Tagi Qolouvaki, "The Mano of Wansolwara: Oceanic Art/Story as Protest and Decolonial Imagining," Hehiale blog, April 27, 2015. Tagi Qolouvaki highlighted Wansolwara, "one salt water," united, Pan Oceanic defiance against American settler colonialism in the Pacific.
Haunani-Kay Trask, "Settlers of Color and 'Immigrant' Hegemony-'Locals' in Hawaii," Conflict in Innovation Lab files, (March 2014), 45-66. Originally published in the Amerasia Journal, Vol. 26, no. 2, (2000), 1-24. The Land, US apology and a poem.

The indigenous Hawaiian people never directly relinquished their claims to their inherent sovereignty as a people or over their national lands to the United States, either through their monarchy or through a plebiscite or referendum. -U.S. Public Law 103-150, the "Apology Bill"
[Bill Clinton "apologized" to the Hawaiian people in 1993]


Slogans of cheap grace rather than land:

"We apologize."

But not one acre of taro,
For now we own one river of water, one handful of labor.

"We apologize:'

And all our dead and barely living,

one dozen dirty pages of American paper to feed our people and govern our nation.
Haunani-Kay Trask responds to a racist listener, You Tube Video, 1:36.
Kathleen O'Toole, "Hawaiian nationalist discusses rights Constitution doesn't recognize," Stanford News, April 1, 1998. Huanani-Kay Trask.
1:09:17 C-Span 3 video, James Haley lecture, "History of Hawaii and the Life of Queen Liluokalani," March 16, 2017. American History TV video from University of Mary Washington, VA. which traced Hawaii from James Cooke through Western colonialism and settler colonialism of the islands based on Haley's book, Captive Paradise: A History of Hawaii.
Kyle Kajihiro, "The Militarization of Hawai'i: Occupation, Accomodation, and Resistance," Conflict Innovation Lab, March 2014. Description of how and why the US developed, as a settler society, Hawai'i as a military state.
Adria L. Imada, "Aloha Oe: Settler Colonial Nostalgia and the Genealogy of a Love Song," American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 37, no. 2, (2013). Uploaded to Academia by Adria L. Imada. From the Imperialist, settler colonial POV it is a nostalgic song saying good bye to those leaving the island or those coming into Hawai'i. Yet, from the perspective of Queen Lili' uokalani, deposed by missionary settler colonists, 1893, could it be anti-settler and anti-colonial and a reminder of what Hawai'i was prior to the American presence. Music/Song as propaganda supporting settler colonialism. See another aspect of cultural imperial and settler colonialism below. The Hula dance as propaganda.
Adria L. Imada, "Hawaiians on Tour: Hula Circuits through the US Empire," American Quarterly, Vol. 56, no. 1,( March 2004). Uploaded to Academia by Adria L. Imada. Dance, music as settler colonial propaganda. Hawaiian women became ambassadors of "aloha" or welcome for an American Imperial outreach and tourist marketing performed in New York City, Chicago and throughout America. See book review of Imada's book of the same topic below:
Book Review. Lauren E. Sweetman, PhD candidate, Ethnomusicology, New York University, "Adria L. Imada, "Aloha America: Hula Circuits through the US Empire," Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012, 392 pages. Uploaded to Academia by Lauren E. Sweetman.
"Obesity in Pacific Islands 'a colonial legacy' of settlers," University of Oxford, August 29, 2014. University of Oxford Study of people on Nauru and Cook Island described highest levels and fastest rates of obesity increase in the world (1980-2008). Cook Island was a British Protectorate in 1888. Colonial settlers changed lives of islanders who lost traditional food growing and food preparation skills due to a dependence on importer Western foods.
Candace Fujikane, "Asian Settler Colonialism in US Colony of Hawai'i," Introduction, University of Hawai'i Press, 2008, 43 page pdf. Introduction to Fujikane and Odamura, Asian Settler Colonialism in the U.S. Colony of Hawai'i, University of Hawai'i Press, 2008. See another version uploaded to Academia by Candace Fujikane:
Google book. Candace Fujikane and Jonathan Y. Okamura, eds., Asian Settler Colonialism: From Local Governance to the Habits of Everyday Life in Hawai'i, University of Hawai'i Press, 2008.
Film Review. Maile Arvin, "Possessions of Whiteness, Settler Colonialism and Anti-Blackness in the Pacific," Decolonization-Indigeneity, Education & Society blog, June 2, 2014. Maile Arvin reviewed film "The Descendants," 2011 starring George Clooney based on Kaui Hart Hemmings book with same title about wealthy Hawaiian family and settler colonialism. Key words: Settler colonialism and white supremacy.
Dean Itsujo Saranillio, Social and Cultural Analysis Studies, New York University, "Why Asian Settler Colonialism Matters: a Thought Piece on Critiques, Debates, and Indigenous Difference," Settler Colonial Studies, 3:3-4, (2013), 280-294. Uploaded to Academia by Dean Saranillio. Dr. Dean Itsujo Saranillio used his own family history in Hawai'i to link settler colonialism and Imperialism, frame and contextualize global politics and the Cold War with Asian immigrants to Hawai'i who had to deal with White US settler colonialism, fellow Asians, and Hawai'i natives.
Dean Itsujo Saranillio, "Settler Colonialism," chapter in Stephanie Nohelani Teves, Andrea Smith, and Michelle Raheja, eds., Native Studies Keywords, Tucson: University of Arizona Press, (2015), 284-297, posted on the web, Project Muse, July 12, 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Dean Itsujo Saranillio.
Joseph A. Salazar, "Multicultural Settler Colonialism and Indigenous Struggle in Hawai'i: The Politics of Astronomy on Mauna A. Wakea," PhD dissertation, Political Science, University at Manoa, December 2014. Astronomy expansion and telescopes on sacred mountain of Mauna a Wakea, Kanaka indigenous people's native land was "emblematic of the larger struggle over settler colonialism on Hawai'i.
Timothy Neale, Deakin University, "Settler Colonialism and Weed Ecology," Engagement, Anthropology and Environment Society, November 2, 2016. Dr. Neale described settler colonialism and encounters with weed ecology in Australia and Aotearoa (New Zealand).
Michele Grossman, "When They Write What We Read: Unsettling Indigenous Australian life-writing," Australian Humanities Review, Issue 39-40, (September 2006). Settler colonial societies denigrate indigenous history, culture to create a political, cultural, economic system in which Indigenous peoples are a "problem to be solved."
Renisa Mawani, "Law, Settler Colonialism, and 'the Forgotten Space' of Maritime Worlds," Annual Review of Law and Social Sciences, Vol. 12, no. 1, (October 2016), 107-138.
Dr. Mawani began article with an analysis of Joseph Conrad's Heart of Darkness in a maritime context and then breaks article into two parts. Part one described the intertwined legal history of colonialism and settler colonial studies and part two looked at the British maritime world as to last clipper ship built in Britain (1875) and the Torrens system of land in South Australia (1858).
Irene Watson, "Aboriginal Laws and the Sovereignty of Terra Nullius," borderlands e-journal, Vol. 1, no. 2, (2002). Survivor of British terra nullius and settler colonialism in Australia.
C. L. Ogleby, "Terra Nullius, The High Court and Surveyors," originally published in The Australian Surveyor, Vol. 38, no. 3, (September 1993), 171-189. Europeans for 224 years used Terra Nullius as law to seize indigenous lands. In 1992 Australia the Mabo Land Case overturned that law. This paper was a discussion of the High Court decision regarding customary land tenure in Australia.
Peta Mitchell and Jane Stadler, "Imaginative Cinematic Geography of Australia: The Mapped View in Charles Chauvel's Jedda and Baz Luhrmann's Australia," Historical Geography, Vol. 38, (2010), 26-51. Mitchell and Stadler analyzed the 1955 film, Jedda, and the 2008 film Australia in context of marketing an "Australian look" to Australians and the Pacific region along with a defense of settler colonialism as to mixed races and adoption of aboriginal children by white Australians.
Crystal McKinnon, "Indigenous Music as a Space of Resistance," Chapter 11, Tracey Banivanua Mar and Penelope Edmonds, eds., Making Settler Colonial Space-Perspectives on Race, Place and Identity, Palgrave Macmillan, 2010, 255-272, uploaded to Academia by Crystal McKinnon. Crystal McKinnon described indigenous Australian music as resistance to modern settler colonial Australian society.
Elizabeth Strakosch and Alissa Macoun, "The Vanishing Endpoint of Settler Colonialism," Area Journal no. 37/38, (2012), 40-62, uploaded to Academia by Elizabeth Strakosch. Australian settler colonialism.
Elizabeth Strakosch and Alissa Macoun, "The Ethical Demands of Settler Colonial Theory," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, nos. 3-4, (2013), 426-443. Uploaded to Academia by Elizabeth Strakosch. This article by two Australian settler colonial researchers explored the strengths and limitations of settler colonial theory (SCT) as a tool for non-Indigenous scholars seeking to disturb rather than reenact colonial privilege. Based on an examination of recent Australian academic debates on settler colonialism and the Northern Territories intervention, Strakosch and Macoun described settler emotions, knowledge, institutions and policies. See more on Australian Northern Territories intervention in Melissa Lovell's second article below.
Melissa Lovell, "Settler Colonialism, Multiculturalism and the Politics of Postcolonial Identity," Refereed Paper presented at Australasian Political Studies Association Conference, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia, September 23-26, 2007. A four-pronged analysis of national identity in settler states with focus on Australia. Uploaded to Academia by Melissa Lovell.
Melissa Lovell, The Australian National Centre for Indigenous Studies (NCIS), "A Settlercolonial Consensus on the Northern Territory Intervention," Arena Journal, no. 37/38, Special Issue: Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler-Colonial Present, 2012. Uploaded to Academia by Melissa Lovell. In June 2007 the Australian federal government initiated a policy program that aimed to transform Aboriginal communities in Australia's Northern Territory. Many commentators and scholars saw the stamp of racist settler colonialism in that policy. See introduction to Arena Journal Special Issue below:
John Hinkonson, "Introduction: Why Settler Colonialism?" Arena Journal, no. 37/38, Special Issue: Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler-Colonial Present. John Hinkonson's introductory essay to this settler colonial series of articles in Arena Journal, 2012.
Keith Windschuttle, "The Fabri-cation of Aboriginal History," Koori web, presentation to The Sydney Institute, February 11, 2003. Dr. Windschuttle challenged historians like Lyndall Ryan, the principal historian of race relations in Tasmania, who claimed that settler colonists committed "genocide" in Australia with British "covert government support."
Dan Tout, Federation University, Australia, "The Janus Faces of Indigenous Politics." Uploaded to Academia by Dan Tout. Dan Tout highlighted the angry arguments by Tim Rowse who railed against Patrick Wolfe's settler colonial theory as "elimination paradigm" and The Arena Journal and its book, Stolen Lands, Broken Cultures: The Settler Colonial Present at the 2013 Conference of Australian Historical Association. Tout also highlighted the Australian government recent reactions to settler colonialism and indigenous peoples.
Book Review. Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, Brown University, August-September 2006. The settling of White Australia written in context of Australian debates over their founding history, i.e., the convict thesis.
Dr. Rachel Franks, "Governor Davey's Proclamation to the Aborigines: A Curious, Colonial Object," State Library New South Wales. See 4 panel image as metaphor for Australian atrocities inflicted on indigenous Tasmanians in the early 19th century.

Figure 3
  Figure 3: Governor Davey's [sic - actually Governor Arthur's] Proclamation to the Aborigines, 1816 [sic - actually c. 1828-30]
Book Review. Thomas Keneally, "Rogues Continent," NY Times, January 25, 1987. Review of Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore, NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1987, 688 pages.
V. G. Kiernan, "England Rejects," London Review of Books, Vol. 9, no. 6, (1987). Kiernan reviewed two books on Australia's founding including Robert Hughes, The Fatal Shore: A History of the Transportation of Convicts to Australia, 1787-1868, Collins Harvill, 1987, 688 pages.
Brittany Myburgh, University of Toronto, Graduate Student, "Our Old Koroua: Modernism in Aotearoa," uploaded to Academia by Brittany Myburgh. Who is allowed to represent a "settler colonial state?" Do colonial settler artists paint the picture of the culture, history, politics or does the Indigenous artist? Who globally accepts that portrait? Case study of New Zealand European settler "Pakeha" artists and Indigenous Maori modernism.
S. A. McAra "Indigenizing or adapting? Importing Buddhism into a settler-colonial society," Journal of Global Buddhism, 8, (2007), 132-156. Uploaded to Academia by S. A. McAra. Description of indigenous Australian angst and concerns about Buddhist stupas on and near their aboriginal sacred sites. See another version of that research article:
Lorenzo Veracini, University of Wollongong, Australia, "'Emphatically not a white man's colony': Settler Colonialism and the construction of colonial Fiji," The Journal of Pacific History, Vol. 43, no. 2, (2008), 189-205. Seen in University of Wollongong Research Online.
Richard Eves, "Unsettling settler colonialism: Debates over climate and colonization in New Guinea, 1875-1914," Ethnic and Race Studies, Vol. 28, no. 2, (March 2005), 304-330. Dr. Eves described the debates over climate and settler colonization in New Guinea and if New Guinea would ever be "white man's land?"

Southeast Asia Settler Colonialism
Ben Kiernan, Yale University, History, "Settler colonies, ethno-religious violence, and historical documentation: Comparative Reflections on Southeast Asia and Ireland," Chapter 14 seen in Full text (PDF) available from Ben Kiernan, October 19, 2016. Comparative description of 16th-18th century violence against settler colonists in SE Asia and Ireland.
"Vietnam's Expansion and Colonial Diaspora, 1471-1859," Khmer Circle, September 29, 2014. For Vietnamese, they have been 'victims' of Chinese colonial diasporas, being physically, psychologically, culturally, and intellectually displaced [settler colonialism]. This Khmer blog described Viet "Nam Tien" or settler colonialism southward and genocides against Cham and Khmer populations.
Tracy C. Barrett, N. Dakota State University, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, "Teaching East and SE Asia Through Asian Eyes," Asia Network Exchange, Vol. 21, no. 2, (Spring 2014), 36-44. Note download available for this article. East and SE Asian peoples reaction to settler colonialism, colonialism and imperialism.
Pramoedya Ananta Toer, "The Book That Killed Colonialism," NY Times Magazine, 1999. The West wanted spices, Multatuli wanted Justice. 1859 Max Havelaar comparative to Uncle Tom's Cabin in the US, became cause celebre for liberal Netherland's reform in Indonesia.
"West Papua: Forgotten War, Unwanted People," Cultural Survival Quarterly, June 1991. Armed liberation struggle of West Papuans against Dutch and then Indonesian settler colonialism. Example of entire peoples joining the resistance.
Bart Luttikhuis and A. Dirk Moses, "Mass Violence and the End of the Dutch Colonial Empire in Indonesia," Journal of Genocidal Research, Vol. 14, nos. 3-4, (September 24, 2012), 257-276. Description of the brutal 1940's Dutch settler colonial history in Indonesia.
Nathan Down, Researcher, Humanities, Charles Sturt University, "Neo-Orientalism: Indonesia's Colonialism and Papau," E-International Relations, December 17, 2015. Dr. Down's article described the dynamics and enduring legacy of Dutch rule in Indonesia and Papua and post-colonial Indonesia's settler colonial efforts of the Melanesians in Papua.
David Webster, University of Regina, International Studies, "Narratives of Colonization, Decolonization and Recolonization in Papua," Active History, Canada, nd. Indonesian settler colonialism in Papua and competing historical narratives of the Indonesian state and Papuan people.
Frida RG, Webster University, International Relations, Graduate Student, "Settler Colonialism: The Case of 'Transmigration' Program in West Papua," Slim paper uploaded to Academia by Frida RG, nd. Summary of Indonesia's settler colonialism in West Papua beginning in the 1970's under Indonesian President Soeharto who moved thousands of poor Indonesians from Java to Papua under pretext of a "Transmigration" program. Papua is rich in fertile land, gold mines, and natural gas. Frida RG's 12 page paper highlighted Indonesia's colonial resettlement to control the Papua indigenous population as a profit motive.
Kjell Anderson, Netherlands Institute for War, Holocaust, and Genocide Studies, "Colonialism and Cold Genocide: The Case of West Papua," Genocide Studies and Prevention, Vol. 9, Issue 2/Article 5, (2015), 9-25, seen on
Stephen Wertheim, Columbia University, "Reluctant Liberator: Theodore Roosevelt's Philosophy of Self-Government and Preparation for Philippine Independence," Presidential Studies Quarterly, Vol. 39, no. 3, (September 2009), 494-518. Stephen Wertheim noted that President Roosevelt was an ardent supporter of American settler colonialism, but by his view of "self-government" in the Philippines should be credited with the eventual freeing of the Philippines from US imperial control.
Daniel P. S. Goh, National University of Singapore, Sociology, "From Colonial Pluralism to Postcolonial Multiculturalism in Malaysia and Singapore," Sociology Compass, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2008), 232-252. Dr. Daniel Goh discussed colonial racisms, anthropology and construct of settler colonial state institutions, ethnic conflicts of decolonization, multiracialism, and globalization threats to that multiracialism in Malaysia and Singapore.

Central Steppes
Marek Jan Olbrycht, University of Rzeszow, Warsaw Poland, Ancient History and Oriental Studies, "Ethnicity of settlers in the colonies of Alexander the Great in Iran and Central Asia," Bulletin of OFFICAS, Vol. 4, (2011). Alexander the Great settler colonialism 330 BCE in Iran and Central Asia.
Dustin Hosseini, "The Effects of the Mongol Empire on Russia," Vestnik, The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies, SRAS, The School of Russian and Asian Studies, (December 12, 2005). Slim history of the Mongol "settler colonial" presence in Russia, beginning in 1219.
Ian Wylie Campbell, "Knowledge and Power on the Kazakh Steppe, 1845-1917," PhD dissertation, History, University of Michigan, 2011. A 148 page dissertation on Russian Tsarist settler colonialism on the Kazakh Steppe.
Catherine Guirkinger, University of Namur, Belgium, Economics and Gani Aldashev, University of Cergy-Pontoise, Paris, and University of Namur, "Clans and Ploughs: Traditional institutions and Production decisions of Kazakhs under Russian colonial settlement,", August 5, 2015. This paper investigated how Kazakh clans developed land under the pressure of late 19th century Russian settler colonialism.
Alexander Morrison, Nazarbayev University, History, Philosophy, and Religious Studies, "Peasant Settlers and the Civilizing Mission in Russian Turkestan, 1865-1917," Journal of Imperial & Commonwealth History, Vol. 43, no. 3, (2015), 387-417. Uploaded to Academia by Alexander Morrison. See Alexander Morrison's works on Russian and Central steppe settler colonialism from Academia:|
J. Otto Pohl, "The Deportation of the Crimean Tatars in the Context of Settler Colonialism," International Crimes and History, Issue 16, (2015), uploaded to Academia by J. Otto Pohl. The Soviet ethnic cleansing of the Crimean Tatars in May 1944, the subsequent settlement of their lands with Russians and Ukrainians, and the de-Tatarization of the peninsula's place names has a number of similarities with other historical cases of settler colonialism. Tsarist Russian moved in Tatar Crimea in 1783 and in 1856-1860 there was a massive migration of Tatars into the Ottoman Empire.
Book Review. Nicholas Breyfogle, The Ohio State University, David Moon, University of York, UK, "The Plough That Broke the Steppes: Agriculture and Environment on the Russian Grasslands, 1700-1914," Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013 seen on H-HistGeog, H-Net, February 23, 2015. Russian settler colonialism with focus on agriculture, technology, and effect on the environment of the Steppes. See more on this topic:
Michelle Sinness, "Empire of the Steppe: Russia's colonial experience on the Eurasian steppes," UCLA International Institute, May 5, 2014. Summary of historian Michael Khodarkovsky's presentation on Russian settler colonialism and colonialism in the Eurasian central steppes and implications for current crisis in Ukraine today. A slim article.

Middle East Settler Colonialism
Jamil Hilal, Sociology, University of Dar es Salaam (1974-75) and Beirut, Lebanon, "Imperialism and Settler-Colonialism in West Asia: Israel and the Arab Palestinian Struggle," Utafiti, Vol. 1, no. 1, 51-70 seen in Michigan State University African e-Journal Project, Michigan State University Library.
"Settler-Colonialism, Memoricide and Indigenous Toponymic Memory: The Appropriation of Place Names by the Israeli State," Journal of Holy Land and Palestine Studies, Vol. 14, Issue 1, (1998), 3-57, available online, The Edinburgh Press, April 2015. Cartography, place-naming and the state sponsored explorations were central to the modern European conquest of the earth, empire building and settler colonialism.
Haifa Rashed and Damien Short, "Genocide and settler colonialism: can a Lemkin-inspired genocide perspective aid our understanding of the Palestinian situation?" The International Journal of Human Rights, Vol. 16, no. 8, (December 2012), 1142-1169. Raphael Lemkin, sociologist and specialist in International Law, 1950-1959, who is given credit for coining the term, "genocide," research in Australia is analyzed in Palestinian context. Lemkin described a historiography of genocide and colonialism, especially settler colonialism as linked.
Daniel Greenfield, "Islam is Colonialism, 'Palestine' is Colonialism," Arutz Sheva, Israel National News, November 4, 2016. Mr. Greenfield is a freelance commentator with the David Horowitz Freedom Center. Article in defense of Israel against charges of being a settler colonial state abusing the rights of Palestinian people.
Pekka Pitkanen, University of Gloucestershire, "Ancient Israel and settler colonialism," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, no 1, 64-81. Essay described ancient Israel as a settler colonial society.
Pekka Pitkanen, "The ecological-evolutionary theory, migration, settler colonial, sociology of violence and origins of Ancient Israel," Cogent Social Sciences, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2016), 1-23. Dr. Pitkanen analyzed origins of ancient Israel from perspectives of four social-scientific approaches, including settler colonialism, which he claimed fit together to interpret both biblical and archaeological data to see Israel as a "settler colonial agrarian frontier society that was considerably based on migration from outside and where violence played a significant part in the formation and development of that society." Pekka Pitkanen has two other articles including "Pentateuch-Joshua: a settler colonial document of a supplanting society," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, No. 3, (2014) and "Reading Genesis-Joshua as a unified document from an early date: A Settler Colonial Perspective," Biblical Theology Bulletin, 45:1, (2015). See Pentateuch-Joshua below:
Pekka Pitkanen, "Pentateuch-Joshua: A Settler Colonial document of a supplanting society," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 4, Issue 3, (2014), 245-276. Pitkanen used Bible as resource for Israel's ancient origins as a settler society.
Tovah Lazaroff, "Israeli Minister: The Bible not Google gives Israel the moral right to land," The Jerusalem Post, March 28, 2017. Israeli Communication Minister Tzachi Hanegbi stated in Washington DC that the Bible gave Israel the moral right to place West Bank settlers and settlements within "final boundaries of the Jewish state."
Irwin J. Mansdorf, "Is Israel a Colonial State?: The Political Psychology of Palestinian Nomenclature," Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, March 7, 2010. Argument by Irwin Mansdorf that Israel is not a colonial settler state.
David Lloyd, University of California, Riverside, "Settler Colonialism and the State of Exception: The Example of Palestine/Israel," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2012), 59-80 downloaded to Academia by David Lloyd June 25, 2015. Dr. Lloyd explained how Israel has defined itself as an exceptional state surrounded by enemies, then deconstructs that argument presenting Israel as a prototype settler colonial society.
Nadim Rouhana, "Homeland, Nationalism and Guarding Dignity in a Settler Colonial Context: The Palestinian Citizens of Israel Reclaim Their Homeland," borderlands e-journal, Vol. 1, no. 1, (2015). Nadim Rouhana described how Palestinians have reacted to a Zionist Israel settler colonial state via popular rhetoric and political action.
Thayer Hastings, "Palestinian Oral History as a Tool to Defend Against Displacement," Al-Shabaka-The Palestinian Policy Network, September 15, 2016. Following the Nakba of 1948, the Arab tradition of the 'hakawati' (storyteller) was used to defend against erasure of culture and memory among Palestinians. Since then, oral history has served as a prominent counter narrative in context of active settler colonialism.
Amelie Huber, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life Under Settler Colonialism, Pt. I, Reporting From Palestine," Entitle blog, September 2, 2015. This 3 part blog written by a group of Entitle Fellows which traveled to Palestine in July 2015 to attend the International Conference of Critical Geography in Ramallah. See two other blog articles below.
Melissa Garcia Lamarca, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life Under Settler Colonialism, Pt. II, Reporting from Palestine," Entitle blog, September 8, 2015. Note posters on Jaffa Oranges.
Amelie Huber, "The Political Ecology of Everyday Life under Settler Colonialism, Pt. III, Reporting from Palestine," Entitle blog, September 16, 2015. Jordan Valley.
Magid Shihade, Institute of International Studies, Birzeit University, "Global Israel: Settler Colonialism, Mobility, and Rupture," Borderlands, e-journal, Vol. 14, No. 1, (2015). Shihade described Israel settler colonialism in Palestine as a rupture in Palestinian culture and history.
Brenna Bhandar and Rafeef Ziadah, "Acts and Omissions: Framing Settler Colonialism in Palestine Studies," Jadaliyya, January 14, 2016.
Arnon Degani, "Opinion//Israel Is a Settler Colonial State-and That's Ok," Haaretz, Israel, September 13, 2016. Article in Haaretz written in context of University of California, Berkeley, "Palestine: A Settler Colonial analysis," course.
Muhammad Idrees Ahmad, Book Review, M. Shahid Alam, "Challenging the New Orientalism: Dissenting Essays on the 'War Against Islam,'" Islam Publishing International, 2007, 272 pages, Scoop News, New Zealand, March 13, 2007. Ahmad described Dr. Alam's, Economics Professor, Northeastern University, Boston area, book as divided into three sections with the first being Orientalist, Zionist tracts, the earliest promoting settler colonialism in the Middle East with later Orientalist literature more political.
David Shulman, "Palestine: The End of the Bedouins?" NY Review of Books, December 7, 2016. Israeli Settler colonialism.
20:00 Film Documentary. "Gaza in Context," 2016. See full 20:00 documentary or 4 five minute sections of the film. Israel as settler colonist.
Max Ajl, "Militarized Neoliberalism: Jeff Halpers' War Against The People," Jadaliyya, December 3, 2015, Review of Jeff Halper, "War Against the People: Israel, the Palestinians, and Global Pacification," London: Pluto Press, 2015. Review began with a description of Israeli cyber tools and weapons, remote sensors, mechanized micro-drones, water cannons, used in settler colonial control of Palestine and Palestinians with remaining article describing the US-Israel military industrial connection in global context.
Aemer Ibraheem, Tel Aviv University, Humanities Graduate Student, "'You Know What I Mean': Researching Masculinities and Borders Under Settler-Colonial Context," APSA MENA Workshops: Alumni e-Newsletter, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (November 2016). Uploaded to Academia by Aemer Ibraheem. Short paper as to limitations of in-depth interviews as settler colonial research method in Middle East and North Africa studies and how "silence," warning from the settler colonial power can emasculate the indigenous peoples, in this case specifically, Syrian men living in the occupied Golan.
Video lecture, 87:00, Mansour Nasasara and Sophie Richter-Devroe, "The Naqab Bedouin and Colonialism: New Perspectives," Library of Congress, April 6, 2015. Historic isolation of the Naqab Bedouin and settler colonialism including Israeli settler colonial policies and settler colonial power structures.
Oren Yiftachel, "Naqab/Negev Bedouins and the (Internal) Colonial Paradigm," Chapter 8, new papers, 2009, 289-318. Ben Gurion University Paper described Israel settler colonialism of the Naqab/Negev Bedouins beginning in 1948.
David Lloyd, "Settler Colonialism and the State of Exception: The Example of Palestine/Israel," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 2, no. 1, (2012), 59-80.
Irwin J.Mansdorf, "Is Israel a Colonial State? The Political Psychology of Palestinian Nomenclature," Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs, March 7, 2010. Irwin Mansdorf claimed that Israel's creation, far from being a colonial transplant, i.e., settler colonial history, can actually be seen as the vanguard of and impetus for decolonialization of the entire Middle East.
Haifa Rashid, Damien Short, and John Docker, "Nakba memoricide: Genocide Studies and the Zionist/Israeli genocide of Palestine," Holy Land Studies, Vol. 13, (May 2014), 1-23. Uploaded to Academia by Haifa Rashid. Essay furthered debate on the Palestinian case as it relates to Genocide Studies and questioned the lack of substantive discussion of Palestine in traditional Genocide Studies fora. It re-emphasized the importance of settler colonial studies within this debate.

See more resources from Haifa Rashid as to settler colonialism, genocide, and Palestine:

David Ryden, Review, Natalie A. Zacek, Settler Society in the English Leeward Islands, 1670-1776, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, in H-Albion, February 2011.
Cathy Matson, University of Delaware, Review, Natalie A. Zacek, Settler Society in the English Leeward Islands, 1670-1776, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, 304 pages in H-Atlantic, January 2013. Matson summarized her review as claiming that English Caribbean settler colonialism was another example of a continuity of "Englishmen overseas."
Dr. Kristen Block, "Cultivating Inner and Outer Plantations: Property, Industry, and Slavery in Early Quaker Migration to the New World," Early American Studies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, Vol. 8, no. 3, (Fall 2010), 515-548, uploaded to Academia by Kristen Block. For American Quakers during the seventeenth century, a careful moral calculus permeated the Society's negotiations between their twin goals of spiritual reflection and economic sustenance-balancing one's metaphorical plantations, both 'inner' and outer. Dr. Block also described West Indian Quakers and their migration of wealthy Barbadian Friends to the North American Middle colonies and their influence in promoting African Slavery, slave plantation economy, settler colonialism, and "quelling critiques of the institution."
Ralph G. Bennett, "History of the Jews of the Caribbean,", Los Muestros, June 11, 1993. Article seen in "the Sephardic voice" Los Muestros on-line site described Jews as successful settler colonists in the Caribbean.
The British in the Caribbean, British Empire website, Maproom. History of British settler colonialism in the Caribbean. See other resources and articles on the right side of this page.
20white%20Europe%20Rastafari%20Sessions&utm_content= NYR%20revolt%20of%20white%20Europe%20Rastafari%20Sessions
Lucy McKeon, "The True Story of Rastafari," NY Review of Books, January 6, 2017. 1930's origins of Rastafarism a stand against British settler and economic colonialism.

Latin America

Jason Antrosio, Review, "Spanish Conquest: Indigenous Allies and Politics of Empire," Living Anthropologically, February 1, 2013. Jason Antrosio reviewed Matthew Restall's Seven Myths of the Spanish Conquest and is critical of Jared Diamond's Gun, Germs & Steel thesis. Restall highlighted indigenous allies and the Spanish and their settler colonists as reasons for conquest, not the inevitability of guns, germs and steel.

Other digital resources:
Wim Klooster, "Communities of Port Jews and their contacts in the Dutch Atlantic," Jewish History, 20, (2006), 129-145 seen in In the late 16th century, Jews and conversos created a trading network that tied together ports in Portugal, Brazil and the Netherlands. In the 17th century Dutch colonies of Recife in Brazil and Willemstad in Curacao became profitable Jewish settler merchant port colonies. This article focused on that 17th century history.
Nicole Jean Magie, "A Pearl in a World on the Move: Italians and Brazilians in Caxias, Brazil (1870-1910)," PhD dissertation, History, Michigan State University, 2014. Italian settler colonialism in Caxias, Brazil and a description of the settlement process and effects on Italians and Brazilians.
Benjamin W. Goossen, History Department, Harvard University, "Religious Nationalism in an Age of Globalization: The Case of Paraguay's 'Mennonite state,'" Almanack, no. 14, Guarulhos, (Sept/December 2016). Dr. Goossen described a case study of Mennonite "nation building," settler colonialism in Paraguay in the 1920's and 1930's to argue that state formation is not inherently modernist. Goossen traced 19th and early 20th century discourses of Mennonite colonies in Imperial Russia, Canada, and elsewhere as a "state within a state."
Karin Zbinden Gysin, "Re-Creating an Alpine Way of Life: Tyrolean Settlers in the Peruvian Jungle," Journal of Alpine Research, 104, 3, (2016). This paper showed how an ethnic group in Pozuzo, an old colony founded by Tyrolean and German settlers in the Peruvian jungle, recreated an alpine way of life. This case study, which is based on evidence from the field in Pozuzo and in Tyrol, illustrated how cultural resources linked to 'alpine' ways of life are constructed and claimed within the multi-ethnic rural community of Pozuzo as well as in Tyrolean NGOs.
Richard Gott, "Latin America at the Dawn of the 21st Century," Alternative Museum-Thy Brother's Keeper, December 2005. Gott described Evangelical Protestants, Pentecostals and Indigenous people beginning new movements aimed at old Catholic hierarchies of Latin America. Pope John Paul II denounced Progressive Liberation theology which was aimed at helping the poor, the oppressed and the indigenous and many in Latin America did not like that criticism. Gott claimed, "Most outsiders still imagine a continent of confident white settlers from Europe, living in a society made secure by the authoritarian military traditions of Spain and the narrow ideology and morality of Rome." But, new movements as indicated by 2005 saw Indigenous peoples, Evangelicals and Pentecostals changing this picture.
Richard Gott, "Latin America is preparing to settle accounts with its White Settler Elite," The Guardian, November 14, 2006. Richard Gott described Latino political, racial and class uprisings throughout Latin America to white settler colonialism from Venezuela to Bolivia. Gott is author of Latin America as a White Settler Society, 2007.
Ben Kiernan, Yale University, History, Wall of Silence: The Field of Genocide Studies and the Guatemalan Genocide," Dreyers Forlag Oslo, 2016, seen in 1981-1983 genocide against indigenous Guatemalan peoples conducted by state government that can be defined as a settler state.
Nancy D. Wadsworth, Political Science, University of Denver, "Unsettling Lessons: Teaching Indigenous Politics and Settler Colonialism in Political Science," For PS: Political Science and Politics class, "The Teacher," University of Denver, September 16, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Nancy D. Wadsworth. Article written in context of 2012-2013 "Idle No More" movement led by Canadian First Nation groups who confronted contemporary settler colonial states. Dr. Wadsworth compared state power and indigenous rights in the United States, Australia, and Latin America in historical context and aimed her discussion at undergraduate students in political science courses.

European Settler Colonialism

Benedikt Stuchtey, "Colonialism and Imperialism, 1450-1950," EGO, European History Online, January 24, 2011. An overview, introduction to European settler colonialism.
Reinhard Wendt, "European Overseas Rule," EGO, European History Online, December 3, 2010. Another overview, introduction to European global settler colonialism.
Margaret Kohn, "Colonialism," Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2012. This encyclopedia entry focused on relationship between Western political theory and colonialism divided into sections: Definitions, Natural Law and Age of Discovery, Liberalism and Empire, Marxism-Leninism, and Post-Colonial Theory.
Christopher Lloyd and Jacob Metzer, Chapter 1, "Settler Colonialism in World History: Patterns and Concepts," seen in Lloyd, Metzer, and Richard Sutch, eds., "Settler Economies in World History," Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2013. Lloyd and Metzer in this first chapter of Settler Economies in World History described the similarities of "Neo-European" settler colonialism worldwide.
Daron Acemoglu, Simon Johnson, and James A. Robinson, "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," Harvard-MIT web, June 22, 2000. Paper describing how European colonizer mortality rates in a colony effected European colonization strategy
Andrea Smith, Media and Culture Studies, University of California, Riverside, "Indigeneity, Settler Colonialism, White Supremacy," keep ypsi black website, Washtenaw County, Michigan, February 19, 2016. Andrea Smith drew pattern for settler colonialism, especially by Europeans, around the focus of slavery and white supremacy.
Martin W. Lewis, "Delusional Mapping and the invisible Comanche Empire," Geocurrents, March 11, 2011. Historical maps of North and South America are often misleading. Many cartographers portrayed vague claims to sovereignty by European powers, vast areas they did not control, such as the Comanche empire, i.e., which may give credence to original European settler colonial claims that the land was without people.
Zahir Kolia, "Colonial Theology: John Locke, Jean-Jacque Rousseau, Charles Darwin and the Emergence of the Colonial-Capitalist World System, 1500-1900," PhD Dissertation, York University, Toronto, Canada, December 2015. Zahir Kolia analyzed European theology, political economy, and philosophy for constituting the colonial-capitalist world system.
Mirjana Morokvasic, "'Settled in mobility': engendering post-wall migration in Europe," feminist review, 77, (2004), 7-25. The end of the bi-polar world and collapse of communist regimes in Eastern Europe saw many of those former communist citizens migrating and settling in new environments especially in Western Europe. Mirjana Morokvasic developed her thoughts on settler colonialism, migration and gender networks as early as 1984.


Source of Dutch Imperial Image:

Figure 4
  Figure 4: Dutch imperial imagery by Johan Braakensiek representing the Dutch East Indies, 1916. The caption says: The most precious jewel of the Netherlands, alluding to Multatuli's designation "the emerald belt" for the Dutch East Indies. Wikipedia.
Emma Keizer, "Multatuli's Max Havelaar through Postccolonial Theory," Utrecht University Working Paper, November 1, 2015. Uploaded to Academia by Emma Keizer. Ms. Keizer described Dutch Dutch East India official, Eduard Douwes Dekker, who wrote under the pseudonym Multatuli, and his novel Max Havelaar, 1859-1860, which criticized Dutch settler colonialism and corruption in Java which began a colonial reform movement in the Dutch Netherlands. It was Multatuli who coined the phrase "the emerald belt" for the Dutch East Indies.

Dutch or Netherland settler colonialism digital resources can be seen in SE Asian section, i.e., Indonesia, Papua and African section, South Africa.

Jessica Achberger, PhD candidate at University of Texas, Austin residing in Zambia, Africa, "Belgian Colonial Education Policy: A Poor Foundation for Stability," The Ultimate History Project, nd. Belgian settler colonialism's education policies described as a reason the Democratic Republic of the Congo struggles today.
"Belgium's Imperialist Rape of Africa," World Socialist Web Site, September 6, 1999. Review of Adam Hochschild, King Leopold's Ghost, Macmillan, 1998, gives Leftist perspective to settler colonialism in Belgian Africa.

David Prochaska, "The Political Culture of Settler Colonialism in Algeria: politics in Bone (1870-1920)," Revue de l'Occident musulman et de la Mediterranee, Vol. 48, no. 1, (Annee 1988), 293-311, seen in Persee, French research site. In 1911 the population of Bone, Algeria was 40,000 with 29% being native Algerian.
Book Review. Ms. Kelsey Suggitt, University of Portsmouth, review of Sung-Eun Choi, "Decolonisation and the French of Algeria: Bringing the Settler Colony Home," London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, 232 pages in Reviews of History, UK, January 2017.
Jim House, University of Leeds, UK, "The colonial and post-colonial dimensions of Algerian migrations to France," History in Focus, UK, Issue 11, Migration, (Autumn 2006). Would the migration of colonized Arab-Berbers from Algeria to the French mainland be migration studies or settler colonialism? Algeria was France's major settler colony. Algeria became independent in 1962 yet Algerian migration to France was most extensive of all colonial migration to Western Europe before 1960's. Late 19th century saw Algerian Arab-Berbers flowing to work in French factories and serve in the French army during WW I.
Phyllis Taoua, University of Arizona, "The Effects of Censorship on the Emergence of Anti-Colonial Protest in France," South Central Review, Vol. 32, no. 1, (Spring 2015), 43-55. Uploaded to Academia by Phyllis Taoua. Dr. Taoua discussed censorship and repression in Paris which hindered the emergence of anti-colonial and settler colonialism protest during the 1920's and shaped the beginning the Negritude movement in French West Africa. Note reference to Rene Maran's novel, Batouala, 1921.
William Clarence Smith, School of African and Oriental Studies, Review of Tony Chafer, "Promoting the Colonial Idea: Propaganda and Vision of Empire in France," Basingstoke, Palgrave, 2001, 260 pages, Reviews in History, accessed March 5, 2017. Tony Chafer described and analyzed French propaganda promoting settler colonialism and colonialism as a 'new patriotism' in late 19th and early 20th century France.
Elodie Saubatte, "French Algeria in Comparative Perspective: A Specific Form of Settler Colonialism?" H-World post, May 2, 2016. Announcement for French workshop, June 2016 with definition of settler colonialism as a new historiography and research field, Bibliography of important Settler Colonial historians and workshop schedule with presenter topics.
Musab Younis, "Racism, Pure and Simple, London Review of Books blog, August 24, 2016. Younis compared French attempts to unveil Algerian women in 1958 Algeria and 2016 French police harassment of French Muslim women citizens. Note reference to Frantz Fanon's "Algeria Unveiled," 1959. Unveiling settler colonialism in Algeria.
Mirjana Morokvasic-Muller, et. al., "Immigrant France: Colonial heritage, labour (im)migration and settlement," IDEA, Working Paper No. 2, December 2008. Paper described French need for foreign labor and demographic deficit of the late 19th century. This population decline forced France to rely on foreign labor and adopt foreigners as "future citizens in order to survive as a nation." "Foreigner" as a census category was seen as early as 1851 with 381,000 "foreigners" settling in France with 1 million by 1881. As of 2008 twenty five percent of the French population claimed, "foreign status" dating back only two generations.
Leopold Lambert, "State Misogyny: France's Colonial Unveiling History," The Funambulist, August 14, 2016. Cannes Mayor David Lisnard pushed formal ban on full-body swimsuits worn by some Muslim women on city's beaches and 2010 French ban on face covering, i.e., hijab and niqab. Some would say settler colonial unveiling policies continued in 2010 and 2016 France.
Ramses Amer, "French Policies towards the Chinese in Vietnam-A Study of Migration and Colonial Response," Moussons, 16, (2010), 57-80. Focus of research article was description of French colonial responses and policies to increased Chinese settler colonialism, migration in to French Vietnam, 1883-1954.
Julia Alayne Grenier Burlette, MA Thesis, History, "French Influence Overseas: The Rise and Fall of Colonial Indochina," Louisiana State University, December 2007. Paper's focus is on French Vietnam.
"French Angry at Law to teach glory of colonialism," The Guardian, April 15, 2005. More than 1,000 French historians, writers and intellectuals signed a petition demanding the repeal of 2005 law requiring school history teachers to stress the glory of French settler colonialism.

Jerry Frank, amateur genealogist, born in Southern Manitoba and Volhynian German, FEEFHS, Foundation of Eastern European Family History Studies, Vol. 17, no. 1, 2, (Spring/Summer 1999). Article on German migrations/settler colonialism in Eastern Europe. See Home Page for FEEFHS with tabs at top of page for maps, regions, religions, resources:
See Forum featuring three essays on German settler colonialism military campaigns, 1904-1908, in Southwest Africa and Hereros' genocide, German Historical Institute, Washington DC, Bulletin, Issue 37, Fall 2005. Scroll down to page 39 to see the essays: Isabel V. Hull, Cornell University, "The Military Campaign in German Southwest Africa, 1904-1907," Gesine Kruger, University of Zurich, "Coming to Terms with the Past," colonial war crime in Germany, and Jurgen Zimmerer, University of Sheffield, "Annihilation in Africa: The Race War in German Southwest Africa, 1904-1908, and Its Significance for a Global History of Genocide."
Jens-Uwe Guettel,( "The US Frontier as rationale for the Nazi east Settler Colonialism and Genocide of occupied Eastern Europe and the American West," Journal of Genocide Research, Vol. 15, no. 4, 2013), 401-419, published online December 9, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Jens-Uwe Guettel. Many scholars of German and Native-American history and the field of genocide studies argue that during World War II the Nazi's genocidal attempt to turn vast portions of Eastern Europe into 'Lebensraum' [living space] for Aryan settlers was connected to the near-extinction of American Native Peoples during the 'conquest' of the American West by the US. Dr. Guettel denied this "straight link" between the settler colonial model of the American West and Nazi Germany. Guettel stated flatly that the Nazis did not use the American settler colonial model.
Jens-Uwe Guettel, "From the Frontier to German South-West Africa: German Colonialism, Indians, and American Westward Expansion," Modern Intellectual History, Vol. 7, no. 3, (2010), 523-552 published by Cambridge University Press, 2010. Uploaded to Academia by Jens-Uwe Guettel. This article argued that positive perceptions of American westward expansion played a major (and so far, overlooked) role for both the domestic German debate about the necessity of overseas expansion and for concrete German colonial during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Patrick Bernhard, "Borrowing from Mussolini: Nazi Germany's Colonial Aspirations in the Shadow of Italian Expansionism," The Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, Vol. 41, no. 4, (2013), 617-643. Uploaded to Academia by Patrick Bernhard. Dr. Bernhard referenced scholars Benjamin Madley and Jurgen Zimmerer for supporting the thesis that German crimes in Southwest Africa were blueprints for German occupation and settler colonial designs on Slavic Eastern Europe during WW II. Bernhard disagreed taking a European regional approach by claiming that it was Mussolini's Fascist settler colonialism and expansionist policies that was inspiration for Nazi Germany plans.
Matthew N. Lyons, "Matthijs Krul on Nazi Settler colonialism," Three Way Fight blog, May 18, 2013. Matthew Lyons' anti-fascist blog cited Independent Marxist Matthijs Krul and his works on Nazi settler colonialism in eastern Europe.
Cnaan Liphshiz, "'White Jews', not, 'good Nazis': How Germany rejected Holland's settler farmers," Haaretz, August 12, 2010, accessed in Haaretz, March 13, 2017. New research showed how a group of Dutch farmers that trekked to Ukraine and Lithuania in WW II were spurned as 'White Jews."

Alexander Morrison, History, Philosophy, Religious Studies, Nazarbayev University, "Russian Settler Colonialism," Chapter in Lorenzo Veracini and Ed Cavanagh, eds., The Routledge Handbook of the History of Settler Colonialism, Abingdon: Routledge Publishing, (2017), 313-326. This chapter offered a brief introduction to Russian settler colonialism in the European and Asian steppe, Siberia and Central Asia from 16th to the 20th centuries.
J. Otto Pohl, History, University of Ghana, "The Deportation of the Crimean Tatars in the Context of Settler Colonialism," International Crimes and History, Issue 16, (2015) (Uluslararasi Suclarve Jarih, 2015, Sayi: 16), The Soviet ethnic cleansing of the Crimean Tatars, the subsequent settlement of their lands with Russian and Ukrainians, and the de-Tatarization of the peninsula.
Margaret Dikovitskaya, "Central Asia in Early Photography: Russian Colonial Attitudes and Visual Culture." Margaret Dikovitskaya was a 2003 Columbia University Kluge Fellow who researched the Prokudin-Gorskii Photograph collection and produced these works and research as a Kluge Center Project including this paper with sample photographs at the end. Dikovitskaya described how Russian early color photographs of Central Asian "Others" created a museum on the Russian screen and paper resources which played a role in delaying the response to early 20th century Central Asian nationalist demands because the Russian perspective shaped by these exotic images portrayed the Central Asian as a "clown" and not a threat.
Yuri Smelyanski, "Russian Policy in Crimea is a colonization," Maidan of Foreign Affairs, Ukrainain Foreign Affairs website, September 19, 2016. Mr. Smelyanski described recent Russian occupation of the Crimea and Ukraine as a settler colonial issue.

Kyle Hardy, University Do Porto, Portugal, "Unsettling Hope: Settler-Colonialism and Utopianism," An Electronic Journal, 2nd series, no. 1, (2012), 123-136. Kyle Hardy linked Thomas More's Utopia and Utopianism philosophy to British and European settler colonialism.
Terra Diana Walston Joseph, PhD Dissertation, English, "A 'Greater Britain': Colonial Kin in Fictions of Settlement, 1850-1890," University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2011. Ms. Joseph described 19th century fictional narratives of white settlement which represented "family" and a homogeneous British settler empire, an Anglo-Saxon racial identity. That identity was viewed in 19th century travel narratives and fiction writings in context of mass emigration of settler colonists from the British isles to US, Canada, New Zealand and Australia. Joseph noted the contradictions seen in Irish Catholic "families," but especially the absence of indigenous families from those narratives.
Jerod Ra'Del Hollyfield, "Framing Empire: Victorian Literature, Hollywood International, and Postcolonial Film Adaptation," PhD Dissertation submitted to Graduate Faculty in English at Louisiana State University, May 2011. Mr. Hollyfield researched how adaptions of Victorian Literature made in Hollywood by postcolonial filmmakers contend with the legacy of British Imperialism and Settler Colonial Studies within Hollywood's role as a multinational corporate entity. Chapters include analysis of Gunga Din, Guy Maddin's Dracula, Peter Pan, Vanity Fair, Four Feathers, Boy Called Twist, and Slumdog Millionaire.
"British Empire," Women in World History, George Mason University, Module 8. Importance of women-both British women and women from British colonies. How women helped define racial purity and proper gender roles in settler colonies and back home in England.
Robert D. Woodberry, "The Shadow of Empire: Christian Missions, Colonial Policy, and Democracy in Post Colonial Societies," PhD dissertation, Sociology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2004. Woodberry described the role of Protestant missionaries in British settler colonies and their effect on colonial policies as bridges between the indigenous people, settler colonists and the British government.
Colonial Film Database: Moving Images of the British Empire. This website holds detailed information on over 6000 films showing images of life in the British colonies. See by date or topic.
Ian Willis, Law, "'Just like England,' a colonial settler landscape," uploaded to Academia by Ian Willis. Short paper with photographs illustrating how early European settlers were key actors in a place-making exercise that constructed an English style landscape aesthetic on the colonial stage in the cow pastures district of New South Wales. Willis described Duke and Duchess of York's 1927 visit to Menangle in that vein as an example of the goal of settler colonialists which was to make the "colony" like the homeland.
Jared van Duinen, Charles Sturt University, "Project MUSE-The Borderlands of the British World," Review, Journal of Colonialism and Colonial History, Vol. 15, no. 1, (Spring 2014). Six books reviewed which use theoretical frameworks of British World and Borderland's Theory in studying British empire migration and identity in the British world.
James Farr, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, "Locke, Natural Law, and New World Slavery," Political Theory, Vol. 36, no. 4, (August 2008), 495-522, Sage Publications. Locke as agent of British colonialism and settler colonialism and used by Southern apologists for slavery.
David Armitage, Harvard University, "John Locke: Theorist of Empire?" in Sankar Muthu, ed., "Empire and Modern Political Thought," Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, (2012), 84-111. Seen in Digital Access to Scholarship at Harvard. Armitage's chapter described John Locke's relationship to settler colonialism in North America and beyond.
Book Review. Dr. Stuart Ward, University of Copenhagen, Magee and Thompson, "Empire and Globalisation: Networks of People, Goods and Capital in the British World, c. 1850-1914," Cambridge University Press, 2010 in Reviews of History, UK, December 2010. Magee and Thompson described the British world of settler colonialism and imperialism which ended with WW I.
Pamela Clayton, "Imperialism and Colonialism, " Chapter 1 in Enemies and Passing Friends: Settler Ideologies in Twentieth Century Ulster," London and East Haven, CT: Pluto Press, 1996, 9-32.
Google Book. Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism: Classical Political Economy, the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750-1850, Cambridge University Press, 1970. Bernard Semmel sought to uncover some of the intellectual origins of the imperialism of the classic period, the sources from which later theories of imperialism were constructed, and the character of the ideology which underlay settler colonialism and British expansion overseas.

Dr. Anna Ritchie, "Ancient History in Depth: Viking Colonists," BBC-History, February 17, 2011. Early Viking settler colonialism in England.
Peter Skold, etc. al, "Infant Mortality of Sami and Settlers in Northern Sweden: The Era of Colonization," Global Health Action, 4:8441, (2011). Indigenous Sami Infant mortality compared to Swedish settlers in Northern Sweden during the era of colonization, 1750-1900.
Hakan Forsell, "Modernizing the Economic Landscapes of the North. Resource Extraction, Town Building and Education Reform in the Process of Internal Colonization in Swedish Norrbotten," International Journal for History, Culture and Modernity, Vol. 3, No. 2, (September 3, 2015), 195-211. The process of internal settler colonization of Norrbotten before industrialization through 1900.
"Indigenous Resistance against Mining in Sabme and Culture as a Decolonial Tool," Indigeneity, Language, and Authenticity blog posts by Johan Sandberg McGuinne, August 19, 2013. Swedish indigenous Saami people resist British and Swedish mining in northern Sweden with clever use of music, art and language.

North America Settler Colonialism


Earliest North American Settler colonists' debate:
Brigit Katz, "Found: One of the Oldest North American Settlements," Smithsonian, April 5, 2017. Heiltsuk Indigenous peoples from central coast of British Columbia, Canada origin and migration beliefs claim earliest people arrived in North America from the coast.
"Archaeologist Challenged Historians," Smithsonian, March 12, 2017. In 1970's and 1980's Canadian Archaeologist Jacques Cing-Mars found fossil evidence in Bluefish caves in northern Yukon as to possibility that Siberians may have arrived in North America earlier than mainstream historical belief as to Clovis culture 13,000 yrs. ago. See same article in Hakai Magazine:
Kelsey Wrightson, "Two Row Wampum Treaty," Women Suffrage and Beyond, January 7, 2013. One of the earliest North American European settler colonist and indigenous treaties was the Two Row Wampum Treaty between the Dutch government and settlers and the Iroquois in 1613. The treaty had language as to land in the southeast Great Lakes region, much of which is Canada today.
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, "Settler Colonialism and Genocide," 2:00:38 Video Lecture, Simon Fraser University Video Library, British Columbia, Canada, November 27, 2015. Dr. Dunbar-Ortiz is author of many Indigenous American histories, but most recently authored "Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States."
1:12:00 Video Lecture. Dr. Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, "The Columbus Myth: Settler Colonialism & Genocide," Type Host, October 15, 2015. Vimeo Video lecture at Fairhaven College on her history, An Indigenous People's History of the US. See many other resources as to Settler Colonialism in North America and article posted by Type Host.
Michael E. Weaver, Gratz College, "Genocide of Native Americans: Did the United States and Canadian Governments Commit Cultural Genocide?" MA Thesis, Gratz College, 2016 uploaded to Academia by Michael Weaver.

John Mack Faragher, Yale University, "When French Settlers Were the Victims of Ethnic Cleansing," History News Network, April 17, 2006. French Acadian settler colonists in Nova Scotia removed under orders of British Canadian government.
Sean Carleton, "'We Meant War Not Murder': A Punk Rock History Of Klatsassin and the Tsilhqot'in War of 1864," Active History, Canada, October 23, 2016. Vancouver Punk Rock group, The Rebel Spell, had a British Columbia settler colonial historic event as a theme for one of their songs.
Peter d'Errico, Review, "Christian Colonialism Challenged in Smart, Provocative Book," Indian Country Media Network, August 9, 2014. Steve Heinrichs, ed., "Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry," Herald Press, 2013, which presented a thesis of Christian settler colonialism in North America, specifically, Canada, as a "torturous history" which continues to damage indigenous people today. Steve Heinrichs is Director of Indigenous Relations for the Canadian Mennonite Church. See Study Guide for Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry, below:
John and Steve Heinrichs, "Buffalo Shout, Salmon Cry Study Guide," MennoMedia, Herald press. Conversations on Creation, Land Justice, and Life Together.
Owen Toews, PhD dissertation, Earth and Environment Sciences, Graduate Center, City University of New York, CUNY, "Resettling the City? Settler Colonialism, Neoliberalism, and Urban Land in Winnipeg, Canada," 2015. Owen Toews' thesis described analyzing the making of a 21st century city, Winnipeg, Canada, and longstanding power relations that have shaped Canada's Prairie West and settler colonial history for 150 years. Those relationships being neoliberal city developers and encounters with Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in the region.
Malissa Phung, PhD candidate, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontaria, Canada, "Are People of Colour Settlers Too?" Speaking My Truth, Canada. This slim article on Canadian settler colonialism is part of other articles seen on right hand side of this page.
Candida Hadley, Interview, article and audio podcast, "In Canada every system of oppression is organized around settler colonialism," Halifax Media Co-op, Nova Scotia's grass roots media, February 22, 2014. Interview with Vancouver feminist Harsha Walia who believed that settler colonialism organized all oppression, especially misogyny.
Ken Coates, Book Review, Jennifer Henderson, Settler Feminism and Race in Making of Canada, Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2003, in The American Historical Review, Vol. 110, Issue 5, December 2005, seen in Oxford University Press. Jennifer Henderson focused on three "feminist" writings from 1839, 1885 and Janey Canuck Books to examine role of white women in shaping settler societies in Canada, especially race relations, British Imperialism and role of women in society. See Janey Canuck in the West Book by Emily Ferguson, 1910:
Cindy Holmes, Simon Fraser University, Sarah Hunt, University of British Columbia, and Amy Piedalue, University of Washington, "Violence, Colonialism and Space: Towards a Decolonizing Dialogue," ACME: An International Journal for Critical Geographies, Vol. 14, no. 2, (2015). How European settler colonists in British Columbia, Canada used law, "legal rationale," to seize land and silence violence.
Jaskivan K. Dhillon, The New School, New York, "Indigenous Girls and the Violence of Settler Colonialism," Decolonization: Indigenety, Education and Society, Vol. 4, No. 2, (2015), 1-31. Canadian exemplar as to settler colonialism and violence against indigenous women.
John Ahni Schertow, "Colonialism, Genocide, and Gender Violence: Indigenous Women," Intercontinental Cry, December 15, 2006. See revealing essay about the reality of Indigenous People, particularly Women and what they have faced due to settler colonialism in colonial North America.
Jennifer Henderson, Settler Feminism and Race, Academic Henderson cited three Canadian feminist works and their comments as to settler colonialism in Canada.
Jared Sexton, University of California, Irvine, "The Veil of Slavery: Tracking the Figure of the Unsovereign," planetarities web, posted January 2015, originally in Critical Sociology, 2014. North American context as to settler colonialism history in Canada and USA and that history's effects on post-racism and decolonization with a scan of recent literature on settler colonialism.
Gerald Taiaiako Alfred, PhD, "Colonialism and State Dependency," Journal of Aboriginal Health, November 2009. Paper describing Indigenous perspective and analysis of effects of colonization on First Nations in Canada. Focus of 19-page paper was fundamental roots of the psychological crisis and dependency of First Nations upon the state due to settler colonialism.
Jody Berland, "Weathering the North: Chapter of North of Empire," Chapter 7 in North of Empire: Essays on the Cultural Technology of Space, Durham: Duke University Press, 2009, published on-line Pro Quest elibrary web, November 2016. Chapter which addressed Canadian colonial history, technical mediation and cultural discourses contributing to Canadian representations of identity in terms of weather. Berland discussed the successive waves of colonization, including today, and how those colonists utilized weather.
Scott L. Morgensen, "White Settlers and Indigenous Solidarity: Confronting White Supremacy, answering decolonial alliances,"Decolonization, May 26, 2014. Description of white supremacist attitude and settler colonialism in Canada. Note article available in mp3 format in 16:34 audio podcast.
Jasmine Chorley, "The Green Ghost Over Red River: White Dudes Co-opting Indigenous Resistance Since 1871," Decolonization blog, March 6, 2015. Discussion about allies in activism, namely bad allies and how to be a good ally within Canadian historical context of settler colonialism.
Sean Graham, "History Slam Episode Ninety-Three: Towards a Prairie Atonement," History Slam podcast, Active History, Canada, 49:27, February 1, 2017. Canadian author Trevor Herriot, Toward a Prairie Atonement, University of Regina Press, 2016, 110 pages, is interviewed by Sean Graham in this podcast which described how the Regina region landscape was altered and changed by settler colonists and how that environment can be salvaged today. Herriot, a descendent of Canadian settlers, works with a Metis indigenous man toward solving and improving the land.
Toby Rollo, "Feral Children: Settler Colonialism, Progress, and the Figure of the Child," Settler Colonial Studies, (June 2016), published online July 2016. Uploaded to Academia by Toby Rollo. Settler colonialism is structured in part according to the principle of civilizational progress. Toby Rollo's thesis in this paper stated that European empire settler colonialism depicted indigenous peoples as children, i.e., savage/civilized binaries.
Anne Janhunen, "'Colonization Road' and Challenging Settler Colonialism in Canada," Active History, Canada, History Matters, November 3, 2016. Note review of Canadian film on settler colonialism, Colonization Road.
Joshua Ostroff, "'Colonization Road' is a Film. It's Also An Actual Road," Huffington Post, Canada, October 23, 2016. Review of film, Colonization Road, hosted by Anishinaabe/Metis comedian and activist Ryan McMahon as to the settler colonialism in southern Ontario, Canada.
Cameron Greensmith, "Pathologizing the Indigeneity in the Caledonia Crisis, 2006-2007," PhD paper, Sociology and Equity Studies in Education, Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto, Canadian Journal of Disability Studies, Vol. 1, No 2, 2012. Settler colonial land struggles and the news media in the Caledonia crisis.
Brian Bienkowski, Environmental Health News, "Pacific Northwest Tribes Fight to Protect the Centerpiece of their Culture," Truth out, Nov. 24, 2016. That centerpiece being salmon threatened by development, pavement, pollution, farming and changing climate.
European Colonization and the Native Peoples, Site for Language Management in Canada, SLMC, uOttawa, Canada. History of European colonization in Canada. Look to left of this page to see other resources for Canadian colonial history.
David Gramit, University of Alberta, in Edmonton, Canada, Musicology, "The Transnational History of Settler Colonialism and the music of the Urban West: Resituating a Local Music History," American Music, Vol. 32, No. 3, (Fall 2014), 272-291. Music as settler colonial propaganda in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, early 20th century. Preview and abstract only. Gramit had mentioned in other works that an 1897 Edmonton Celebration included native drummers, but by 1905 those were excluded from the city's celebration and included only European music.
Sarah Emily MacKenzie, PhD Thesis, "White Settler Colonialism and (Re)presentations of Gendered Violence in Indigenous Women's Theatre," Institute of Feminist and Gender Studies, University of Ottawa, Canada, 2016. Sarah E. MacKenzie's dissertation focused on three indigenous Canadian writers and their plays which displayed female resistance and collective solidarity and coalition against white Canadian settler colonialism and gendered violence.
"Sonny Assu Uses Graffiti to Reassert Native Culture," Smithsonian, November 25, 2016. Sonny Assu, 41-year-old British Columbia native artist mashes decades-old depictions of indigenous people with modern day art style.
Scott Kouri and Hans Skott-Myhre, School of Child and Youth Care, University of Victoria and Brock University, St. Catherine's, Ontario, Canada, "Catastrophe: A Transversal Mapping of Colonialism and Settler Subjectivity," Settler Colonial Studies, 2015, downloaded by University of Victoria, September 8, 2015. Uploaded to Academia by Scott Kouri. Freudian/Lacanian unconscious effects on 21st century North America due to settler colonial history.
Adam J. Barker, University of Leicester, UK, Carceral Archipelago Project, School of History, Politics and International Relations, Post-Doc. Studies, Collection/Bibliography of papers, articles on Canadian settler colonialism, uploaded to Academia by Adam J. Barker. Barker stated he is "a Settler Canadian who studies settler colonialism" and social change in support of anti-colonial and resurgent Indigenous struggles. See more articles and papers from Adam Barker Carceral Archipelago Project below:
Settler Colonial Studies articles and papers, University of Leicester, UK, Carceral Archipelago Project, School of History by Adam J. Barker, Simon Springer, Anthony Ince, Gavin Brown, and Emma Battell Lowman. Focus on Canadian Settler Colonialism.

United States

Figure 5
  Figure 5: John Gast painting (1872) depicting the philosophy of manifest destiny which was the initial enactment of settler colonialism in the US. Photo courtesy Wikimedia Commons. Public Domain. Introduction:  

1953 USIS, United States Information Service, 28:16 video documentary, "Pt. 1, Scenes from American History: The New World," YouTube video. Colonial History of the United States as to original settler colonialism in the New World. This would be a European and United States Exceptionalist historiography as to settler colonialism in North America.
5 part Documentary You Tube films, "We Shall Remain: America Through Native Eyes," Zinn Project. 300 years of Native American history originally produced in 2009. Five 90-minute documentaries highlighting the American indigenous peoples before and after European settler colonialism.
Layli Long Soldier, "The Freedom of Real Apologies," On Being with Krista Tippett, April 1, 2017. The US gave an official apology to native peoples for settler colonial abuses in 2009 but practically in secret. See video and transcript of Oglala Lakota poet Layli Long Soldier interview with Krista Tippett and her poem reacting to the 2009-2010 Department of Defense Appropriations Act which "housed" the apology.

Other digital resources:
"New Mexico Pueblo Revolt," Archaeology Magazine. Pueblo Revolt, 1694, in northern New Mexico where indigenous people withstood a Spanish siege. Early native stand against Spanish settler colonialism in North America.
Book Review. Ragina Johnson and Brian Ward, "Settler Colonialism and its victims," International Socialist Review, Issue #97, (Summer 2015). Review of Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, An Indigenous Peoples' History of the United States, Beacon Press, 2014, 296 pages.
Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, historian, "US Settler-Colonialism and Genocide Policies Against the Native American," brewminate, May 19, 2016. US policies and actions related to indigenous peoples, though often termed "racist" or "discriminatory," are rarely depicted as what they are: classic cases of genocide. See reference to Gary Clayton Anderson, "Ethnic Cleansing and the Indian-The Crime That Should Haunt America."
Layli Long Soldier, "38," On Being, April 8, 2017. Oglala poet honored 38 Dakota men hung under orders of President Abraham Lincoln, which is the largest mass hanging in American history, with this poem.
Reflections and Resources for DeConstructing Colonial Mentality, Sourcebook compiled by Unsettling Minnesota, September 2009. Texts and guides from Andrea Smith, Waziyatawin, Dee Brown, Ward Churchill, Elizabeth Martinez, Denise Breton, University of Minnesota collective members, and others. 211 page coursebook for Minnesota focused resources as to settler colonialism.
Book Review. Annette Gordon-Reed, "The Captive Aliens Who Remain Our Shame," NY Review of Books, January 17, 2017. Gordon-Reed reviewed Robert Parkinson, The Common Cause: Creating Race and Nation in the American Revolution, U. of North Carolina Press, 2016, 742 pages. Founding Fathers set ideals which were refined over generations with a notion of progress linked to settler colonialism which did not include native Americans and African Americans. The notion of progress for example was the Westward movement which removed the natives from their land and a plantation economy which would enslave Blacks.
Ethan Blue, "Finding Margins and Borders: Shipping Firms and Immigration Control Across Settler Space," Arcade, Stanford University. Blue described how "steamships and people who boarded them shed(s) light on the financial, corporate, and migratory connections between settler regimes in the late 19th century" by controlling or limiting Chinese or other immigrants. Australia and US focus.
Arun Kundnani and Deepa Kumar, "Race, Surveillance, and Empire," International Socialist Review, Issue 96, (Spring 2015). Article began with Snowden 2013 NSA spying revelations and 2014 Greenwald and Hussain's article as to specific targets of NSA spying followed by description of 'settler colonialism' and racial security over time in US history.
Dylan A.T. Miner, Metis artist and scholar, Director of American Indian Studies Program, Michigan State University, "Makataimeshekiakiak, Settler Colonialism, and the Spector of Indigenous Liberation," seen in Nicholas Brown and Sarah Kanouse, "Re-Collecting Black Hawk. Landscape, Memory, and Power in the American Midwest," University of Pittsburgh Press, 2015, Chapter 8, 219-235. Uploaded to Academia by Dylan A.T. Miner. See University of Pittsburgh ad as to that book by Brown and Kanouse with sample chapter, table of contents, description:
Primary Sources, Smithsonian Source. Three pages of digital Primary sources for teaching American History. Primary source documents from American colonial settlers and Indigenous people.
Daniel R. Mandell, "Shifting Boundaries of Race and Ethnicity: Indian-Black Intermarriage in southern New England, 1760-1880," The Journal of American History, Vol. 85, Issue 2, (1998), 466-501. Seen in Academic Room. Challenges and hardships from settler colonists, native Americans inter-married with the settler "Other," Blacks.
Oana Godeanu-Kenworthy, "Creole Frontiers: Imperial Ambiguities in John Richardson's and James Fenimore Cooper's Fiction," Early American Literature, Vol. 49, No. 3, (2014), 741-770. Uploaded to Academia by Oana Godeanu-Kenworthy. Dr. Godeanu-Kenworthy claimed that utilizing settler colonial theory to study early American literature can move us away from the binary, traditional Empire versus resistance historiography pattern.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, "Settler Colonialism as Structure: A Framework for Comparative Studies of US Race and Gender Formation," Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, Vol. 1, Issue 1, (2015), 54-74. Evelyn Nakano Glenn used a sociological lens to theorize that "understanding settler colonialism as an ongoing structure rather than a past historical event serves as...basis for analysis of US race and gender formation."
Maile Arvin, Eve Tuck, and Angie Morrill, "Project MUSE-Decolonizing Feminism: Challenging Connections between Settler Colonialism and Heteropatriarchy," Feminine Formations, Vol. 25, Issue 1, (Spring 2013). Thesis of this article indicated a belief that the US is a settler colonial nation and that settler colonialism continues to be a gendered process. Note inclusion of indigenous gender examples.
David T. Ratcliffe, "US Settler Colonialism-Driven by Genocide and Land Theft,", June 7, 2015, last updated July 2, 2015. Note references to Roxanne Dunbar-Ortiz, historian and author of American Indigenous People's History of the United States," Beacon Press, 2014. Page is reaction to historiography of American Exceptionalism.
Sam Spurrell, "Indigenous Erasure in Plain Sight: Place Names in New England," Truth out, January 22, 2017. Settler colonial history, desecration of place names throughout most of New England, some advancements in recent decades leave room for hope.
Emilie Cameron, Carleton College, Geography and Environmental Studies, Review, Glen Sean Coulthard, "Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition," Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press, 2014, 256 pages, AAG Review of Books, Vol. 4, Issue 2, (2016), 111-120, published online March 21, 2016. Note settler colonial historiography evident in this book and review.
Dwanna L. Robertson, Muscogee (Creek) Nation, Book Review, "Decolonizing the Academy with Subversive Acts of Indigenous Research: A Review of 'Yakama Rising' and 'Bad Indians," American Sociological Association, Society of Race and Ethnicity, (2016), 1-5. Settler Colonialism.
Claudio Saunt, "How were 1.5 billion acres of land so rapidly stolen," Aeon, Dec. 1, 2016. Institute of Native American Studies, University of Georgia. Change over time, historiography, settler Colonialism.
Steven F. Riley, "1661: The First 'Mixed-Race' Milestone," Mixed Race Studies, March 12, 2012. Settler colonists in early British America defined racial laws, especially as to marriage.
Patricia Engle, "Johnson v. M'Intosh Supreme Court Case, 1823," The Literature of Justification, Lehigh University student ongoing project, January 2004. This Lehigh University website dedicated to Washington Irving's 1809 "Gigantic Question," as to what right the first discoverers (settler colonists) of America had to the land and how could they take the land and country without asking consent of the original Indigenous peoples or give them compensation? Johnson v. M'Intosh, a John Marshall court decision, decided that the "Indians" had no right to transfer land title by sale to private citizens, in this case, 12,000 acres in southern Illinois. Ruling secured a monopoly for the Federal government to do "business" with the natives. Note use of the Discovery Doctrine by the 1823 Marshall Supreme Court.
John Ross, "Letter from Ross defending the Cherokees' right to their land," Teaching US History. Primary source document, letter, Cherokee chief, John Ross, defending the Cherokee nation and their land rights in the face of settler colonialism, Washington City, July 2, 1836. See slim biography and other Cherokee resources below:
Chief John Ross, Cherokee Nation website. Note other Cherokee resources to left of this page.
"This Land Is Ours," Teaching Tolerance, Southern Poverty Law Center, 2017. Ponca indigenous peoples lose their Nebraska land to white settlers and US government during 18th and 19th centuries. See Discussion questions with sample answers at bottom of this essay.
Beenash Jafri, "Desire, Settler Colonialism and the Racialized Cowboy," American Indian Culture and Research Journal, Vol. 37, no. 2, (2013), uploaded to Academia by Beenash Jafri. Using the film, Indian Country, Beenash Jafri discussed settler colonialism in North America through race and the masculine cowboy.
Ato Quayson, "What Lies Beneath 'The Revenant,'" The Guardian, February 22, 2016. Review of the Alejandro Gonzalez Inarritu's film, "The Revenant" placed in context of US settler colonialism.
"Mormons and Natives Month at the JI," Juvenile Instructor blog, November 2013. Mormon blog, Juvenile Instructor, JI, posted several "essays" as to Native Americans and Mormon settler colonialism in the Great Basin and Pacific Coast.
"Songs of the Mormons and Songs of the West," ed. Duncan Emrich, From the Archive of Folk Song, Library of Congress, Washington, 1952. Side A of "Songs of the Mormons" are secular and historical as to their settler colonialism of Utah and the West.
Alysa Landry, "How Mormons Assimilated Native Children," Indian Country Media Network, January 11, 2016. This 2nd in a 3 part series on the Latter Day Saints' Indian Student Placement Program which educated 40,000 native youth from 60 indigenous nations who were placed with Mormon families from 1947-2000.
Ojibwa, "Mormons and Indians in Early Utah," Native American Netroots, September 11, 2010. Native writer's perspective as to early Mormon settler colonialism in Utah, beginning in 1847, and effects on the Indigenous peoples.
Paul Putz, "Religion in the American West: New Books Update, Religion in American History, November 2014. Two book reviews by Paul Putz. Tash Smith, Capture These Indians for the Lord: Indians, Methodism, and Oklahomans 1844-1939, University of Arizona Press, 2014 and Anne Martinez, "Catholic Borderlands: Mapping Catholicism onto American Empire, 1905-1935," University of Nebraska Press, 2014. Religion and settler colonialism in the American "West" with Martinez's book being more explicit on connecting empire and religion, specifically Catholicism in the Southwest and Mexican borderlands.
Damon Sajnani, "HipHop's Origins as Organic Decolonization," Decolonization-Indigeneity, Education, & Society, April 2, 2015. "HipHop culture at its origins, is an organic decolonization of local urban space by internally colonized people in post-industrial 1970's New York." HipHop globally as reaction to settler colonial states?
Christie Toth, "Review-Seeing Settler Colonialism," College English, Vol. 78, no. 5, (May 2016). Christie Toth in context of teaching English and writing on a Navajo reservation considered the book reviews she received from her students and decided to review the historical legacy and persistent structures of ongoing US settler colonialism through 4 book reviews on that topic.
Evelyn Nakano Glenn, "Settler Colonialism as Structure: A Framework for Comparative Studies of Race and Gender Formation," Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, Vol. 1, No. 1, (2014), 54-74, American Sociological Association. 21 page pdf article described how White Settler US state and political economy shaped race and gender formation of Whites, Native Americans, African-Americans, Mexican-Americans, and Chinese Americans.
Rachel Kuo, "Why Racial Justice Work Needs to Address Settler Colonialism and Native Rights," Everyday Feminism, August 16, 2015. Rachel Kuo as a second generation Taiwanese American included ideas from Mniconjou Lakota journalist Tate Walker. Rachel Kuo described how settler colonialism can be included in our work and fight against racism.
Iyko Day, Mt. Holyoke College, English and Critical Social Thought, "Being or Nothingness: Indigeneity, Antiblackness, and Settler Colonial Critique," Critical Ethnic Studies, Vol. 1, No. 2, (Fall 2015), 102-121. Dr. Day focused article on race and American settler studies, specifically settler colonialism and black studies.
Adam J. Dahl, PhD thesis, "Empire of the People: The Ideology of Democratic Empire in the Antebellum United States," University of Minnesota, History Department, July 2014. 320 page PhD thesis which argued that "settler colonialism played a constitutive role in the construction of democratic culture in the antebellum US." In other words, "American democratic values realized through settler conquest and indigenous dispossession."
Craig Fortier, Sociology, York University, Toronto, Canada, "Stealing home: decolonizing baseball's origin stories and their relations to settler colonialism," Settler Colonial Studies, published online January 28, 2015. Uploaded to Academia by Craig Fortier. The sport of baseball has played an integral role in constructing a national identity in the American settler state. This essay analyzed baseball's popularization as America's national pastime and its interconnections with the formation of a settler society.
Michael Adas, "From Settler Colony to Global Hegemon: Integrating the Exceptionalist Narrative of the American Experience into World History," Panel on Cultural Encounters between the Continents over the Centuries, 19th International Congress of Historical Sciences, University of Oslo, August 6-13, 2000. Note comment in paper for American history and historians to use more global perspectives in American historiography.
Gregg French, Western University, Review, Walter L. Hixson, American Settler Colonialism: A History, New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, 253 pages, seen in H-Net, H-USA, May 2014. See another version uploaded to Academia by Gregg French:
Laura Hurwitz and Shawn Bourque, Unsettling America blog, "Settler Colonialism Primer, UK," Films for Action, posted July 4, 2015. Perspectives on American settler colonialism effects on the indigenous people of North America.
Alexander Lesser, "Cultural Significance of the Ghost Dance," American Anthropologist Association and the American Folk Lore Society, Andover, MASS., December 29, 1931. 1890-1896 sympathetic account of American native Ghost Dance religious reaction to overwhelming settler colonialism by James Mooney.$002fyale$002f9780300209907.001.0001$002fupso-
Joshua L. Reid, University of Mass., Boston, "The Sea is My Country: The Maritime World of the Makahs," New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015, 400 pages. Reid described the maritime world of the most extreme northwest US indigenous tribal nation, the Makahs, from 1788 to the Present and their dealing with European settler colonists. Note effect of settler colonialism on the maritime Makah, 2008 gray whale court case described below:
Paul Shukovsky, "Makah 'Treaty Warriors': Heroes or Criminals? Seattle pi, March 16, 2008. See 4 images at beginning of article. Five Makah whalers took a gray whale under their mid 19th century treaty rights and are sued by the government for doing so. Example of settler colonialism history on indigenous peoples in current times. See Makah Tribal Council website:
Wayiyatwin, "Understanding Colonizer Status," Unsettling America blog-Decolonization in Theory and Practice, September 6, 2011. Wayiyatwin, a Dakota, described "colonizer status" in context of Albert Memmi's ideas on that topic and took issue with some of Memmi's points and defended the Dakota people's rights to their ancestoral lands taken by settlers.
Kat Eschner, "The Little House on the Prairie was built on Native American Land," Smithsonian, February 7, 2017. Laura Ingalls Wilder's life as a white settler family on the American prairie was serialized by novels and a television series. First published in 1935, Little House became a popular best seller. Recent historical research has found that the Wilders were part of a squatter group of white settlers on Osage Diminished Reserve 1869-1870.
From Standing Rock, Taking Things Back on Thingstaken, telesur TV, Nov. 24, 2014. Bettina Castagno of the Mohawk nation, stated, "We are all united here for life, for water." Natives protesting the oil pipeline near the Dakota Standing Rock reservation think in terms of settler colonialism.
Kayla DeVault, Navajo Perspective. "Four Ways to Look at Standing Rock: An Indigenous Perspective," Truth out, November 25, 2016. Navajo perspective as the environment and earth in context of the Dakotas Standing Rock oil pipeline protests and the continued 21st century threat of settler colonialism.
Tim Scott, "The Dakota Access Pipeline and the Doctrine of Native Genocide," Truth out, December 6, 2016. The treatment of Native Water Protectors at Standing Rock harks back to white settler colonial attitudes predating Columbus.
Anne Spicer, "Interrupting Industrial and Academic Extraction on Native Land," Cultural Anthropology, December 22, 2016. Part of Standing Rock series.
Native American perspective on settler colonialism and industrial and academic theft by Europeans since they entered "Turtle Island," which is the Americas, specifically North America.
Kyle T. Mays, Black/Saginaw Anishinaabe historian, urban history, Afro-Indigenous and Indigenous Studies, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, "The #FlintWaterCrisis is Not just a Black Issue, it is also an indigenous issue," Decolonization blog, January 20, 2016. Framing, contextualizing the Flint War poisoning in indigenous and settler colonial history.
Claire Urbanski, UC Santa Cruz, "Genocidal Intimacies: Settler Desire and Carceral Geographies," paper presented at American Studies Association conference, 2016. Dr. Urbanski expressed gratitude for Black Studies on Whiteness and racism which flowed into her work on Indigenous studies in the United States and claimed her presentation was in context of the Standing Rock Access Pipeline protests in the Dakotas.
Sarah Maddison, University of Melbourne, Social and Political Sciences, "Indigenous reconciliation in face of settler colonialism in the US shows how sovereignty and constitutional recognition work together," The Conversation, May 16, 2016. See Vox article specific to US and Standing Rock Dakota fight:
German Lopez, The big, nearly 200-year-old legal issue at the heart of the Dakota Access pipeline fight,", March 13, 2017. Tribal sovereignty originating out of three treaties in the 1820's-1830's are focus of Indigenous Dakota in their battle to protect water near their lands.

See other articles in The Conversation series below:
See articles on Indigenous reconciliation as to US, Sami in northern Finland, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand, The Conversation, May 2016. Series in line with Settler colonialism in Sarah Maddison article above.

Previous Digital Resource Articles in World History Connected with relevance to this subject:
"Digital Resources for Visualizing the Invisible Other through Art, Photography and Film," World History Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 2, June 2012.
"Digital Resources for the Other in World History," World History Connected, Vol. 9, Issue 3, October 2012.
"Digital Resources for Port Cities in World History," World History Connected, Vol. 13, no. 1, February 2016. Part of Forum on Port Cities in World History WHC edition. See that edition:
"Digital Resources for Travel Writing and Travel Narratives in World History," World History Connected, Vol. 10, no. 2, June 2013. Travel writing and narratives were used by governments, religion, and settler colonists as propaganda, advertisement, and history. Perhaps some of these digital resources, lessons, could fit into the settler colonial field.

John Maunu is Digital Resources Editor for WHC, AP College Board World History consultant, and APWH consultant for Grosse Ile High School and Cranbrook/Kingswood School, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. He can be reached at


1 See

2 See, Edward Cavanagh and Lorenzo Veracini," Editor's Statement," Settler Colonial Studies, Vol. 3, Issue 1 (2013): 1. Available at See similar definitions at

Home | List Journal Issues | Table of Contents
© 2017 by the Board of Trustees of the University of Illinois
Content in World History Connected is intended for personal, noncommercial use only. You may not reproduce, publish, distribute, transmit, participate in the transfer or sale of, modify, create derivative works from, display, or in any way exploit the World History Connected database in whole or in part without the written permission of the copyright holder.

Terms and Conditions of Use