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The Philippines and World History


Layers of Time and Place: San Pedro Macati, Metro Manila, the Philippines

James B. Tueller



     Tonio Andrade tells about a young Geoffrey Parker in 1967, visiting Fernand Braudel, the annaliste historian of the Mediterranean and Capitalism. Parker asked Braudel "what's a historian's most valuable characteristic?" Parker thought Braudel's answer would be "hard work" or "language," but the reply was "imagination."1

Figure 1
  Figure 1: Nissip, 24 May 2014, Wikimedia Commons.  

     Off busy Makati Avenue in Manila, Philippines, the San Pedro Macati church sits on a small hill directly across from the tree-shaded Plaza Cristo Rey. The building serves as the center of the Saints Peter and Paul parish of the Catholic Church. As a teacher and scholar of world history, I imagine best in a specific place. Students turn with me in the mind's eye to a place I know and continue to learn about: the streets of Manila, the Philippine Islands. Walking from Ayala Avenue down Makati Avenue to the Poblacion neighborhood, ending at the San Pedro Macati church, the intersection of contemporary life and the layers of the past awaken my curiosity and stimulate the imagination. Makati—one of the sixteen cities that make up MetroManila, (population 12.8 million) the capital region of the island nation, the Philippines—serves as one example of how places and their layers can teach world history using primary sources, individual's lives and buildings that continue in the present from the global past.2

     I will examine a history of people and place, including the indigenous inhabitants along the Pasig River, the Spaniards who dedicated the church in 1620, the British who destroyed the building during the occupation of Manila in 1762, parishioners who rebuilt in 1849, American soldiers who used the building as a hospital in 1899 and independent Filipinos after 1946 who continue to worship and celebrate in the Church today. The Philippines, an island nation, and Manila, a center for world exchange, attest to the layering of world history and global connections. Today, Makati is the financial and banking center of the Philippines. The contemporary world of skyscrapers, multi-national corporations and traffic jams overlays many deeper layers of the past. A student of world history could easily walk two kilometers from the Filipino Heritage Library to the San Pedro Macati church, learning much about the local history, Filipino history, Spanish history, Chinese history and world history.

Figure 2
  Figure 2: Jon Voltaire B Aquino, October 25, 2005, Wikimedia Commons.  

     I am not the first to examine Filipino history through its streets or buildings. In 1959, John Leddy Phelan (1924–1976) proposed three buildings as symbols in the Filipino past—a Filipino home with bamboo walls and nipa palm leaf roofs; a schoolhouse for the 20th Century American regime; and a Catholic church, frequently ornate, baroque built with Spanish missionaries.3 Buildings and places remind us of what the author of Deuteronomy in the Hebrew Bible taught, declaring that we live in "houses filled with all kinds of good things [we] did not provide, wells [we] did not dig, and vineyards and olive groves [we] did not plant."4 The buildings people build and the lands people stand on reveal local lives, global connections and the passage of time.

     With the structure of the San Pedro Macati church as my focus I also have chosen a metaphor from sedimentology for my process. Geologists examine the rock record to reconstruct past environments. The layers of sand, silt, clay, etc. reveal earth's history. Metaphorical digging starts in the present, the top layer, excavating through the surviving sources to uncover world history in one place, one building. By proxy, one Filipino example, stands for the particular making world history personal, individual and accessible. Teachers and readers of all levels can model their own learning of world history, connecting with similar places and proxies.

     Others have also examined Manila in world history. More than twenty years ago, Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Gir áldez chose 1571 and the founding of the Spanish city of Manila as the "specific date for the birth of global trade . . . Manila was the crucial entrepôt linking substantial, direct, and continuous trade between America and Asia for the first time in history."5 Manila also has surviving seventeenth-century monasteries and churches. I might have done the same with Spanish Manila, known today as Intramuros. Instead of Manila, I turn to Makati, twelve kilometers up the Pasig River. The Pasig River begins at the freshwater Laguna de Bay, less than 2 meters above sea level, winding twenty-five kilometers down to Manila Bay. The San Pedro Macati church is in the old heart of Makati, a few hundred feet up the Buenavista hill from the river. The neighborhood is known today as Poblacion, whereas the new center of the city is further south, along the triangle of Makati Avenue, Paseo de Roxas and Ayala Avenue. In the early Twentieth Century it was the airport. The long straight avenues used to be runways. Today, its daytime population reaches an estimated 3.7 million people. Those busy millions barely notice the buildings or the statues, but they also speak of commemorations of a Filipino past.

     Thirty-nine years ago, my own past intersected in the layers of Makati as my father worked at the American Embassy. I lived in Makati from 1978 to 1981 and attended the International School of Manila, which was three blocks away from the San Pedro Macati church. Like the millions who often ignore the physical landscape, I never visited or even knew about the San Pedro Macati church. Alan Burdick explains "the moments of the present come and go between blinks, one by one falling behind the eye, accumulating in the brain like chalk in the seabed. Only much later, in the tracing of deposited layers, does the experience of nature acquire a discernible shape."6 The San Pedro Macati church survives as a study of "chalk in the seabed" with one telling difference. The church lives on because of the use of the parishioners who continue using it every day.

     The San Pedro Macati church was named for the patron saint of Pedro de Brito, the Spaniard who funded the building from the wealth he obtained as an early arrival in the conquered islands. Brito fought in Jolo, Mindanao and Maluco rising to the rank of Capit án de Infanter ía. He also became a Regidor, a member of the city council in Manila. He petitioned the crown in 1604, after more than ten years of service in the Philippines, for a sinecure in Naples where he could help his mother and sisters. Instead of the transfer to Italy, Brito received a grant of 50 ducados.7

     Brito benefitted from the royal grant of ample lands. But the Spanish system limited his power. In July, 1606, Rodrigo D íaz Guiral, Prosecutor and Protector of the Indios, wrote to Philip III about Brito, who pastured cattle along the Pasig River. The animals damaged the fields and caused great harm. The judges of the Royal Audiencia in Manila ruled that Brito must keep his cattle within bounds. If the cattle strayed, then indios would be allowed to kill them. The Protector, however, reported that no one did "because they are such a wretched race," showing his prejudiced assumptions about the indigenous inhabitants.8 Some of the cattle owners, maybe Brito included, even accused the inhabitants of stealing and enslaved them. The protector, like priests in Spanish America, knew that the king would not allow enslavement of the indigenous.

     Brito eventually willed his lands in Makati to the Jesuits. In 1620, they built the church in his honor. San Pedro de Macati became a center of Jesuit training in the Philippines. Teaching about the Catholic Reformation and the worldwide spread of Christianity certainly involved the Jesuits, the Society of Jesus. For example, Valerio de Ledesma was born at Alaejos, province of Valladolid, March 23, 1556, and became a novitiate in the Jesuit order by 1572. He traveled to the Philippines, where he served as rector of Cebú, associate of the provincial, rector of Manila, provincial, rector and master of novitiates at San Pedro Macati, and again rector at Manila, where he died, May 15, 1639.9 San Pedro Macati also became a place of retirement and reflection for the older Jesuits along with the novices in training, preparing to follow the Spiritual Exercises of their founder, Ignatius of Loyola. Pedro Chirino, the Jesuit father, missionary and historian, died at San Pedro in 1635. Father Francisco Ignacio Alcina, another Jesuit, used the Chirino papers to write another history of the Philippines in the 1660s.10

     In 1639, San Pedro Macati became a place of violent encounter between the many groups of people in the Manila area. Teaching about an uprising of Chinese in the Philippines requires careful use of primary sources and awareness of a document's passage through time. For example, Glòria Cano has cautioned readers about the early Twentieth-Century English translations by Emma H. Blair and James A. Robertson of Spanish documents in Manila. She points to "deliberate distortions." American officials in Manila had reasons to misrepresent the Spanish colonial bureaucracy. Such research provides valuable historical skills as the limitations and insights of the sources allow us to tease out meaning.11

     The Jesuit report about the 1639 violence at San Pedro Macati reaches us after four centuries of time with uncertain reports from Calamba on 21 November 1639. Rumors circulated in Manila that the Sangleys (Spanish term for Chinese in the Philippines) had rebelled. One unsigned report declared that they attacked like mad dogs and made weapons of the sickles with which they cut their rice, fastened to poles and some lances. A certain Don Sebastian in Calamba was said to have forced many Chinese to work on the King's estates south of Manila, along the fertile shores of Laguna de Bay. Japanese, blacks and Indians eagerly discussed their desire to "satiate themselves for once with killing Chinese."12 Then a week later on 28 November, the rebel Chinese had killed Captain Martin de Aduna and came to San Pedro Macati, the Jesuit novitiate. The church was strongly built and vaulted. Jesuit brothers Esteban de Oliver and Raimundo Alberto went into it. Some mulattoes and house servants took refuge there as well. One hundred natives from the village only had tiles and bricks to defend themselves. The Sangleys broke down the door and set fire to the buildings. Sensing victory, the Sangleys treated the father well, but killed fifteen others. Those barricaded deeper in the church held back. The vaulted roof refused to catch fire. Miraculously, the Sargento Mayor Don Juan de Arceo arrived with 200 Spanish infantry and 80 horsemen. He also had a hundred Pampango and four hundred Tagal Indians, all carrying fire-arms and two field-pieces. The Sangley began to negotiate, when Adjutant Benavides arrived by river with twenty-five men and "dashed upon them like a lion."13 Alberto told them to not attack the Sangleys because they were already making an agreement for peace. The Spanish forces on the River side ignored him and dislodged the rebels from the church. The Sangleys began to flee. More than a thousand Sangleys died in these encounters. In a further retreat 1,300 Sangleys were killed.

     The same unsigned report, describes the experience of Alferez Don Antonio de Tornamira during the battle at the church. He was knocked senseless in the battle. When he revived he was helped by a Sangley who dressed him in Chinese garb and the two reached Manila safely. The author does not explain why they survived dressed as Chinese while so many other Chinese were killed. But once Tornamira was safe, he received a new suit from the governor and the heroic Sangley received exemptions from tribute for many years. In triumph the report concludes that this one Sangley asked for baptism also. The San Pedro Macati church survived the attack. Its vaulted roof became a symbol of safety. The final sentence about the 1639 Chinese uprising and suppression heaped praise on the Pampangos for behaving nobly and courageously.14 The 1639 violence involved Spaniards, Pampango and Tagalog natives, Chinese and intermediary priests. Divisions and alliances typified the first global age in Manila as it did in other areas.

     The vaulted roof of the San Pedro Macati church survives today (with many renovations). Reading the account of the Chinese uprising, the Spanish response, indigenous participation and individual heroism brings together micro-history with world history. Might events have gone differently in 1639? Could an uprising of Chinese in Jesuit plantations have changed the trajectory of Southeast Asian history? Counter-factual history might be dismissed as mere "wishful thinking." And yet, the thought experiment, stimulates the imagination. The historian John Lewis Gaddis also declares that "historical imaginations are their [historians] laboratories."15 The physical survival of the roof, combined with reading the translated primary sources (no matter how skeptically) allows us to connect the past with the present. The place continues to matter. The people influenced subsequent events. The chain, from today to those events of 1639 survives. Other locations like Waitangi, New Zealand or the Miraflores Locks in Panama connect locations to world history as much as Wall Street in Manhattan or the Forbidden City in Beijing connect world history to specific places. Even an ancient cotton field in the Indus River Valley connects to a world history. We need to look for the connections.

     Primary sources focused on places like San Pedro Macati are ever more readily accessed. The PARES website, hosted by the Spanish national government, allows for easy search and on-line reading from many archives in Spain. One such document shows us the power and confidence that the Jesuit priests enjoyed while in San Pedro Macati. In 1716, the provincial of the Jesuits in the Philippines, Francisco Alonso, wrote letters of recommendation from San Pedro Macati on behalf of Joaqu ín Francisco de Ursúa y Arizmendi, Count of Liz árraga and his cousin Juan Francisco Irisarri. According to Alonso they had been falsely accused of a murder outside the walls of Manila. The suspected murderers were released.16

     The Jesuit novitiate and church at San Pedro Macati in the 18th century prospered with one thousand inhabitants.17 But two world events in the 1760s changed the parish and building in remarkable ways. During the Seven Years' War, the British captured Manila for a time. The building did not survive the occupation and the parish lost its church. In the Treaty of Paris, Manila was returned to the Spanish but the vulnerability of the distant colony was clear. Then in 1768, a royal decree arrived from Madrid expelling all the members of the Society of Jesus from the Spanish Monarchy. Catholic monarchs suppressed a global missionary order for almost fifty years. Pope Pius VII restored the Society of Jesus in 1814 and they subsequently returned to the Philippines and established new schools and missions.

     Meanwhile, the crown confiscated Jesuit lands after 1768. Lands were temporarily leased and then eventually sold in 1796. The Marques of Villamediana bought the haciendas of Makati and Piedad. Others, Spaniards and some Spanish and Chinese mestizos bought additional Jesuit lands.18 The Marques of Villamediana was Diego Ventura de Guzm án y Fern ández de Córdoba (1738–1805) and 13th Count of Oñate. He was the comandante gobernador during the English occupation of Manila. Eventually, Francisco Lec áros a grandson of one of the last Admirals of the Manila Galleon became the owner of the San Pedro Macati lands. His famous grandfather had married the widow of the Marques of Villamediana, eventually leaving Lec áros the land as an inheritance. In the first half of the 19th-Century, he invested in a press that was valued at 150,000 pesos.19

     The former Jesuit property exchanged hands until the Zobel de Ayala-Roxas family owned. The grandfather of first Zobel de Ayala had come to Philippines form Hamburg Germany. His descendant, Jacobo de Ayala married Trinidad de Ayala, youngest daughter of the Ayala/Roxas marriage, who purchased in 1851 the Hacienda de San Pedro Makati. The surname Ayala shows the long history of Spanish surnames which derive from Basque villages. The village of Ayala (Araia in standardized Basque spelling) means hillside pasture. To my delight the Consuelo Zobel Alger Foundation has offices in Honolulu on Hotel Street and offices in Makati on Paseo de Roxas. The Zobel de Ayala family has also gone global as did many immigrant families in the Nineteenth Century

     Like any place, Makati included tragic and joyous events. The primary sources include an 1847 document describing how three members of a police group died near the church while following a gang of thieves.20 And then in 1849, the burnt-down Church was rebuilt following the Seventeenth Century plans.

Figure 3
  Figure 3: Strohmeyer & Wyman, Publisher, and Copyright Claimant Underwood and Underwood. Church at San Pedro Macati. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress. (Accessed October 5, 2017).  

     The fields and shops around the church were profitable, making pots, bricks and tiles in an alfareria. The pottery factory survived into the 19th century when we know that Fausto Inocencio Nemecio Vizconde Marcelino asked to recognized as poor and be allowed to sell the proceeds of the alfareria in Makati to Don Jose Bonifacio Rojas.21 The factory changed hands earlier in 1865 when Don Feliciano Raymundo paid 75 pesos for every oven.22

Figure 4
  Figure 4: "Carabaos grazing : San Pedro Macati, Rizal—1900; 870; 1900." University of Michigan Library Digital Collections. (Accessed: October 04, 2017).  

     Through high and lows, the parish records of Makati reveal the continuities of life and death. Family history websites offer primary sources from the parish registers, indicating death, marriages and births. offers free access to many locations in the world, opening up millions of names from the past. The San Pedro Macati parish registers reveal world connections and fascinating migrations. For example, on 20 February 1893, Doña Cat Nin, 44 years of age, resident on the Street of San Fernando in Binondo, died. The doña indicated the respect she received in the community. Manuel F. Tanyan, the Gobernadorcillo, and Joe Tay San, principal de sangleyes, signed the death certificate. The doctor who certified the cause of death wrote his name in Chinese characters. Ly Chiechin, had enough education to be the official doctor and wrote Chinese.23 "The Chinese signature is Li, Ce (tse) Ren (in Mandarin), but the Southern Min dialect is pronounced as Li, tse /rien, which is quite close to Ly Chiechin. It is quite possible as there would be quite a few immigrants from the Fujian province living in Manila, or other people speaking Min dialects from Fujian."24 Cat Nin's death certificate reveals the continued connections between Manila and southern China. The other death certificates preserved in the municipal archives are of the indios naturalesAgustina Valentina (59 years old), Juan Jose (87 years old), Patricio Fabian (60 years old), and Flora Maria de Hoy (52 years old).25 Although an overwhelmingly Catholic village in the Nineteenth Century, other Christians resided in the area. On 8 July 1891, William Bissenden an English subject died and was buried in the Protestant cemetery of San Pedro Macati.26

Figure 5
  Figure 5: Image 1 of 22—Philippines Civil Registration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894. Records Management and Archive Office, Ermita, Manila. Accessed through  

     In the late 1800s, the Spanish government sought to enforce the military draft among the villages of Manila. They requested the baptismal records from the San Pedro Macati parish priest, Remigio Rodrigo, in the 1890s for boys baptized in the 1870s in order to create the quinto or fifth (20%) for military service. The priest examined the past parish registers for baptisms of boys born 21 years earlier, creating a list of eligible young men. A "faithful" copy was made of the earlier baptisms and the names were forwarded to the civil governor. The recruited men came from the parish of San Pedro Macati and its nearby neighborhood of Culiculi. An unnamed official described them as "native young men and mixed Chinese and Spanish Filipinos who should be raffled."27 The baptismal records contained the date of the baptism, the declaration that the holy oils were administered, and the names of parents along with the two sets of grandparents and a godfather.

     Although the parish registers did not survive the disasters of war, typhoon, earthquake, humidity or storage, the American collection of Philippines Civil Registry in the early twentieth century preserved some of the copies. They are written in Spanish but are stamped in English "Records Management and Archives Office." has scanned and published the images. Thousands of other places can also be examined from the same website. I accessed the San Pedro Macati records from my BYU-Hawaii office. 127 images of births and baptisms, are accessible from the San Pedro Macati parish during the Spanish period from 1706 to 1911. Descriptions of the parents, grandparents or godfathers include mestizo de sangley (mixed Chinese with indigenous) and indio vecino (native resident). One sheet lists the recruits for the Quinto declaring that there were Españoles Filipinos (Spaniards born in the Philippines) included but among the actual baptismal certificates none of the men are Spanish. Some of the godfathers in the baptismal records were from other parishes. One of the most common outside parishes was Pineda, the parish across and up the Pasig River. Small communities along the river benefitted from close connections with each other, as have communities throughout the world.

     The Spanish Catholic tradition of names predominates in the primary sources. Very few of the family names derive from Tagalog or Kapampangan etymologies but they show up: Pangulayan, Bugabuga, Dumandan, Loayog or Macalalo. Family names like Salazar, Raymundo, Ortiz and Rodr íguez would show up in any Spanish-speaking parish anywhere in the world. One Chinese mestizo family was the Serrano de Bulacan, which could be a descriptor as from the mountains directly to the north of Manila or simply a famous surname from Castile and then identified with Bulacan. A godfather was from Emay, possibly China with his baptized name Francisco Ruiz Lay Ma-Chuan. The first names are exotic for today but typical 19th century choices: Ysberta, Petrona and Anselma for women and Remigio, Pac ífico and Torcuato for men. They are unusual first names today but recall histories from the Roman and Visigothic past of peninsular Spain. The men and women had given names but as is widely accepted in the Philippines, most individuals were known by nicknames which the priest would not have recorded in formal documents. From these records alone, we know over 300 people who participated in baptisms in the San Pedro Macati church as infants being baptized, parents bringing their child to be baptized, grandparents mentioned in records and godfathers sponsoring the new Christian. Among the 2017 residents of Makati today, it is highly probable that they have ancestors in these primary sources.

     Then in 1898, the Spanish-American war surprised the inhabitants of the Philippine Islands. The earlier rebellion against the Spaniards, however, shows up in the historical record of the village. Officials in Manila worried in 1896 that the village of Makati was part of a growing rebellion in the islands. A rumor circulated that 17,000 rebels were gathering in the towns of San Juan de Monte, San Felipe Neri, San Pedro Makati, Pasig and Caimito. The parish priest of Guadalupe (very near to San Pedro de Macati), listening to his servant's rumors, denounced the existence of an alleged secret society in his parish to the governor-general. The Governor-General refused to take any action, writing "undeceive yourselves . . . [dangers] exist only in the minds of friars and few other fanatical Spaniards."28 A few days later the rumors proved true. The towns of Pateros, Tagig, Kalookan, Kawit, San Francisco de Malabon, Noveleta and San Pedro Makati rose up and attacked the Spaniards on August 29, 1896. Governor-General Ramon Blanco declared martial law the next day.29 The Filipino hero, Pio del Pilar, was born in the San Pedro Macati church. His baptismal records prove it. Hence the statue on Makati Boulevard.

Figure 6

     The 1899 battles marked a visible layer of American forces in the village. In February 1899, the Volunteer Signal Corps laid communication wire from San Pedro de Macati to Los Pinos. First Lieutenant Charles E. Kilbourne, Jr. wrote about the battle between American forces and Filipinos on the fourth and fifth of February. He, along with 39 men and 4 other officers sent, received and maintained telegraph lines.30 The church became a hospital and campground.

Figure 7  

     After the success of the Spanish-American War, the American military fought a long war with the Filipinos. American military officers began to familiarize their distant family members with military service in the Philippines. In 1916, Captains George Seaver and Mark Scott described a night of entertainment. They wrote "crossing back to the Pasig River district, one may find the little town of San Pedro de Macati, and watch, beneath the glare of electric lights, a famous cock fight, sharing the excitement he can't help feeling as the fight progresses, with Filipinos, Chinese, Japanese and the riff-raff of all nations."31 Makati also switched from Spanish gobernadorcillos and parish priests to an American imported city government. In Makati, the first municipal president was Marcelino Magsaysay (1902–1904). Although not directly related to the seventh president of the Republic of the Philippines, Ramon Magsaysay (1907–1957, elected in 1953) the family name shows the migration of people from Zambales province into the city.32

     The local parish of San Pedro Macati usefully reveals both the local and global. Heather Streets-Salter points to similar connections in Singapore. The strands of global communication show global entanglements.33 A local approach also provides the opportunity to explore different levels of transnational exchanges, like Jesuit training, Chinese medical officers and mestizo families, within the same community.34

     John-Paul Ghobrial explains the appeal of global microhistory, writing

when dealing with the mobility of individuals, we must adopt a more refined approach that more effectively incorporates what we have learned in recent years from scholars working on questions of subjectivity and the history of everyday life. For when we consider some of the finest examples of studies of individuals in a global context—I am thinking here of Natalie Zemon Davis's Women on the Margins, Jonathan Spence's The Question of Hu or Sanjay Subrahmanyam's recent Three Ways To Be Alien—what emerges from these works again and again is a sense of the importance of dissimulation, self-fashioning and improvisation as critical elements in the experience of individuals whose lives were lived on a global stage.35

But the vast majority of the residents of San Pedro Macati, before the twentieth century, were not mobile or traders.

     My history of place can also be a global microhistory. Sebouh David Aslanian, in the 2011 book From the Indian Ocean to the Mediterranean: The Global Trade Networks of Armenian Merchants From New Julfa, explores the details of the lives of marginal or previously overlooked figures as windows onto larger processes and trends shaping global history. Global microhistory as a research field in history has focused on travelers, merchants and writers—understandably so. In addition to people, a global microhistory can also turn to a place, a building or the roads, that connect the past to the present. The San Pedro Macati Church is one such place, narrating a global microhistory if we just look, read and think carefully. We peel back the layers of time, describing the interactions of each deposit to the ones before and after.

     I am encouraged by the December 2016 issue of the American Historical Review that has a fascinating forum on the Amitav Ghosh Ibis trilogy. Here are three fictional books about India, Mauritius, China, America and England that breathe life into a history with dialogue, research and heart. I, like Ghosh, want this to signal "a new era in thinking and imagining the past." 36 Maybe a layered history of the San Pedro Macati church can become a new key to imagining the past of a very real place.

James B. Tueller is a professor of history at Brigham Young University-Hawaii Campus. Before moving to La'ie, O'ahu, he received his Ph.D. in history at Columbia University in New York City. Jim was born in Morocco where his father worked in the Tangier Consulate of the United States of America. With his father's assignments, he has also lived in Caracas, Venezuela, Panama City, Panama, Manila, Philippines and Madrid, Spain. His first book, Good and Faithful Christians: Moriscos and Catholicism in Early Modern Spain, was published by the University Press of the South in 2002. He co-authored the book, Navigating the Spanish Lake: The Pacific in the Iberian World, 15211898 (University of Hawaii Press, 2014).


1 Tonio Andrade. "A Chinese Farmer, Two African Boys and a Warlord: Toward a Global Microhistory." Journal of World History 21, 4 (December 2010) 591.

2 Makati and Macati are the same word—one spelled Spanish-style and the other Filipino-style. I keep the Spanish spelling of Macati to denote the Spanish-style building/church, while the city of MetroManila is spelled Filipino-style, Makati. In Tagalog, "makati" refers to the ebbing of the tide. Tradition holds that when the Spaniards asked about the name of the place along the Pasig River, the answer was not the name but in reply to the condition of the tide, ebbing not rising.

3 John Leddy Phelan. The Hispanization of the Philippines: Spanish Aims and Filipino Responses 15651700. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1959), vii.

4 Deuteronomy 6:11, The Bible, New International Version (2011).

5 Dennis O. Flynn and Arturo Gir áldez. "Born with a 'Silver Spoon': The Origin of the World Trade in 1571" Journal of World History 6 (1995) 201.

6 Alan Burdick. Out of Eden: An Odyssey of Ecological Invasion. (New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux, 2005) 82.

7 probable date of 1 June 1604, Archivo General de Indias (AGI), Consulta sobre merced a Pedro de Brito, Archivo General de Indias, FILIPINAS,1,N.63. Also see ES.41091.AGI/23.6.11//FILIPINAS,5,N.17; 30 de marzo de 1604 ES.41091.AGI/23.6.1022//FILIPINAS,36,N.53. Accessed through PARES (Portal de Archivos Españoles), the free, on-line Gateway to Spanish National archives -

8 The Philippine Islands14931898. Edited by Emma Helen Blair and James A. Robertson, (Cleveland: The Arthur H. Clark Company, 1903–1909). Volume XIV, (1638–1640), published in 1905, 156–157. A compromised source, but available as an English translation and on-line at

9 Blair & Robertson, volume XVII, pages 249–250, see footnote #71.

10 Eduardo Descalzo Yuste, Eduardo. La Compañ ía de Jesús en Filipinas (15811768): Realidad y Representación. Doctoral thesis at Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona, 2015; 159. See also Manuel Ruiz Jurado. "Fr. Pedro Chirino, S.J. and Philippine Historiography." Philippine Studies 29, no. 3/4 (1981): 345–60.

11 Glòria Cano. "Evidence for the Deliberate Distortion of the Spanish Philippine Colonial Historical Record in The Philippine Islands 1493–1898" Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 39, 1 (2008) 1–30.

12 Blair & Robertson, Volume XXIX, 202.

13 Blair & Robertson, Volume XXIX, 204.

14 Blair & Robertson, Volume XXIX, 215.

15 John Lewis Gaddis, The Landscape of History: How Historians Map the Past (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) 100.

16 26 November 1716. 1716-11-30 Manila, ES.41091.AGI/23.6.538//FILIPINAS,297,N.20. Accessed through PARES.  

17 Cartas de los PP. de la Compañ ía de Jesús de la Mision de Filipinas, cuaderno IX, (Manila: Imprenta y Litograf ía de M. Pérez, Hijo, 1890), 679. Accessed with Google books.

18 John J. Schumacher, S.J. "Agrarian Developments in Central Luzon" Reflections on Philippine Culture and Society: Festschrift in Honor of William Henry Scott (Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2001) 185, 199.

19 Manuel Artigas y Cuerva, Historia de las Filipinas (Manila 1916) page 228, on-line

20 El Gobierno y Capitan ía General solicita a la Secretar ía de Estado y del Despacho de la Gobernación del Reino un incremento en las pensiones concedidas a las familias de tres cuadrilleros muertos en Macati, cuando persegu ían a una partida de ladrones Autor responsable: Arranz Recio, Mar ía José. 1847 ES.28079.AHN/,5159,Exp.56. Accessed through PARES.

21 17 April 1873, images 2 through 5, (—Philippines Civil Registration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894. Originals in the Records Management and Archive Office, Ermita, Manila.

22 5 March 1865 and 7 April 1866, images 11 and 12,—Philippines Civil Registration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894.

23 Image 1 of 22,—Philippines Civil Registration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894.

24 Yifen Beus, Professor and World Languages Coordinator, BYU-Hawaii (October 11, 2016 e-mail communication).

25 Images 19 through 22,—Philippines Civil Registration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894.

26 Image 18,—Philippines Civil Registrration, Spanish Period 1706–1911, Manila, San Pedro Macati, Defunciones, 1873–1894.

27 Image 27 of 65 images in 1850–1897" - mozos naturales y mestizos sangleyes y españoles filipinos que deber án ser sorteados. "Philippines Civil Registration (Spanish Period), 1706–1911", Bautismos, nacimientos, San Pedro Macati, Manila.

28 Teodoro A. Agoncillo and Milagros A. Guerrero, History of the Filipino People. (Quezon City: R. P. Garcia Publishing Co., 1977) 168.

29 Agoncillo and Guerrero, 172.

30 Annual Report of the War Department for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1899, (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1899) 418.

31 George Seaver and Mark Scott, "Manila and Its Environs" The Mid-Pacific Magazine Volume XII, No. 1 (July 1916) 89.


33 See Heather Streets-Salter, "The Local Was Global: The Singapore Mutiny of 1915." Journal of World History 24, no. 3 (2013) 539–76.


35 Ghobrial, John-Paul A. "The Secret Life of Elias of Babylon and the Uses of Global Microhistory" Past & Present 222 (February 2014) 58.

36 Amitav Ghosh, "Storytelling and the Spectrum of the Past" American Historical Review 121, 5 (December 2016) 1565. Entire article is pages 1552–1565, last essay in the AHR Roundtable "Empire and Exile: Reflections on the Ibis Trilogy"

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