Following are digital
resources for Vikings in world history. The resources are divided into an
Overview which includes general resources for Viking history and culture. That
overview is followed by the following sections: Lessons (Overview), Gender,
University syllabi, Varangian Rus, the Appropriation of Viking History
by White Supremacists to promote their agenda, Videos, The Norse/Vikings,
Norse/Viking Lessons, Podcasts, Videos for Norse/Vikings, Book and Film Reviews,
L'Anse aux Meadows.
World Heritage and Canadian National Historic Site at the tip of the Great
Northern Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, where the remains of an
11th-century Viking settlement has been found.
"The Realm of
the Vikings," National Geographic, March 2017. See interactive
showing Viking ship construction and varieties of Viking ships along with
interactive map showing routes of seafaring Vikings, Norse, and Rus.
Vikings," NOVA, PBS companion website to "The Vikings,"
a two-hour NOVA program originally broadcast May 9, 2000. See transcript for
this program below:
Vikings," PBS, NOVA, May 2000. Transcript for two-hour documentary.
History: An Overview of the Culture and History of the Viking
Age," History on the net, ed., Dr. Scott Michael Rank,
seen September 13, 2019.
Barraclough, "Vikings: Warriors of No Nation," History
Today, April 10, 2019. "Racially pure" Viking stereotype is a
myth argued Eleanor Barraclough.
Joshua J. Mark,
"Vikings," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 29, 2018.
Michael G. Lamoureux,
"The influence of Vikings on European culture," Sourcing
Innovation, March/April 2009. Slim summary.
"Raiders or Traders?" Smithsonian, July 2008.
"The Vikings: Yale historian looks at the myths vs. the
history," Yale News, March 8, 2013. As a lead-up to the History Channel
series, "Vikings," Tom Ashbrook, host of NPR's "On
Point" talked with Yale's Anders Winroth, foremost authority on the
subject, to de-mystify the legendary raiders of the North.
"How do we know about the Vikings?" BBC, History, last update
February 17, 2011.
View, History.com. See numerous Viking articles covering 800 CE to the
"(PDF) All in one Boat. The Vikings as European and Global Heritage,"
Chapter 8, pages 81-88, in Heritage Reinvents Europe, EAC Occasional Paper, No.
7, Proceedings of the Internationale Conference, Ename, Belgium, March 17-19, 2011,
edited by Dirk Callebaut, etc. al. Uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek.
Paper/Chapter presented a survey of contexts and places where Vikings are
currently highlighted as a European cultural heritage.
Vikings-KS2 History, BBC Bitesize learning modules. Annotated animated resources most likely aimed at
elementary and middle school students.
Vikings Everywhere, Teaching With Primary Sources," PBS Learning
Media lessons and interactives.
"The Thing and
Viking migration," Historical Association, UK. A simulation to help
students understand why the Vikings would leave home and settle abroad.
Session 2, "Middle Ages: Viking Invasions," Radford University,
Virginia Geographic Alliance. Note Session 1
Lessons, Europe in
the Middle Ages, 500-1000 CE: https://php.radford.edu/~vga/?page_id=7354
Plans," Fresh Plans, November 2011. See embedded links for
resources and lesson ideas.
Vikings: Terror of Europe," Mr. Casey, AP World History website, January
2015. Guided Document Based Essay question with seven documents. See more
lessons from February 1, 2019 updated APWH Modern website, Mr. Casey, Maspeth
High School, Elmhurst, NY: https://mrcaseyhistory.com/2019/02/01/viking-raiders-and-traders/.
"Women in the Viking Age," Ancient History Encyclopedia, July
Kendall M. Holcomb,
"Pulling the Strings: The Influential Power of Women in Viking Age
Iceland," Digital Commons at Western Oregon University, 2015.
beginning with Mother of Kings I-The Threshold, Viking Age Podcasts,
January 15, 2019. Series of podcasts which explored the life and legend of
Gunnhild Konungamooir, "Mother of Kings," and other powerful women in
Old Norse Literature.
Purdue University, "'Her temper was still the same': Women Resisting
Colonialism in Modern Viking Narratives," Heroic Age, A Journal of
Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 19, October 4, 2019.
Descriptions of how Viking women are depicted in articles, poetry, simulation
games, history, including white nationalist venues.
"The Lives of Women in the Viking Age: The Role of Critical Feminist
and Historical Assessment," Essay, for History 383 course, Athabasca
University, Canada, November 3, 2014, 12 page pdf. A brief look at the
literature, resources for gender and women in the Viking Age.
"To Live Like the Women of Viking Literature," Literary Hub,
August 10, 2017. Women's appearances in Viking literature go beyond the home
Marie Louise Stig
Sorensen, "(PDF) Gender, Material Culture and identity in the Viking
Diaspora. In Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 5 (2009), 253-269,” Viking
and Medieval Scandinavia, 5, 2009, 253-269, uploaded to Academia by
Marie Louise Stig Sorensen. As a theoretical support for the aims of theorizing
the Viking Age as a diaspora, this paper reflected on the impact of diaspora on
identity, esp. gender.
"Women in the
Viking Age, National Museum of Denmark. Slim review of gender and women in
Viking culture to 1050 CE.
"No Viking Women Warriors," HUV, Hellu Land News, September
16, 2017. Note posts on this site as to critique of archaeologist Charlotte
Hedenstierna-Jonson, "A female Viking Warrior confirmed by genomics,"
published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Uppsala
"The Myth of the Viking Woman Warrior," The Week, October 9,
2019. Until more solid evidence comes to light, the Viking woman warrior
remains a fantasy.
"Viking Warrior Women with Stephen Harrison," Dan Snow's History
Hit Podcast, 2018. Stephen Harrison is a lecturer in Archaeology at
the University of Glasgow with research interest on the archaeology of Early
Viking Age Ireland and Britain.
"The Lives of Viking and Mongolian Women," History is Sexy
Podcast, Episode 27, 2019. A comparative of gender in two martial cultures.
15:22 Video. Ragnar
Dracaena, "Women in Viking Age Scandinavia," part of series, The
Modern Viking, published on You Tube June 4, 2018.
"In Search of Heroes: Vikings and Cossacks in Present Sweden and
Ukraine," NORMA, Nordic Journal for Masculinities Studies, Vol. 7,
Issue 2, 2012, 139-159. Uploaded to Academia by Tetyana Bureychak, Linkoping
University, Sweden. Comparative analysis of symbolic mechanisms that
legitimize hegomonic masculinity in Sweden and Ukraine society.
"Viking Gender Roles," Norse Mythology for Smart People, website.
"Queer Vikings?" Queer Scope Articles, Semantic Scholar, February 2008.
Raffensperger, "The Viking World," Syllabus, Spring Semester, 2010,
Dr. Oren Falk, The
Viking Age, syllabus, Spring 2012, Cornell University.
ANTH.000, The Viking Raiders, Traders, Farmers, (UAB sample syllabus; course
pending, Sept. 6, 2016), University of Alabama, Birmingham. Uploaded to
Academia by Gregory Mumford.
Macalester College, Minnesota, and Cameron Bradley, Carleton College,
Minnesota, "Syllabus: The Viking World--Story, History and
Archaeology," University of Minnesota, nd. Uploaded to Academia by Austin
Lois L. Huneycutt,
"The Age of the Vikings, c. 800-c. 1200," Syllabus, History 4550,
University of Missouri, last updated August 16, 2019. Note Viking Women and
gender histories in Books to review at bottom of this syllabus.
Dr. Terje Leiren,
"The Vikings: A History," Syllabus, University of Washington,
Fall Quarter 2019. See Lecture Overheads, Websites and Links,
and links to Havamal-The Words of Odin the High One (which does not
open), Rigsthula: The Lay of Rig, and The Account Given by
Note Havamal resources
in Viking/Norse section below and see Havamal here: http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/havamal.html
"Final Syllabus-The Vikings," DIS-Study Abroad in Scandinavia,
Stockholm Sweden, Spring 2017.
Bergqvist, Course Syllabus, "World of the Vikings," DISabroad,
Stockholm, Sweden, Fall 2020.
Medieval Norse Studies," Course description, Readings, Universities of
Iceland, Oslo, Norway, Copenhagen, Denmark. Two year Nordic
Master's Programme, February 1, 2020.
Alex M. Feldman,
"(PDF) The First Christian Rus' Generation: Contextualizing the
Black Sea Events of 1016, 1024, and 1043," Rossica Antiqua, No. 16,
2018, uploaded to Academia by Alex M. Feldman.
"Globetrotting Vikings: The Quest for Constantinople," History.com,
last updated October 19, 2018. Rus attempt to conquer Constantinople failed.
Varangian Guard employed by the Byzantines.
Travis W. Shores,
(PDF) "Varangian: Norse Influences Within the Elite Guard of
Byzantium," Paper, Spring 2013, uploaded to Academia by Travis Shores.
"What does material evidence tell us about contacts between Byzantium and
the Viking world c. 800-1000?" Chapter in Byzantine in the Viking World, Uppsala Universitie, 91-116, uploaded to Academia by Fedir Androshchuk.
"When the Arabs met the Vikings: New discovery suggests ancient
links," The National, May 6, 2015.
"Among the Norse Tribes-The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan," Aramco World, November/December 1999. Ibn Fadlan's 921-922 CE encounter with
the Viking Rus as he traveled up the Volga representing the Abbasid Caliph of
Baghdad on a mission to the king of the Volga Bulgars, recounted in his journal
Hraundal, "Rus in Arabic Sources: Cultural Contacts and Identity,
PhD dissertation," Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen,
February 2013. PhD dissertation. Uploaded to Academia by Thorir Jonsson
Hraundal, "New Perspectives on Eastern Vikings/Rus in Arabic
Sources," Viking and Medieval Scandinavia Journal, 2014,
65-98. Follow-up to Hraundal's PhD dissertation linked above.
"Co-operation between the Viking Rus' and the Turkic nomads of the steppe
in the ninth-eleventh centuries, MA Thesis in Medieval Studies, May 2018,
Central European University, Budapest, 144- page pdf.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: the Pearl of the Baltic Sea, home of the Varangians, pages 1-166,"
B4Press, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea," 2013, 1-10, uploaded to Academia by Tore
Gannholm. See other chapters and pages from this book on right side of this
"The Gotlandic Merchant Republic and its trade on the Russian rivers in
the 700's-900's," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic
Sea, Center of commerce and culture in the Baltic Sea region for over 2000
years, 2013, 139-157. Uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See more chapters
from this book, articles, papers on Gotland and Varangian/Rus on right side
of this page.
"Gotlandic merchants (Rus') on the Russian rivers," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea, 2013, 136-160, uploaded to
Academia by Tore Gannholm.
Tore Gannholm, (PDF)
"The history of the Varangians and world-unique Medieval Churches,"
2015, 1-148 pdf, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See other Gotland
Varangian resources to the right of this page.
"Gotland the home of the Varangians," 2017, uploaded to Academia by
Tore Gannholm. Gannholm differentiated between Vikings and the Varangian
Gotland Merchant Republic.
Independent Academia. See all of Tore Gannholm papers, articles and monographs
on Gotlandic and Varangian Rus Swedish history.
"The Origin of Rus'," The Russia Review, July 1977, 249-273.
The Normanist versus Anti-Normanist controversy as to Norsemen founding Kievan
Malena M. Vanpil,
"(PDF) From Sweden to Russia: Staraya Ladoga and the role of Vikings
in establishment of the Russian State," Uppsal Universitie, April 11,
2013, uploaded to Academia by Malena Vanpil. See other Rhos/Rus, Varangian,
Gotland, Swedish Vikings in Russia articles, papers to the right of this page.
Sourcebook: The Chronicle of Nestor," Medieval Sourcebook,
Fordham University. Excerpt from The Chronicle of Nestor as to
Varangians ruling Rus. Also referred to as The Russian Primary Chronicle.
Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text, trans. and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross (1930) and Olgerd P.
Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953), Mediaeval Academy of America. History of the Eastern
Slavs and Varangian Rus role in ruling early Kiev.
See more on The
Russian Primary Chronicle below:
Chronicle," Wikipedia. The Tale of Bygone Years (Old East
Slavic), known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Rus' Primary Chronicle or, after the author it has traditionally been
ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle or The Chronicle of Nestor, is a
history of the Kyivan Rus' from about 850-1100 CE.
"The Origins of the Slavic Nations--Premodern Identities in Rus, Ukraine,
and Belarus," Cambridge, 2006.
Was Kievan Rus' the
product of activities of Vikings/Norsemen/Varangians or was it a state, not
only populated by Eastern Slavs, but also created and ruled by them? Historiography and history as nationalist populism.
Vikings," Nordic Estonia, nd.
"Vikings Involvement in the Civil War 1046 in Georgia," Pro
Georgia, 2013, 55-63, uploaded to Academia by Jaba Samushia.
Hedenstierna-Jonson, "Rus, Varangians and Birka Warriors," in The
Martial Society. Aspects of warriors, fortifications and social change
in Scandinavia, eds., L. Holmquist Olausson & M. Olausson, 2009,
160-178. Uploaded to Academia by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson. See, The Martial
Society book with theses and papers below:
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Fedir Andoshchuk, Anna Kjellstrom, and Michael
Olausson, etc., eds., The Martial Society. Aspects of warriors,
fortifications and social change in Scandinavia, Archaeological
Research Laboratory, Stockholm, University, 2009, uploaded to Academia by
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, etc. See tabs beneath title, The Martial Society
for more resources, papers, articles, monographs on Viking Age Architecture,
Viking Age Scandinavia, Fortifications, Material Culture of the Viking Age,
Varangians, + 2 more.
Alan R. Lancaster,
"Viking-40: Rurik and the Rus-Russia, a Norseman Founds a Dynasty
and a Super State, Hub Pages, last updated May 1, 2019. Look to right of this
page to see other Viking articles.
"Vikings in the East: Scandinavian Influence in Kievan Rus,"
WOU, Western Oregon University Homepage, posted August 2015. The
Vikings, referred to as Varangians in East Europe, research paper, Spring
2005, 49 page pdf.
Bosselmann-Ruickbie, "Bosselman-Ruickbie: Heavy Metal Meets
Byzantium! Contact Between Scandinavian and Byzantium in the Albums 'The
Varangian Way' (2007) and 'Stand Up and Fight (2011) by
Finnish Band Turisas. In: Daim et al., Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen, 2, BOO, 9.2, Mainz, 2018, 391-419. Uploaded to
Academia by Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, Justus-Lieberg-University, Giessen,
Note other Varangian,
Byzantine history specific articles, monographs to the right of this page.
Viking metal, metal
music archives. Norse legends are themes of Viking Metal music.
The Russian Primary
Chronicle. History of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled
in 1113, Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Mass.,
Supremacists and Vikings
Clare Downham, "Vikings
were never the pure-bred master race white supremacists like to portray," The
Conversation, September 28, 2017. The word 'Viking' entered the Modern
English language in 1807, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building.
The following decades produced "Viking" stereotypes that supported
nationalism and white superiority.
"White Supremacists Love Vikings. But they've got history all wrong," Washington Post, May 31, 2017. Note 2017 date for some articles
which is context for Charlottesville white supremacist march and violence.
Judith Gabriel Vinje,
"Viking Symbols 'Stolen' by Racists," Norwegian Americans, Los
Angeles, November 2, 2017, updated October 31, 2017.
"Why Odin is the new God Choice for White Supremacists," Ancient
Origins, August 15, 2017.
Martyn-Hemphill and Henrik Pryser Libell, "Who Owns the Vikings? Pagans,
Neo-Nazis, and Advertisers Tussle Over Symbols," NY Times, March
"White Supremacists Have Weaponized an Imaginary Viking Past. It's Time to
Reclaim the Real History," Time, last updated April 15, 2019, Real
Viking society was multicultural and multiracial. So, where does the white supremacist
vision of their genealogy come from?
"What the alt-right gets wrong about the Vikings," The Daily Beast,
August 17, 2019. Viking age Scandinavians were immigrants who traded with the
Muslim world and embraced gender fluidity--everything the alt-right despises.
10:10 Video, Dr.
Jackson Crawford, "The Viking Funeral Ibn Fadlan Saw," published on
You Tube, October 17, 2017. Ibn Fadlan's account of Viking/Rus funeral
witnessed in 922 CE, from his journal, Risala.
5:57 Video. "Abbasid
& Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea)," published on You Tube
December 14, 2018.
"Russia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols," by John Arnold. Published
on You Tube August 24, 2017. History of the Varangian Rus and their encounter
with the Mongols.
"Anglo-Saxon Varangian Rus in Russia, (Byzantine Empire), published on You
Tube July 26, 2019. Tenth and Eleventh century 'video timeline' of Varangian
Rus support of Byzantine Empire. Scroll down to see other Varangian Rus videos.
See 3 part series on
Varangian Rus from Birka Viking:
"The Varangian Rus 1/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube
December 15, 2011.
the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland,
Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in
the Danelaw (northern/eastern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the south
and east, founding the Kievan Rus.
7:26 Video. "The
Varangian Rus, 2/3," BirkaViking, published on You Tube December
"The Varangian Rus, 3/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube
December 15, 2011. The Varangian Rus in Constantinople.
"Slave Trade Viking," Strange World of Econ, published on You
Tube May 16, 2017.
"Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the
Death of Louis the Pius," PhD dissertation, University of California,
Berkeley, Spring 2014. Patterns of interaction and relationship between Francia
and Scandinavia from 700-840 CE. A narrative of commerce, diplomacy, and strife
between the Frankish Empire and its northern neighbors which began long before
the Viking Age.
Sindbaek, "(PDF) The Small World of the Vikings: Networks in early
medieval communication and exchange," Norwegian Archaeological Review,
Vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, 59-74, uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek.
"Network theory" as to Viking voyaging in south Scandinavia and
"The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and
Dublin in Context," Paper, Trinity College, Dublin, nd., uploaded to
Academia by Tenaya Joregensen. Compare and contrast of Danish Kaupang in
southeast Norway's Skiringsaal and the West Norse Dublin which used
central place and network theory of two nodal points linked together by the
Scandinavian trade network.
Mr. Frog, Joonas Ahola,
Clive Tolley, eds., "Fibula, Fabula, Fact--The Viking Age in
Finland," uploaded to Academia by Joonas Ahola, Mr. Frog with Clive
Tolley. Entire 516 pages of The Viking Age in Finland, Studio Fennica
Historica, no. 18,
Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2014.
"Viking Ethnicities: A historiographic overview," History
Compass, Vol. 10, no. 1, October 2012, 1-12, uploaded to Academia by
Clare Downham. Downham focused on identity of the Vikings and how they
saw themselves along with historiographic trends of Viking ethnicities.
Downham also claimed to describing comparative analysis of human
immigration in this article. See other articles, monographs, papers on Vikings
and Ireland, Vikings in England, on the right side of this page.
"Hiberno-Norwegians and Anglo-Danes Anachronistic Ethnicities in Viking
Age England," Medieval Scandinavia, 19, 2009, 136-169. Uploaded to
Academia by Clare Downham.
"Viking Camps in Ninth-century Ireland: Sources, Locations, and
Interactions," Paper presented at "Between the Islands"
conference at the University of Cambridge, March 13, 2009, uploaded to Academia
by Clare Downham.
"Black Pool: Hiberno-Norse Identity in Viking Age and Early Medieval
Ireland," Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala
Universitet, Master's Thesis Paper, Spring Semester 2014, uploaded to
Academia by Anton Amle.
See many other
monographs, papers on Norse Vikings and Ireland on right side of this page.
Legacy in Ireland," Tom Birkett and Christina Lee, eds., The Vikings in
Munster, Languages, Myths and Finds, Vol. 3, Centre For the Study of
the Viking Age, University of Nottingham, 2014. Chapters 1-4, Conclusion and
Bibliography (pp. 4-6, 33-37). Uploaded to Academia by Mark Kirwan.
Vilhjalmsson, "Time and Travel in Old Norse Society," presentation
for Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1997 and also
published in Disputatio, II: 89-114, 1997. Paper about daily life
and technical knowledge and skills in Viking medieval Scandinavia.
Sean B. Lawing,
"The Place of the Evil: Infant Abandonment in Old Norse
Society," Scandinavian Studies, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Sean
Lawing. Status of deformed and disfigured in medieval Norse society.
James H. Barrett,
University of Cambridge, Medieval and Environmental Archaeology, "(PDF) What Caused the Viking Age?" Antiquity, 82, 2008,
671-685. Uploaded to Academia by James H. Barrett. Prime movers for the
Viking episode and expansion in early medieval world history.
"The First Vikings," Archaeology Magazine, July/August 2013.
"How the Vikings became the world's first climate change profiteers," Salon, May 25, 2014.
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Project
Gutenberg EBook, posted August 3, 2008. First compiled by
Anglo-Saxon authorities as directed by King Alfred in 890 CE which
recorded early Viking raids on the British Isles. This version
translated by J. Ingram (1823) and J.A. Giles (1847).
"Annals, Armies, and Artistry: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 865-896
CE," uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon
Chronicles' focus on Viking campaigns.
"An Interpretation of the Description of Northernmost Europe in the Old
English Orosius," Graduate Thesis Paper, 172 pages, University of Oulu,
Finland, August 1988. Early Viking travel narratives written in 9th century
Anglo Saxon Orosius, The Voyage of Ohthere and The Voyage of Wulfstan, are
important because these are some of the very few accounts of 9th century Viking
northernmost Europe, the rest being archaeological evidence.
Irene Baug, etc.al,
"The Beginning of the Viking Age in the West," Journal of
Maritime Archaeology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, April 2019, 43-80 seen
in Springer link, first online December 7, 2018.
"10 Things You Should Know about the Lindisfarne Gospels," Book
Riot, February 3, 2016. A 793 CE Viking raid on the Lindisfarne Priory in
northeast England has been cited as the beginning of the Viking Age in the
"Vikings in England to A.D. 1016," in S. Brink and N. Price,
eds., "The Viking World," London, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Slim chapter on Vikings in England.
Stornoway Play," " The (Made Up) History of Stornoway Weblog, January
12, 2010. As a youth, William Shakespeare spent many happy years in Stornoway
before finding fame as a writer. His first play, 1586, "MacLeod," based on a hermit's sighting of Viking arrival/raids in Stornoway.
of Amleth in the Gesta Danorum," The British Library, Collections,
nd. Norse tale of Amleth, a literary ancestor of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Scandinavian
legend recorded around 1200 by Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first
printed in Paris, 1514. Gesta Danorum was partly mythical history of the
"Shakespeare's Sources for Hamlet: Ur-Hamlet, Revenge
tragedy, and the Danish Tragedy," Shakespeare Online, August 20,
"The Chronology of the Last Scandinavian Kings of York," Northern
History, 40: 1, March 2003, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.
Downham reviewed two historian's arguments as to struggle for control of York,
in northern England, in early 10th century between rival Scandinavian Kings and
the English. She also defends the chronology in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s) as
to this history.
on Memory, Religion, Trade, and the Viking Presence," Wittenberg
History Journal, Vol. XLVII, Spring 2018. See articles on
"Viking Fur Trade beyond Western Europe," "Christianization and
Conversion in Danelaw," and "Vikings in al-Andalus."
"Peace and Non-Peace in the Viking Age--Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in
Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians in England," chapter in James E.
Knirk, ed., Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985, uploaded to Academia by Niels Lund.
Stephen M. Lewis,
"Hamlet with the Princes of Denmark: An exploration of the case of
Halfdan, 'king of the Danes,'" https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01943605, 2017, uploaded to Academia
by Stephen M. Lewis. Focus on Halfdan, King of the Danes to understand
"the Viking Age, not only in England but in Denmark and the Frankish
realm as well."
"Ancient History in depth: Viking Religion," BBC, February 17, 2011. Explanation of Viking 'pagan' religion and conversion to
"The Vikings in
Britain: a brief history," Historical Association, UK, last
updated September 27, 2019. See more resources at the end of this article.
Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845-853," Medieval
Sourcebook, Fordham University. Northmen raids into England and France.
Warfare According to the Annals of Xanten, 844-861," DE RE MILITARI,
June 25, 2013. Northmen raids in northern Europe from series of annals written
at Lorsch (832-852) and at Cologne until 1873.
"Viking Raids in
France and the Siege of Paris, 882-886," DE RE MILITARI, July 4,
2013. Viking raids in France and siege of Paris from The Annals of St.
"A Classical Manor in Viking Age and Early Medieval Denmark," Revue
beige de Philologie et d'Histoire, Vol. 90, no. 2, 2012, 451-466.
History and archaeology seem to confirm a Viking Age system of manors, but also
of a classical system of manors, which is then assumed to have continued into
the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.
"The Impact of the Norman Conquest of England," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 23, 2019.
or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway," by Snorri Sturluson
(1179-1241), Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b. Originally
written in Old Norse, app. 1225 CE by poet and historian Snorri Sturluson.
for the Viking Age," Vikingeskibsmuseet, Denmark, Viking Museum. Much historiography of the Viking Age was/is based on foreign sources since
Scandinavia did not have a literary tradition.
You yourself die,
gods and gold die;
an honourable name will never die,
one which was won
by your own work
(Hávamál stanza 77).
Proverbs: Quotes from the Havamal-Poetic Edda, Viking Rune. Old
Norse proverbs from Havamal or Sayings of the High One, Odin.
Havamal, ed., D. L. Ashliman, University of
Pittsburg. Clean copy in English.
"Havamal: A Study Guide," Germanic Mythology.
Mythology: Texts, Translations, Scholarship, Resources for Researchers,
Germanic Mythology. Resources for Researchers into Germanic, Norse Mythology,
and Northern European Folklore.
"Social order in
the Viking Age," National Museum of Denmark. See esp. information on Eddic
poem, Havamal and the poem, Rigsthula, which illustrated class
divisions and values in Viking society. Note other Viking information on right
side of this page.
Viking Poem Rigsthula from the Poetic Edda, edited by D.L. Ashliman, March 30, 2010. Poem
explained Viking class divisions. See more on the Rigsthula: https://sacred-texts.com/neu/poe/poe14.htm
Instruments," Norse Mythology net, August 7, 2018. What
kind of musical instruments did the Vikings have? See 23:26 video and
images of Viking's musical instruments.
Vikings Soundtrack, Nordic/Norse Theme Music," Sons of Vikings,
April 20, 2018. History of Viking music and instruments and modern Viking music
groups from the Vikings TV series.
"Kinder, Gentler Vikings? Not According to Their Slaves," National
Geographic, December 28, 2015.
Research Papers, Academia. See more papers, monographs below:
David Keys, "A
Viking Mystery," Smithsonian, October 2010. A mass grave found
beneath Oxford University which archaeologists and historians have concluded
held Viking warriors killed by Anglo-Saxons.
"AEthelflaed: The woman who crushed the Vikings," History
Extra, May 17, 2018. Anglo-Saxon wife, mother, diplomat and, above all,
Anglo-Saxon Warrior Queen. See audio podcast on Aethelfaed below:
18:00 audio podcast,
"Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians," Episode 20 of 30, BBC, Radio
3, The Essay, August 6, 2014.
Andrew J. Dugmore,
et. al., "Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjectures
on Norse Greenland," Critical Perspectives on Historical Collapse
Special, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA, National Center
for Biotechnology Information, March 6, 2012. Norse Greenland has been seen as
a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society
extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper
recognized the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland.
Andrew J. Dugmore,
Christian Keller, and Thomas H. McGovern, (PDF) Norse Greenland
Settlement: Reflections on Climate Change, Trade, and the Contrasting
Fates of Human Settlements in the North Atlantic Islands," Arctic
Anthropology, 2007, uploaded to Academia by Thomas H. McGovern.
Irene Berg Petersen,
"How Vikings navigated the world," Science Nordic, October 9,
2012. Article as to how Greenland Vikings navigated the north Atlantic
seas using birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes and human senses.
Jason Daly, "Simulation
suggests legendary Viking sunstones could have worked," Smithsonian, April 9, 2018.
"Furs, Fish and Ivory--Medieval Norseman at the Arctic Fringe," Journal
of the Northern Atlantic, (JONA), 2005, updated November 27, 2008.
"Discovery Could Rewrite History of Vikings in New World," National
Geographic, March 31, 2016. Canadian site could revise Viking history in
Tim Folger, "Why
Did Greenland Vikings Vanish?" Smithsonian, March 2017.
"The Story of
the Norse Vikings in Greenland and Why their Settlement Collapsed After 450
Years," Salem State University. Power point based on Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
Thomas H. McGovern
and Sophia Perdikaris, "What went wrong with the Scandinavian westward
expansion?" Natural History Magazine, October 2000, 51-56.
L. Mendola and V.
Salerno, "Sicilian Peoples: The Normans," Best of Sicily
Magazine, n.d. The Normans/Norse and Franks in Italy.
See Viking primary
sources, Internet History Sourcebooks, Fordham University. Note first
selection of primary sources on Vikings.
environment and the Norse in the North Atlantic: A bibliography,"
Environmental History Resources. See bibliography of Norse colonization or
"landnam" of Greenland, Iceland, Faeroe Islands, Shetland, and
Orkneys from the ninth century CE onwards.
John C. Sharpe, MA
Thesis paper, Anthropology, "The Viking Expansion: Climate,
Population, Plunder," Scholar Works, University of Montana,
"Viking Weather," National Geographic, June 2010. As
Greenland returns to the warm climate that allowed Vikings to colonize it in
the early Middle Ages, its isolated and dependent people dream of greener
fields and pastures, and Oil.
Vikings Can Teach Us About Terrorism," Foreign Policy, October 8,
2012. Note Viking reference as to technology, shallow-draft ship, and lack
of international order, Dark Ages, to past terror groups and current, 2012, terror.
"Viking Traders," Historical Association, UK, last updated
December 8, 2010. Interactive learning-a Viking trading game. See another
version of this lesson module below:
"Vikings settle down," Historical Association, UK. Activities
and a simulation on Vikings, especially around England.
"Take Home Examination," HIS 2141 Vikings in the British Isles (c.
800-1050), Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History, The Artic
University of Norway, May 19-22, 2014. Viking Age in Ireland documents.
Lesson module. "Clash
of the Gods: Beowulf," History International, two page
pdf. Lesson meant to be used with video documentary below:
45:02 Video. "Clash
of the Gods: Beowulf," History Channel, published by
Daily Motion, July 27, 2018. Eighth century legend based in Scandinavia. See Beowulf podcasts below.
Welcome to the Viking Age, April 12, 2016. Note tabs at top of this
podcast page for many, many more Viking podcasts and "Related Posts"
at bottom of this page. https://vikingagepodcast.com/tags/#vikingage
Viking/Norse podcasts from Breaking History Podcasts, Northeastern
University History graduate students production. See example below:
"Viking Food," Scottish History Podcast, seen in search engine of Breaking
History Podcasts. Viking farming and food in northern Scotland.
The History of
Vikings, Apple Podcasts, hosted by Noah Telzner. 53 Episodes interviewing
historian scholarly discussions about Vikings, Norse myth and the history of
medieval Scandinavia and Iceland.
"Viking Culture in the Modern World," Pt. 1, 2, and 3, 54:00 each,
Norse by Northwest, April 12, 2018. Three podcast interviews with Viking
authors and historians.
Other Viking Ancestors," The History of English Podcast-The Spoken
History of a Global Language, Episode 42, May 6, 2014. See "Episodes"
tab at top of this page for more podcasts, specifically Viking, Dane, Beowulf
Viking/Norse podcasts. Noah Tetzner, "Episodes-The History of
Vikings," The History of Vikings Podcasts, first episode
from September 16, 2019.
"The Danelaw," In Our Time, BBC Radio 4, Melvyn Bragg and
guests discuss how a series of Danish invasions, settlements and battles with
Anglo-Saxons changed England in the 9th and 10th centuries.
"Word of Mouth, Vikings," In Our Time, BBC Radio 4. Michael Rosen discovered how the Vikings changed the English language.
Accomando, "Episodes," Viking Age Podcasts, newest podcast,
August 23, 2019. Listen to an example below:
Accomando, "Silver and Status," Episode 18, Viking Age Podcast,
October 13, 2016.
45:58 audio podcast.
"Vikings! On and Off Screen," On Point, NPR, March 1, 2013.
Interview with creator and writer of History Channel history drama, "Vikings," and Viking historian.
Podcast Series: The Vikings, Historical Association. Viking history featuring Professor
Rosamond McKitterick, Sidney Sussex College, University of Cambridge. Will have
to subscribe and pay to listen to podcasts.
Lars Brownworth, "The Sea Wolves-A History of the Vikings,"
Tantor Audio, published on You Tube, September 22, 2018. The Sea Wolves, 2014.
Video. "On the Trail of the Vikings," Discovery-History,
published on You Tube July 29, 2015. Focus on Greenland Vikings.
Video. "The Vikings-Warriors of the Pagan Gods," Viking
Documentary 2018, The Kings Armour, published on You Tube, January 24, 2018.
Scroll down to see more Viking videos on this page.
"Columbus or the Vikings? Who Discovered America? The Evidence and
Facts," NOVA, published on You Tube, February 28, 2018. Is the Vinland Map
deception or real? NOVA documentary originally titled "The Viking
44:56 Video. "How
the Vikings Discovered North America/History Documentary," Learning
FTW, Forbidden History 2015, published on You Tube, September 25, 2016.
9:39 Video. Zachary
Cohen, "Collapse of the Greenland Norse," published on You
Tube November 19, 2017.
18:15 Video. Jared
Diamond, "Dr. Jared Diamond: Collapse of the Greenland Norse," Ted
Ed, published on You Tube October 3, 2017.
47:47 Video. "Ancient
Norse Vikings," History Documentary, published on You Tube September
25, 2015. Romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages emerged in the 18th
century, but their story is more complex when archaeological and historical
sources are reviewed.
51:39 Video lecture.
Octavia Randolph, historical novelist, "Battle Tactics: Vikings
against Saxons," Gotland Museum, Visby, Gotland for Medieval Week, 2019,
published on You Tube August 17, 2019. See many other Viking/Norse videos
on this page.
"Berserkers! Did the Vikings have Berserkers?" Military History
not visualized, published on You Tube, May 7, 2019.
11:17 Video. John
Green, "The Vikings," Crash Course World History, published on
You Tube February 4, 2015.
See numerous Viking
videos from Viking Ship Museum, Denmark, webtv. Many videos on Viking ship
9:10 Video. "Annals
of St. Bertin (854-860)," Frankish primary source on Danes/Vikings
raids in France, Published on You Tube, February 12, 2019.
10:35 Video. "The
Norse Pantheon: Crash Course World Mythology #10," published on
You Tube April 30, 2017. Narration by Mike Rugnetta.
"Hnefatafl-Board Game of the Vikings," You Tube, March 9, 2018. Epic
Viking board game popular in many areas and countries long into the medieval
1:36:41 full movie, ":The
Vikings: (1958), published on You Tube, December 3, 2016. See Film Review
in section below.
1:32:40 Film. "Viking: The Berserkers, 2014," Classic Movies Channel, published on You Tube, September 8, 2019.
Book Review. Colin
Martin, "Maritime Societies of the Viking and Medieval World, Society for
Medieval Archaeology Monograph, Maney Publishing, 2015, 396 pages, The
International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, February 13,
2017, seen in Wiley Online Library.
Englert, Anton, and
Athena Trakadas, eds. 2009. Wulfstan's Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early
Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard and Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. 2010. Archaeology and the Sea in Scandinavia and Britain: A
Personal Account. Reviewed by Craig R. Davis.
Book Reviews. Craig
R. Davis. See those titles reviewed above in The Heroic Age-A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 17, 2017.
Book Review. Craig
Nakashian, "Kim Hjardar and Vegard Vike, Vikings at War," De
Re Militari, The Society for Medieval Military History, posted May
22, 2017. Norwegian historians on Viking military history, 2016, 400 pages.
"How Much Viking Lore is True?" Book Talk, National Geographic, January 22, 2017.
Book Review. Roderick
McDonald, "Kristel Zilmer and Judith Jesch, eds., Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity Modes of Written Discourse in the
Newly Christian European North, Parergon, 2013, Vol. 30, no. 1."
Seen in Parergon Journal of Australian and New Zealand Association
for Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 300-301. Uploaded to Academia by
Book Review. "The
Vikings" by Allen Mawer, Goodreads. Originally published by
Cambridge University Press, 1913. See Project Gutenberg EBook below:
Allen Mawer, "The
Vikings," Cambridge University Press, 1913, published by Gutenberg
EBook, September 21, 2016.
Konrad Hughes, "Viking
Rus: Studies on the presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe by
Waldyslaw Duczko, Review by Konrad Hughes," October 29, 2018, uploaded to
Academia by Konrad Hughes.
A. E. Larsen, "The
13th Warrior: Learning to Love the Vikings, Even if They Don't
Wash," website, An Historian Goes to the Movies, March 13, 2014.
Larsen reviewed 1999 movie, The 13th Warrior, based on
Michael Crichton's novel, Eaters of the Dead, which was based
on Beowulf and the Risala of Ahmed ibn Fadlan
trip up the Volga in 921 CE.
"Eaters of the
Dead," Michael Crichton website. Information on Crichton's 1976 historical
novel about Ibn Fadlan's travels up the Volga with Viking Rus and film 13th
Film Review. John
Cornelison, "The Vikings (1958) Classic Movie Review 18, Classic
Movie Review, March 30, 2015.
Film Review. Alan
Royle, "The Long Ships, 1964, a stupid, stupid movie," Film
Star Facts, April 25, 2017. Movie shot in Belgrade, 1963=1964 reviewed by
historian Alan Royle.
Film Review. John
Cornelison, "The Long Ships (1964) Classic Movie Review 23," Classic
Movie Review, May 10, 2015.
Home Page, Viking Archaeology website and blog. See Viking Archaeology blog
Viking Archaeology Europe website.
Database. Body of medieval Icelandic literature. The sagas are prose histories
which described events that took place amongst the Norse and Celtic inhabitants
of Iceland during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth in the 10th and 11th
Books by Snorri
Sturluson, Icelandic Viking elite, Gutenberg eBooks. Includes Younger, Elder
Eddas, etc. Who was Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241)? See below:
9:03 Video. "Who
was Snorri Sturluson?" Norse Mythology.net, published July 29,
Norse Mythology for
Smart People--The Ultimate Online Guide to Norse Mythology and Religion.
web-portal for Scandinavian Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark.
"Hurstwic: Viking History Table of Contents, Hurstwic. Viking Daily Living
Viking Answer Lady
website. "Vikings in the East: Rus and Varangians," Viking
answer lady. See table of contents on the left and corresponding tabs
at top of page for topics and resources for this webpage.
Historical Novel Society. See many Viking historical novels.
Viking Society for
Northern Research website. See numerous Viking publications. See more resources
from this website below, including entire SAGA-Book.
Viking Society for
Northern Research Publications including Journal, Saga-Book. All
publications (and other related items) from Viking Society inception in 1893 to
present available on this website.
"Vikings," Cavan Scott website, September 16, 2019. Cavan Scott
creates Viking comic books.
Website. The Viking
Rune--All Things Viking and Norse. Website on Viking and "for
Vikings." Articles on Norse mythology, Viking Symbols and Nordic
runes. "Your guide to all things Germanic."
Resources," De Re Militari. The Society for Medieval Military
History. See book reviews, articles, papers beginning May 22, 2017.
List of books and
articles about Vikings, Questia Online Library. See vast array of resources on
Vikings. See bottom of first page for "Search for more books and articles
on Vikings," for thousands of digital resources.
and Medieval Scandinavia Journal, published by Brepols.
See Journal, Saga-Book, Viking Society for Northern Research Publications including
of the North Atlantic,
Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe. Viking articles, book reviews papers
seen in this Journal. See "Back Issues" tab at top right of this page
to see these resources.
John Maunu is World History Connected Digital Resources Editor and a College Board AP World History consultant,
currently working with Cranbrook/Kingswood High School in Bloomfield Hills,
Michigan. John can be reached at email@example.com