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Digital Resources for Vikings in World History

John Maunu



     Following are digital resources for Vikings in world history. The resources are divided into an Overview which includes general resources for Viking history and culture. That overview is followed by the following sections: Lessons (Overview), Gender, University syllabi, Varangian Rus, the Appropriation of Viking History by White Supremacists to promote their agenda, Videos, The Norse/Vikings, Norse/Viking Lessons, Podcasts, Videos for Norse/Vikings, Book and Film Reviews, and Websites.

L'Anse aux Meadows. World Heritage and Canadian National Historic Site at the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula of the island of Newfoundland, where the remains of an 11th-century Viking settlement has been found.
"The Realm of the Vikings," National Geographic, March 2017. See interactive showing Viking ship construction and varieties of Viking ships along with interactive map showing routes of seafaring Vikings, Norse, and Rus.
"The Vikings," NOVA, PBS companion website to "The Vikings," a two-hour NOVA program originally broadcast May 9, 2000. See transcript for this program below:
"The Vikings," PBS, NOVA, May 2000. Transcript for two-hour documentary.
"Vikings History: An Overview of the Culture and History of the Viking Age," History on the net, ed., Dr. Scott Michael Rank, seen September 13, 2019.
Eleanor Barraclough, "Vikings: Warriors of No Nation," History Today, April 10, 2019. "Racially pure" Viking stereotype is a myth argued Eleanor Barraclough.
Joshua J. Mark, "Vikings," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 29, 2018.
Michael G. Lamoureux, "The influence of Vikings on European culture," Sourcing Innovation, March/April 2009. Slim summary.
Andrew Curry, "Raiders or Traders?" Smithsonian, July 2008.
Dorie Baker, "The Vikings: Yale historian looks at the myths vs. the history," Yale News, March 8, 2013. As a lead-up to the History Channel series, "Vikings," Tom Ashbrook, host of NPR's "On Point" talked with Yale's Anders Winroth, foremost authority on the subject, to de-mystify the legendary raiders of the North.
Gareth Williams, "How do we know about the Vikings?" BBC, History, last update February 17, 2011.
Vikings Historian's View, See numerous Viking articles covering 800 CE to the 11th century.
Soren Sindbaek, "(PDF) All in one Boat. The Vikings as European and Global Heritage," Chapter 8, pages 81-88, in Heritage Reinvents Europe, EAC Occasional Paper, No. 7, Proceedings of the Internationale Conference, Ename, Belgium, March 17-19, 2011, edited by Dirk Callebaut, etc. al. Uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. Paper/Chapter presented a survey of contexts and places where Vikings are currently highlighted as a European cultural heritage.

Lessons (Overview)
Vikings-KS2 History, BBC Bitesize learning modules. Annotated animated resources most likely aimed at elementary and middle school students.
"Vikings, Vikings Everywhere, Teaching With Primary Sources," PBS Learning Media lessons and interactives.
"The Thing and Viking migration," Historical Association, UK. A simulation to help students understand why the Vikings would leave home and settle abroad.
Lesson module, Session 2, "Middle Ages: Viking Invasions," Radford University, Virginia Geographic Alliance. Note Session 1
Lessons, Europe in the Middle Ages, 500-1000 CE:
"Viking Lesson Plans," Fresh Plans, November 2011. See embedded links for resources and lesson ideas.
"The Vikings: Terror of Europe," Mr. Casey, AP World History website, January 2015. Guided Document Based Essay question with seven documents. See more lessons from February 1, 2019 updated APWH Modern website, Mr. Casey, Maspeth High School, Elmhurst, NY:

Emma Groeneveld, "Women in the Viking Age," Ancient History Encyclopedia, July 11, 2018.
Kendall M. Holcomb, "Pulling the Strings: The Influential Power of Women in Viking Age Iceland," Digital Commons at Western Oregon University, 2015.
Podcast series beginning with Mother of Kings I-The Threshold, Viking Age Podcasts, January 15, 2019. Series of podcasts which explored the life and legend of Gunnhild Konungamooir, "Mother of Kings," and other powerful women in Old Norse Literature.
Margaret Sheble, Purdue University, "'Her temper was still the same': Women Resisting Colonialism in Modern Viking Narratives," Heroic Age, A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 19, October 4, 2019. Descriptions of how Viking women are depicted in articles, poetry, simulation games, history, including white nationalist venues.
Jessica Adam, "The Lives of Women in the Viking Age: The Role of Critical Feminist and Historical Assessment," Essay, for History 383 course, Athabasca University, Canada, November 3, 2014, 12 page pdf. A brief look at the literature, resources for gender and women in the Viking Age.
Linnea Hartsuyker, "To Live Like the Women of Viking Literature," Literary Hub, August 10, 2017. Women's appearances in Viking literature go beyond the home and children.
Marie Louise Stig Sorensen, "(PDF) Gender, Material Culture and identity in the Viking Diaspora. In Viking and Medieval Scandinavia 5 (2009), 253-269,” Viking and Medieval Scandinavia, 5, 2009, 253-269, uploaded to Academia by Marie Louise Stig Sorensen. As a theoretical support for the aims of theorizing the Viking Age as a diaspora, this paper reflected on the impact of diaspora on identity, esp. gender.
"Women in the Viking Age, National Museum of Denmark. Slim review of gender and women in Viking culture to 1050 CE.
Christopher Bjornsen, "No Viking Women Warriors," HUV, Hellu Land News, September 16, 2017. Note posts on this site as to critique of archaeologist Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "A female Viking Warrior confirmed by genomics," published in American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Uppsala University.
Erika Harlitz, "The Myth of the Viking Woman Warrior," The Week, October 9, 2019. Until more solid evidence comes to light, the Viking woman warrior remains a fantasy.
26:40 Podcast. "Viking Warrior Women with Stephen Harrison," Dan Snow's History Hit Podcast, 2018. Stephen Harrison is a lecturer in Archaeology at the University of Glasgow with research interest on the archaeology of Early Viking Age Ireland and Britain.
47:54 Podcast. "The Lives of Viking and Mongolian Women," History is Sexy Podcast, Episode 27, 2019. A comparative of gender in two martial cultures.
15:22 Video. Ragnar Dracaena, "Women in Viking Age Scandinavia," part of series, The Modern Viking, published on You Tube June 4, 2018.
Tetyana Bureychak, "In Search of Heroes: Vikings and Cossacks in Present Sweden and Ukraine," NORMA, Nordic Journal for Masculinities Studies, Vol. 7, Issue 2, 2012, 139-159. Uploaded to Academia by Tetyana Bureychak, Linkoping University, Sweden. Comparative analysis of symbolic mechanisms that legitimize hegomonic masculinity in Sweden and Ukraine society.
Daniel McCoy, "Viking Gender Roles," Norse Mythology for Smart People, website.
Sami Raninen, "Queer Vikings?" Queer Scope Articles, Semantic Scholar, February 2008.

Christian Raffensperger, "The Viking World," Syllabus, Spring Semester, 2010, Wittenberg University.
Dr. Oren Falk, The Viking Age, syllabus, Spring 2012, Cornell University.
Gregory Mumford, ANTH.000, The Viking Raiders, Traders, Farmers, (UAB sample syllabus; course pending, Sept. 6, 2016), University of Alabama, Birmingham. Uploaded to Academia by Gregory Mumford.
Austin Mason, Macalester College, Minnesota, and Cameron Bradley, Carleton College, Minnesota, "Syllabus: The Viking World--Story, History and Archaeology," University of Minnesota, nd. Uploaded to Academia by Austin Mason.
Lois L. Huneycutt, "The Age of the Vikings, c. 800-c. 1200," Syllabus, History 4550, University of Missouri, last updated August 16, 2019. Note Viking Women and gender histories in Books to review at bottom of this syllabus.
Dr. Terje Leiren, "The Vikings: A History," Syllabus, University of Washington, Fall Quarter 2019. See Lecture Overheads, Websites and Links, and links to Havamal-The Words of Odin the High One (which does not open), Rigsthula: The Lay of Rig, and The Account Given by Ohthere.
Note Havamal resources in Viking/Norse section below and see Havamal here:
Madeline Hurd, "Final Syllabus-The Vikings," DIS-Study Abroad in Scandinavia, Stockholm Sweden, Spring 2017.
Kim Bergqvist, Course Syllabus, "World of the Vikings," DISabroad, Stockholm, Sweden, Fall 2020.
"Viking and Medieval Norse Studies," Course description, Readings, Universities of Iceland, Oslo, Norway, Copenhagen, Denmark. Two year Nordic Master's Programme, February 1, 2020.

Varangian Rus
Alex M. Feldman, "(PDF) The First Christian Rus' Generation: Contextualizing the Black Sea Events of 1016, 1024, and 1043," Rossica Antiqua, No. 16, 2018, uploaded to Academia by Alex M. Feldman.
Christopher Klein, "Globetrotting Vikings: The Quest for Constantinople,", last updated October 19, 2018. Rus attempt to conquer Constantinople failed. Varangian Guard employed by the Byzantines.
Travis W. Shores, (PDF) "Varangian: Norse Influences Within the Elite Guard of Byzantium," Paper, Spring 2013, uploaded to Academia by Travis Shores.
Fedir Androshchuk, "What does material evidence tell us about contacts between Byzantium and the Viking world c. 800-1000?" Chapter in Byzantine in the Viking World, Uppsala Universitie, 91-116, uploaded to Academia by Fedir Androshchuk.
Rym Ghazal, "When the Arabs met the Vikings: New discovery suggests ancient links," The National, May 6, 2015.
Judith Gabriel, "Among the Norse Tribes-The Remarkable Account of Ibn Fadlan," Aramco World, November/December 1999. Ibn Fadlan's 921-922 CE encounter with the Viking Rus as he traveled up the Volga representing the Abbasid Caliph of Baghdad on a mission to the king of the Volga Bulgars, recounted in his journal titled, "Risala."
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "Rus in Arabic Sources: Cultural Contacts and Identity, PhD dissertation," Centre for Medieval Studies, University of Bergen, February 2013. PhD dissertation. Uploaded to Academia by Thorir Jonsson Hraundal.
Thorir Jonsson Hraundal, "New Perspectives on Eastern Vikings/Rus in Arabic Sources," Viking and Medieval Scandinavia Journal, 2014, 65-98. Follow-up to Hraundal's PhD dissertation linked above.
Csete Katona, "Co-operation between the Viking Rus' and the Turkic nomads of the steppe in the ninth-eleventh centuries, MA Thesis in Medieval Studies, May 2018, Central European University, Budapest, 144- page pdf.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: the Pearl of the Baltic Sea, home of the Varangians, pages 1-166," B4Press, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea," 2013, 1-10, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See other chapters and pages from this book on right side of this page.
Tore Gannholm, "The Gotlandic Merchant Republic and its trade on the Russian rivers in the 700's-900's," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea, Center of commerce and culture in the Baltic Sea region for over 2000 years, 2013, 139-157. Uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See more chapters from this book, articles, papers on Gotland and Varangian/Rus on right side of this page.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotlandic merchants (Rus') on the Russian rivers," excerpt from Gotland: The Pearl of the Baltic Sea, 2013, 136-160, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm.
Tore Gannholm, (PDF) "The history of the Varangians and world-unique Medieval Churches," 2015, 1-148 pdf, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. See other Gotland Varangian resources to the right of this page.
Tore Gannholm, "Gotland the home of the Varangians," 2017, uploaded to Academia by Tore Gannholm. Gannholm differentiated between Vikings and the Varangian Gotland Merchant Republic.
Tore Gannholm, Independent Academia. See all of Tore Gannholm papers, articles and monographs on Gotlandic and Varangian Rus Swedish history.
Omeljan Pritsak, "The Origin of Rus'," The Russia Review, July 1977, 249-273. The Normanist versus Anti-Normanist controversy as to Norsemen founding Kievan Rus.' Historiography.
Malena M. Vanpil, "(PDF) From Sweden to Russia: Staraya Ladoga and the role of Vikings in establishment of the Russian State," Uppsal Universitie, April 11, 2013, uploaded to Academia by Malena Vanpil. See other Rhos/Rus, Varangian, Gotland, Swedish Vikings in Russia articles, papers to the right of this page.
"Medieval Sourcebook: The Chronicle of Nestor," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Excerpt from The Chronicle of Nestor as to Varangians ruling Rus. Also referred to as The Russian Primary Chronicle.
The Russian Primary Chronicle, Laurentian Text, trans. and edited by Samuel Hazzard Cross (1930) and Olgerd P. Sherbowitz-Wetzor (1953), Mediaeval Academy of America. History of the Eastern Slavs and Varangian Rus role in ruling early Kiev.

See more on The Russian Primary Chronicle below:
"Primary Chronicle," Wikipedia. The Tale of Bygone Years (Old East Slavic), known in English-language historiography as the Primary Chronicle or Rus' Primary Chronicle or, after the author it has traditionally been ascribed to, Nestor's Chronicle or The Chronicle of Nestor, is a history of the Kyivan Rus' from about 850-1100 CE.
Serhii Plokhy, "The Origins of the Slavic Nations--Premodern Identities in Rus, Ukraine, and Belarus," Cambridge, 2006.
Was Kievan Rus' the product of activities of Vikings/Norsemen/Varangians or was it a state, not only populated by Eastern Slavs, but also created and ruled by them? Historiography and history as nationalist populism.
"Estonian Vikings," Nordic Estonia, nd.
Jaba Samushia, "Vikings Involvement in the Civil War 1046 in Georgia," Pro Georgia, 2013, 55-63, uploaded to Academia by Jaba Samushia.
Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, "Rus, Varangians and Birka Warriors," in The Martial Society. Aspects of warriors, fortifications and social change in Scandinavia, eds., L. Holmquist Olausson & M. Olausson, 2009, 160-178. Uploaded to Academia by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson. See, The Martial Society book with theses and papers below:
Lena Holmquist, Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, Fedir Andoshchuk, Anna Kjellstrom, and Michael Olausson, etc., eds., The Martial Society. Aspects of warriors, fortifications and social change in Scandinavia, Archaeological Research Laboratory, Stockholm, University, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Charlotte Hedenstierna-Jonson, etc. See tabs beneath title, The Martial Society for more resources, papers, articles, monographs on Viking Age Architecture, Viking Age Scandinavia, Fortifications, Material Culture of the Viking Age, Varangians, + 2 more.
Alan R. Lancaster, "Viking-40: Rurik and the Rus-Russia, a Norseman Founds a Dynasty and a Super State, Hub Pages, last updated May 1, 2019. Look to right of this page to see other Viking articles.
Katie Lane, "Vikings in the East: Scandinavian Influence in Kievan Rus," WOU, Western Oregon University Homepage, posted August 2015. The Vikings, referred to as Varangians in East Europe, research paper, Spring 2005, 49 page pdf.
Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, "Bosselman-Ruickbie: Heavy Metal Meets Byzantium! Contact Between Scandinavian and Byzantium in the Albums 'The Varangian Way' (2007) and 'Stand Up and Fight (2011) by Finnish Band Turisas. In: Daim et al., Wege der Kommunikation zwischen Byzanz und dem Westen, 2, BOO, 9.2, Mainz, 2018, 391-419. Uploaded to Academia by Antje Bosselmann-Ruickbie, Justus-Lieberg-University, Giessen, Germany .

Note other Varangian, Byzantine history specific articles, monographs to the right of this page.
Viking metal, metal music archives. Norse legends are themes of Viking Metal music.
The Russian Primary Chronicle. History of Kievan Rus' from about 850 to 1110, originally compiled in 1113, Laurentian Text, The Medieval Academy of America, Cambridge, Mass., 1953.

White Supremacists and Vikings
Clare Downham, "Vikings were never the pure-bred master race white supremacists like to portray," The Conversation, September 28, 2017. The word 'Viking' entered the Modern English language in 1807, at a time of growing nationalism and empire building. The following decades produced "Viking" stereotypes that supported nationalism and white superiority.
David Perry, "White Supremacists Love Vikings. But they've got history all wrong," Washington Post, May 31, 2017. Note 2017 date for some articles which is context for Charlottesville white supremacist march and violence.
Judith Gabriel Vinje, "Viking Symbols 'Stolen' by Racists," Norwegian Americans, Los Angeles, November 2, 2017, updated October 31, 2017.
Riley Winters, "Why Odin is the new God Choice for White Supremacists," Ancient Origins, August 15, 2017.
Richard Martyn-Hemphill and Henrik Pryser Libell, "Who Owns the Vikings? Pagans, Neo-Nazis, and Advertisers Tussle Over Symbols," NY Times, March 17, 2018.
Dorothy Kim, "White Supremacists Have Weaponized an Imaginary Viking Past. It's Time to Reclaim the Real History," Time, last updated April 15, 2019, Real Viking society was multicultural and multiracial. So, where does the white supremacist vision of their genealogy come from?
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "What the alt-right gets wrong about the Vikings," The Daily Beast, August 17, 2019. Viking age Scandinavians were immigrants who traded with the Muslim world and embraced gender fluidity--everything the alt-right despises.

10:10 Video, Dr. Jackson Crawford, "The Viking Funeral Ibn Fadlan Saw," published on You Tube, October 17, 2017. Ibn Fadlan's account of Viking/Rus funeral witnessed in 922 CE, from his journal, Risala.
5:57 Video. "Abbasid & Vikings (Viking Raid to Caspian Sea)," published on You Tube December 14, 2018.
38:13 Video. "Russia, the Kievan Rus, and the Mongols," by John Arnold. Published on You Tube August 24, 2017. History of the Varangian Rus and their encounter with the Mongols.
18:32 Video. "Anglo-Saxon Varangian Rus in Russia, (Byzantine Empire), published on You Tube July 26, 2019. Tenth and Eleventh century 'video timeline' of Varangian Rus support of Byzantine Empire. Scroll down to see other Varangian Rus videos.

See 3 part series on Varangian Rus from Birka Viking:
13:56 Video. "The Varangian Rus 1/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.

Generally speaking, the Norwegians expanded to the north and west to places such as Ireland, Scotland, Iceland and Greenland, the Danes to England and France, settling in the Danelaw (northern/eastern England) and Normandy, and the Swedes to the south and east, founding the Kievan Rus.
7:26 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 2/3," BirkaViking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011.
10:44 Video. "The Varangian Rus, 3/3," Birka Viking, published on You Tube December 15, 2011. The Varangian Rus in Constantinople.
7:57 Video. "Slave Trade Viking," Strange World of Econ, published on You Tube May 16, 2017.

The Norse/Vikings
Daniel Melleno, "Before They Were Vikings: Scandinavia and the Franks up to the Death of Louis the Pius," PhD dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, Spring 2014. Patterns of interaction and relationship between Francia and Scandinavia from 700-840 CE. A narrative of commerce, diplomacy, and strife between the Frankish Empire and its northern neighbors which began long before the Viking Age.
Soren Michael Sindbaek, "(PDF) The Small World of the Vikings: Networks in early medieval communication and exchange," Norwegian Archaeological Review, Vol. 40, no. 1, 2007, 59-74, uploaded to Academia by Soren Sindbaek. "Network theory" as to Viking voyaging in south Scandinavia and overseas.
Tenaya Jorgensen, "The Scandinavian Trade Network in the Early Viking Age: Kaupang and Dublin in Context," Paper, Trinity College, Dublin, nd., uploaded to Academia by Tenaya Joregensen. Compare and contrast of Danish Kaupang in southeast Norway's Skiringsaal and the West Norse Dublin which used central place and network theory of two nodal points linked together by the Scandinavian trade network.
Mr. Frog, Joonas Ahola, Clive Tolley, eds., "Fibula, Fabula, Fact--The Viking Age in Finland," uploaded to Academia by Joonas Ahola, Mr. Frog with Clive Tolley. Entire 516 pages of The Viking Age in Finland, Studio Fennica Historica, no. 18,
Helsinki: Finnish Literature Society, 2014.
Clare Downham, "Viking Ethnicities: A historiographic overview," History Compass, Vol. 10, no. 1, October 2012, 1-12, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham focused on identity of the Vikings and how they saw themselves along with historiographic trends of Viking ethnicities. Downham also claimed to describing comparative analysis of human immigration in this article. See other articles, monographs, papers on Vikings and Ireland, Vikings in England, on the right side of this page.
Clare Downham, "Hiberno-Norwegians and Anglo-Danes Anachronistic Ethnicities in Viking Age England," Medieval Scandinavia, 19, 2009, 136-169. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.
Clare Downham, "Viking Camps in Ninth-century Ireland: Sources, Locations, and Interactions," Paper presented at "Between the Islands" conference at the University of Cambridge, March 13, 2009, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham.
Anton Amle, "Black Pool: Hiberno-Norse Identity in Viking Age and Early Medieval Ireland," Institute of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala Universitet, Master's Thesis Paper, Spring Semester 2014, uploaded to Academia by Anton Amle.

See many other monographs, papers on Norse Vikings and Ireland on right side of this page.
"The Viking Legacy in Ireland," Tom Birkett and Christina Lee, eds., The Vikings in Munster, Languages, Myths and Finds, Vol. 3, Centre For the Study of the Viking Age, University of Nottingham, 2014. Chapters 1-4, Conclusion and Bibliography (pp. 4-6, 33-37). Uploaded to Academia by Mark Kirwan.
Thorsteinn Vilhjalmsson, "Time and Travel in Old Norse Society," presentation for Science Institute, University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland, 1997 and also published in Disputatio, II: 89-114, 1997. Paper about daily life and technical knowledge and skills in Viking medieval Scandinavia.
Sean B. Lawing, "The Place of the Evil: Infant Abandonment in Old Norse Society," Scandinavian Studies, 2013. Uploaded to Academia by Sean Lawing. Status of deformed and disfigured in medieval Norse society.
James H. Barrett, University of Cambridge, Medieval and Environmental Archaeology, "(PDF) What Caused the Viking Age?" Antiquity, 82, 2008, 671-685. Uploaded to Academia by James H. Barrett. Prime movers for the Viking episode and expansion in early medieval world history.
Andrew Curry, "The First Vikings," Archaeology Magazine, July/August 2013.
William Rosen, "How the Vikings became the world's first climate change profiteers," Salon, May 25, 2014.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Project Gutenberg EBook, posted August 3, 2008. First compiled by Anglo-Saxon authorities as directed by King Alfred in 890 CE which recorded early Viking raids on the British Isles. This version translated by J. Ingram (1823) and J.A. Giles (1847).
Clare Downham, "Annals, Armies, and Artistry: The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, 865-896 CE," uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. King Alfred's Anglo-Saxon Chronicles' focus on Viking campaigns.
Irmeli Valtonen, "An Interpretation of the Description of Northernmost Europe in the Old English Orosius," Graduate Thesis Paper, 172 pages, University of Oulu, Finland, August 1988. Early Viking travel narratives written in 9th century Anglo Saxon Orosius, The Voyage of Ohthere and The Voyage of Wulfstan, are important because these are some of the very few accounts of 9th century Viking northernmost Europe, the rest being archaeological evidence.
Irene Baug,, "The Beginning of the Viking Age in the West," Journal of Maritime Archaeology, Vol. 14, Issue 1, April 2019, 43-80 seen in Springer link, first online December 7, 2018.
Erika Harlitz-Kern, "10 Things You Should Know about the Lindisfarne Gospels," Book Riot, February 3, 2016. A 793 CE Viking raid on the Lindisfarne Priory in northeast England has been cited as the beginning of the Viking Age in the West.
Clare Downham, "Vikings in England to A.D. 1016," in S. Brink and N. Price, eds., "The Viking World," London, 2008. Uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Slim chapter on Vikings in England.
"Shakespeare's 'MacLeod'-"The Stornoway Play," " The (Made Up) History of Stornoway Weblog, January 12, 2010. As a youth, William Shakespeare spent many happy years in Stornoway before finding fame as a writer. His first play, 1586, "MacLeod," based on a hermit's sighting of Viking arrival/raids in Stornoway.
"Saxo's legend of Amleth in the Gesta Danorum," The British Library, Collections, nd. Norse tale of Amleth, a literary ancestor of Shakespeare's Hamlet. Scandinavian legend recorded around 1200 by Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus and first printed in Paris, 1514. Gesta Danorum was partly mythical history of the Danes.
Amanda Mabillard, "Shakespeare's Sources for Hamlet: Ur-Hamlet, Revenge tragedy, and the Danish Tragedy," Shakespeare Online, August 20, 2000.
Clare Downham, "The Chronology of the Last Scandinavian Kings of York," Northern History, 40: 1, March 2003, uploaded to Academia by Clare Downham. Downham reviewed two historian's arguments as to struggle for control of York, in northern England, in early 10th century between rival Scandinavian Kings and the English. She also defends the chronology in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle(s) as to this history.
"New Perspective on Memory, Religion, Trade, and the Viking Presence," Wittenberg History Journal, Vol. XLVII, Spring 2018. See articles on "Viking Fur Trade beyond Western Europe," "Christianization and Conversion in Danelaw," and "Vikings in al-Andalus."
Niels Lund, "Peace and Non-Peace in the Viking Age--Ottar in Biarmaland, the Rus in Byzantium, and Danes and Norwegians in England," chapter in James E. Knirk, ed., Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985, uploaded to Academia by Niels Lund.
Stephen M. Lewis, "Hamlet with the Princes of Denmark: An exploration of the case of Halfdan, 'king of the Danes,'",  2017, uploaded to Academia by Stephen M. Lewis. Focus on Halfdan, King of the Danes to understand "the Viking Age, not only in England but in Denmark and the Frankish realm as well."
Gareth Williams, "Ancient History in depth: Viking Religion," BBC, February 17, 2011. Explanation of Viking 'pagan' religion and conversion to Christianity.
"The Vikings in Britain: a brief history," Historical Association, UK, last updated September 27, 2019. See more resources at the end of this article.
"Medieval Sourcebook: Annals of Xanten, 845-853," Medieval Sourcebook, Fordham University. Northmen raids into England and France.
"Disorder and Warfare According to the Annals of Xanten, 844-861," DE RE MILITARI, June 25, 2013. Northmen raids in northern Europe from series of annals written at Lorsch (832-852) and at Cologne until 1873.
"Viking Raids in France and the Siege of Paris, 882-886," DE RE MILITARI, July 4, 2013. Viking raids in France and siege of Paris from The Annals of St. Vaast.
Bjorn Poulsen, "A Classical Manor in Viking Age and Early Medieval Denmark," Revue beige de Philologie et d'Histoire, Vol. 90, no. 2, 2012, 451-466. History and archaeology seem to confirm a Viking Age system of manors, but also of a classical system of manors, which is then assumed to have continued into the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries.
Mark Cartwright, "The Impact of the Norman Conquest of England," Ancient History Encyclopedia, January 23, 2019.
"Heimskringla or The Chronicle of the Kings of Norway," by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241), Online Medieval and Classical Library Release #15b. Originally written in Old Norse, app. 1225 CE by poet and historian Snorri Sturluson.

"Written sources for the Viking Age," Vikingeskibsmuseet, Denmark, Viking Museum. Much historiography of the Viking Age was/is based on foreign sources since Scandinavia did not have a literary tradition.

Kinsmen die,
You yourself die,
gods and gold die;
an honourable name will never die,
one which was won
by your own work

(Hávamál stanza 77).
"Old Norse Proverbs: Quotes from the Havamal-Poetic Edda, Viking Rune. Old Norse proverbs from Havamal or Sayings of the High One, Odin.
Havamal, ed., D. L. Ashliman, University of Pittsburg. Clean copy in English.
"Havamal: A Study Guide," Germanic Mythology.
Germanic Mythology: Texts, Translations, Scholarship, Resources for Researchers, Germanic Mythology. Resources for Researchers into Germanic, Norse Mythology, and Northern European Folklore.
"Social order in the Viking Age," National Museum of Denmark. See esp. information on Eddic poem, Havamal and the poem, Rigsthula, which illustrated class divisions and values in Viking society. Note other Viking information on right side of this page.
Viking Poem Rigsthula from the Poetic Edda, edited by D.L. Ashliman, March 30, 2010. Poem explained Viking class divisions. See more on the Rigsthula:
"Viking Musical Instruments," Norse Mythology net, August 7, 2018. What kind of musical instruments did the Vikings have? See 23:26 video and images of Viking's musical instruments.
"Viking Music, Vikings Soundtrack, Nordic/Norse Theme Music," Sons of Vikings, April 20, 2018. History of Viking music and instruments and modern Viking music groups from the Vikings TV series.
Andrew Lawler, "Kinder, Gentler Vikings? Not According to Their Slaves," National Geographic, December 28, 2015.
Norse mythology Research Papers, Academia. See more papers, monographs below:
David Keys, "A Viking Mystery," Smithsonian, October 2010. A mass grave found beneath Oxford University which archaeologists and historians have concluded held Viking warriors killed by Anglo-Saxons.
Janina Ramirez, "AEthelflaed: The woman who crushed the Vikings," History Extra, May 17, 2018. Anglo-Saxon wife, mother, diplomat and, above all, Anglo-Saxon Warrior Queen. See audio podcast on Aethelfaed below:
18:00 audio podcast, "Aethelflaed, Lady of the Mercians," Episode 20 of 30, BBC, Radio 3, The Essay, August 6, 2014.
Andrew J. Dugmore, et. al., "Cultural adaptation, compounding vulnerabilities and conjectures on Norse Greenland," Critical Perspectives on Historical Collapse Special, Proceedings of National Academy of Sciences, USA, National Center for Biotechnology Information, March 6, 2012. Norse Greenland has been seen as a classic case of maladaptation by an inflexible temperate zone society extending into the arctic and collapse driven by climate change. This paper recognized the successful arctic adaptation achieved in Norse Greenland.

Andrew J. Dugmore, Christian Keller, and Thomas H. McGovern, (PDF) Norse Greenland Settlement: Reflections on Climate Change, Trade, and the Contrasting Fates of Human Settlements in the North Atlantic Islands," Arctic Anthropology, 2007, uploaded to Academia by Thomas H. McGovern.
Irene Berg Petersen, "How Vikings navigated the world," Science Nordic, October 9, 2012. Article as to how Greenland Vikings navigated the north Atlantic seas using birds, whales, celestial bodies, chants and rhymes and human senses.
Jason Daly, "Simulation suggests legendary Viking sunstones could have worked," Smithsonian, April 9, 2018.
Christian Keller, "Furs, Fish and Ivory--Medieval Norseman at the Arctic Fringe," Journal of the Northern Atlantic, (JONA), 2005, updated November 27, 2008.
Mark Strauss, "Discovery Could Rewrite History of Vikings in New World," National Geographic, March 31, 2016. Canadian site could revise Viking history in the Americas.
Tim Folger, "Why Did Greenland Vikings Vanish?" Smithsonian, March 2017.
"The Story of the Norse Vikings in Greenland and Why their Settlement Collapsed After 450 Years," Salem State University. Power point based on Jared Diamond's Collapse: How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed.
Thomas H. McGovern and Sophia Perdikaris, "What went wrong with the Scandinavian westward expansion?" Natural History Magazine, October 2000, 51-56.
L. Mendola and V. Salerno, "Sicilian Peoples: The Normans," Best of Sicily Magazine, n.d. The Normans/Norse and Franks in Italy.
See Viking primary sources, Internet History Sourcebooks, Fordham University. Note first selection of primary sources on Vikings.
"Climate, environment and the Norse in the North Atlantic: A bibliography," Environmental History Resources. See bibliography of Norse colonization or "landnam" of Greenland, Iceland, Faeroe Islands, Shetland, and Orkneys from the ninth century CE onwards.
John C. Sharpe, MA Thesis paper, Anthropology, "The Viking Expansion: Climate, Population, Plunder," Scholar Works, University of Montana, June 2002
Tim Folger, "Viking Weather," National Geographic, June 2010. As Greenland returns to the warm climate that allowed Vikings to colonize it in the early Middle Ages, its isolated and dependent people dream of greener fields and pastures, and Oil.
"What the Vikings Can Teach Us About Terrorism," Foreign Policy, October 8, 2012. Note Viking reference as to technology, shallow-draft ship, and lack of international order, Dark Ages, to past terror groups and current, 2012, terror.

Lessons on Vikings
Jacqui Dean, "Viking Traders," Historical Association, UK, last updated December 8, 2010. Interactive learning-a Viking trading game. See another version of this lesson module below:
Jacqui Dean, "Vikings settle down," Historical Association, UK. Activities and a simulation on Vikings, especially around England.
Tarjei Straume, "Take Home Examination," HIS 2141 Vikings in the British Isles (c. 800-1050), Department of Archaeology, Conservation and History, The Artic University of Norway, May 19-22, 2014. Viking Age in Ireland documents.
Lesson module. "Clash of the Gods: Beowulf," History International, two page pdf. Lesson meant to be used with video documentary below:
45:02 Video. "Clash of the Gods: Beowulf," History Channel, published by Daily Motion, July 27, 2018. Eighth century legend based in Scandinavia. See Beowulf podcasts below.

Episode #1, Welcome to the Viking Age, April 12, 2016. Note tabs at top of this podcast page for many, many more Viking podcasts and "Related Posts" at bottom of this page.
See various Viking/Norse podcasts from Breaking History Podcasts, Northeastern University History graduate students production. See example below:
28:28 Podcast. "Viking Food," Scottish History Podcast, seen in search engine of Breaking History Podcasts. Viking farming and food in northern Scotland.
The History of Vikings, Apple Podcasts, hosted by Noah Telzner. 53 Episodes interviewing historian scholarly discussions about Vikings, Norse myth and the history of medieval Scandinavia and Iceland.
Podcasts. "Viking Culture in the Modern World," Pt. 1, 2, and 3, 54:00 each, Norse by Northwest, April 12, 2018. Three podcast interviews with Viking authors and historians.
"Beowulf and Other Viking Ancestors," The History of English Podcast-The Spoken History of a Global Language, Episode 42, May 6, 2014. See "Episodes" tab at top of this page for more podcasts, specifically Viking, Dane, Beowulf episodes.
Series of Viking/Norse podcasts. Noah Tetzner, "Episodes-The History of Vikings," The History of Vikings Podcasts, first episode from September 16, 2019.
50:07 Podcast. "The Danelaw," In Our Time, BBC Radio 4, Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss how a series of Danish invasions, settlements and battles with Anglo-Saxons changed England in the 9th and 10th centuries.
28:00 Podcast. "Word of Mouth, Vikings," In Our Time, BBC Radio 4. Michael Rosen discovered how the Vikings changed the English language.
Podcasts. Lee Accomando, "Episodes," Viking Age Podcasts, newest podcast, August 23, 2019. Listen to an example below:
Podcast. Lee Accomando, "Silver and Status," Episode 18, Viking Age Podcast, October 13, 2016.
45:58 audio podcast. "Vikings! On and Off Screen," On Point, NPR, March 1, 2013. Interview with creator and writer of History Channel history drama, "Vikings," and Viking historian.
Podcast Series: The Vikings, Historical Association. Viking history featuring Professor Rosamond McKitterick, Sidney Sussex College, University of Cambridge. Will have to subscribe and pay to listen to podcasts.
7:16:18 Audiobook. Lars Brownworth, "The Sea Wolves-A History of the Vikings," Tantor Audio, published on You Tube, September 22, 2018. The Sea Wolves, 2014.

59:17 Documentary Video. "On the Trail of the Vikings," Discovery-History, published on You Tube July 29, 2015. Focus on Greenland Vikings.
1:05:54 Documentary Video. "The Vikings-Warriors of the Pagan Gods," Viking Documentary 2018, The Kings Armour, published on You Tube, January 24, 2018. Scroll down to see more Viking videos on this page.
2:48:17 documentary, "Columbus or the Vikings? Who Discovered America? The Evidence and Facts," NOVA, published on You Tube, February 28, 2018. Is the Vinland Map deception or real? NOVA documentary originally titled "The Viking Deception."
44:56 Video. "How the Vikings Discovered North America/History Documentary," Learning FTW, Forbidden History 2015, published on You Tube, September 25, 2016.
9:39 Video. Zachary Cohen, "Collapse of the Greenland Norse," published on You Tube November 19, 2017.
18:15 Video. Jared Diamond, "Dr. Jared Diamond: Collapse of the Greenland Norse," Ted Ed, published on You Tube October 3, 2017.
47:47 Video. "Ancient Norse Vikings," History Documentary, published on You Tube September 25, 2015. Romanticized picture of Vikings as noble savages emerged in the 18th century, but their story is more complex when archaeological and historical sources are reviewed.
51:39 Video lecture. Octavia Randolph, historical novelist, "Battle Tactics: Vikings against Saxons," Gotland Museum, Visby, Gotland for Medieval Week, 2019, published on You Tube August 17, 2019. See many other Viking/Norse videos on this page.
17:09 Video. "Berserkers! Did the Vikings have Berserkers?" Military History not visualized, published on You Tube, May 7, 2019.
11:17 Video. John Green, "The Vikings," Crash Course World History, published on You Tube February 4, 2015.
See numerous Viking videos from Viking Ship Museum, Denmark, webtv. Many videos on Viking ship building.
9:10 Video. "Annals of St. Bertin (854-860)," Frankish primary source on Danes/Vikings raids in France, Published on You Tube, February 12, 2019.
10:35 Video. "The Norse Pantheon: Crash Course World Mythology #10," published on You Tube April 30, 2017. Narration by Mike Rugnetta.
8:00 Video. "Hnefatafl-Board Game of the Vikings," You Tube, March 9, 2018. Epic Viking board game popular in many areas and countries long into the medieval age.
1:36:41 full movie, ":The Vikings: (1958), published on You Tube, December 3, 2016. See Film Review in section below.
1:32:40 Film. "Viking: The Berserkers, 2014," Classic Movies Channel, published on You Tube, September 8, 2019.

Book/Film Reviews
Book Review. Colin Martin, "Maritime Societies of the Viking and Medieval World, Society for Medieval Archaeology Monograph, Maney Publishing, 2015, 396 pages, The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology, February 13, 2017, seen in Wiley Online Library.
Englert, Anton, and Athena Trakadas, eds. 2009. Wulfstan's Voyage: The Baltic Sea Region in the Early Viking Age as Seen from Shipboard and Crumlin-Pedersen, Ole. 2010. Archaeology and the Sea in Scandinavia and Britain: A Personal Account. Reviewed by Craig R. Davis.
Book Reviews. Craig R. Davis. See those titles reviewed above in The Heroic Age-A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe, Issue 17, 2017.
Book Review. Craig Nakashian, "Kim Hjardar and Vegard Vike, Vikings at War," De Re Militari, The Society for Medieval Military History, posted May 22, 2017. Norwegian historians on Viking military history, 2016, 400 pages.
Simon Worrall, "How Much Viking Lore is True?" Book Talk, National Geographic, January 22, 2017.
Book Review. Roderick McDonald, "Kristel Zilmer and Judith Jesch, eds., Epigraphic Literacy and Christian Identity Modes of Written Discourse in the Newly Christian European North, Parergon, 2013, Vol. 30, no. 1." Seen in Parergon Journal of Australian and New Zealand Association for Medieval and Early Modern Studies, 300-301. Uploaded to Academia by Roderick McDonald.
Book Review. "The Vikings" by Allen Mawer, Goodreads. Originally published by Cambridge University Press, 1913. See Project Gutenberg EBook below:
Allen Mawer, "The Vikings," Cambridge University Press, 1913, published by Gutenberg EBook, September 21, 2016.
Konrad Hughes, "Viking Rus: Studies on the presence of Scandinavians in Eastern Europe by Waldyslaw Duczko, Review by Konrad Hughes," October 29, 2018, uploaded to Academia by Konrad Hughes.
A. E. Larsen, "The 13th Warrior: Learning to Love the Vikings, Even if They Don't Wash," website, An Historian Goes to the Movies, March 13, 2014. Larsen reviewed 1999 movie, The 13th Warrior, based on Michael Crichton's novel, Eaters of the Dead, which was based on Beowulf and the Risala of Ahmed ibn Fadlan trip up the Volga in 921 CE.
"Eaters of the Dead," Michael Crichton website. Information on Crichton's 1976 historical novel about Ibn Fadlan's travels up the Volga with Viking Rus and film 13th Warrior.
Film Review. John Cornelison, "The Vikings (1958) Classic Movie Review 18, Classic Movie Review, March 30, 2015.
Film Review. Alan Royle, "The Long Ships, 1964, a stupid, stupid movie," Film Star Facts, April 25, 2017. Movie shot in Belgrade, 1963=1964 reviewed by historian Alan Royle.
Film Review. John Cornelison, "The Long Ships (1964) Classic Movie Review 23," Classic Movie Review, May 10, 2015.

Viking Archaeology Home Page, Viking Archaeology website and blog. See Viking Archaeology blog below:
Viking Archaeology blog.
Viking websites, Viking Archaeology Europe website.
Index-Icelandic Saga Database. Body of medieval Icelandic literature. The sagas are prose histories which described events that took place amongst the Norse and Celtic inhabitants of Iceland during the period of the Icelandic Commonwealth in the 10th and 11th centuries CE.
Books by Snorri Sturluson, Icelandic Viking elite, Gutenberg eBooks. Includes Younger, Elder Eddas, etc. Who was Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241)? See below:
9:03 Video. "Who was Snorri Sturluson?" Norse, published July 29, 2017.
Norse Mythology for Smart People--The Ultimate Online Guide to Norse Mythology and Religion.
IWCSS, Centre web-portal for Scandinavian Studies, Copenhagen, Denmark.
"Hurstwic: Viking History Table of Contents, Hurstwic. Viking Daily Living resources.
Viking Answer Lady website. "Vikings in the East: Rus and Varangians," Viking answer lady. See table of contents on the left and corresponding tabs at top of page for topics and resources for this webpage.
Viking Archives, Historical Novel Society. See many Viking historical novels.
Viking Society for Northern Research website. See numerous Viking publications. See more resources from this website below, including entire SAGA-Book.
Viking Society for Northern Research Publications including Journal, Saga-Book. All publications (and other related items) from Viking Society inception in 1893 to present available on this website.
Website. "Vikings," Cavan Scott website, September 16, 2019. Cavan Scott creates Viking comic books.
Website. The Viking Rune--All Things Viking and Norse. Website on Viking and "for Vikings." Articles on Norse mythology, Viking Symbols and Nordic runes. "Your guide to all things Germanic."
"Viking Resources," De Re Militari. The Society for Medieval Military History. See book reviews, articles, papers beginning May 22, 2017.
List of books and articles about Vikings, Questia Online Library. See vast array of resources on Vikings. See bottom of first page for "Search for more books and articles on Vikings," for thousands of digital resources.

Viking and Medieval Scandinavia Journal, published by Brepols.
See Journal, Saga-Book, Viking Society for Northern Research Publications including Journal, Saga-Book.
Journal of the North Atlantic, Journal, 2018.
The Heroic Age: A Journal of Early Medieval Northwest Europe. Viking articles, book reviews papers seen in this Journal. See "Back Issues" tab at top right of this page to see these resources.

John Maunu is World History Connected Digital Resources Editor and a College Board AP World History consultant, currently working with Cranbrook/Kingswood High School in Bloomfield Hills, Michigan. John can be reached at


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