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FORUM: Art in World History


Visualizing the Invisible Other through Art, Photography and Film: Digital Resources

John Maunu


     "We don't exist, nobody sees us!" This declaration by a French youth living in a banlieue (suburb or outskirts) of Paris in 1992 captures the reality of an urban outcast. The Visual Arts—art, photography and film—can address the invisibility of those who see themselves or are perceived negatively as "foreign" or otherwise marginalized. Revealing the plight of the outcast, "the other" as they are generally called, can be beneficial to society and a legitimate purpose of academic work.

     However, the youth framed in the French film, La Haine, (The Hate), may have achieved acclaim, but has poverty, crime, and racism been removed from the French banlieue since 1992? Moreover, visualizing "the other" may also corrupt reality. The negative results of romanticizing, stereotyping, or caricaturizing the outsider can be seen in studies of depictions of the American native, the "Oriental," the Pacific Islander and others in art, photography, and film. Thomas McEvilley in Art & Otherness: Crisis in Cultural Identity (New York: McPherson and Company, 1995) discusses the need for more non-European art and more portrayals of diverse cultures by diverse artists to leaven the dialog between cultures. The following digital resources are meant to give a sampling of otherness via the visual arts.

     These resources have been organized following the geographical divisions favored by Advanced Placement World History guidelines. This article is only a tentative first part of a larger projected study to be published in the future in World History Connected as "The Other in World History." North America and Europe are currently better represented here than the other regions, an imbalance that will be redressed in the final more comprehensive article.

East and Southeast /Japan
"The Victorian Vision of China and Japan," V&A (Victoria and Albert Museum UK), nd. Article with photographs of how the British profiled the myth of the exotic in China and Japan.
Ainu: First People of Japan, YouTube video, (7 minutes 43 seconds) found in University of Alaska, Fairbanks Native Peoples' site. Note links to other native peoples and their culture and arts.
G.E. Gallas (screenwriter and author) essay, "The Hero as Other," is based on his courses at Gallatin School of Individualized Study, New York University where he explored comparing 19th century Japanese literature and film to European works on Heroes as Other. Gallas cites 2 classes at Gallatin which inspired him. These are:

"Yellow Peril: Documentation and Understanding Xenophobia." This link is to Jack (John Kuo Wei) Tchen's spring 2011 syllabus for that course. The other was Ritty Lukose's syllabus and readings, Fall 2011, for "Globalization: Promises and Discontents," available Gallatin School of Individualized Study at
The end of art blogsite, "Imagining Paradise," posted March 31, 2011 examines the "Exotism of indigenous cultures through images, art, photography." Note tabs as to more articles and examples on right side of page.
East Asian History Sourcebook, Fordham University, @Paul Halsall July 1998, last updated March 13, 2007. Note links to images of Chinese art on this page.
Mika Ko, "Japanese Cinema and Otherness: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and the Problem of Japaneseness," Routledge 2001. Mika Ko attempts to describe modern Japanese film from the 1980's-2000 and how it describes/features "Others," ie., ethnic minorities, foreigners, and Okinawans.
Columbia University digital collections, "Ling Long Women's Magazine 1931-37," Images of Chinese women during changing times in China or images of the Chinese elite and their fashions leaving the lower class Chinese women as other.
Huang Zhuan, "Issues in the Third world and Approaches to Contemporary Art,", Vol. 3, Issue 1, 2000. Huang Zhuan discusses contemporary third world art and otherness from a Chinese perspective.
Shu-chin Wu, "Visualizing China in Transformation: The Underground and Independent Films of Jia Zhangke," China Currents, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2010. From China Research Center website. Many of Jia Zhangke films portray anguish of marginalized peoples caught in China's economic change over time, growing industrial and urbanization societies.
Jean D. Lotz, "Asian Wood Puppets," @ 1996, last updated 6/13/2001. Note section two, Puppets and "Otherness."
Visualising Cultures-Image Driven Scholarship MIT website first established in 2002. Focus on Japan and China and interaction with the West. See images of "Self" and "Others."
Christopher L.C.E. Witcombe, "Art in SE Asia," art history resources, last updated January 2012. See links to many other regions.
World Wide Web Virtual Library: History of Art, sponsored by CHArt, last revised 1/2008. Note Chinese/Japanese Art History, Art and Archaeology of Africa, Burmese Art, Indian Traditional Art. (some nudity)
See Converging Cultures and 28 minute video which visualizes examples of syncretism and cultures meeting via trade or exploration and how they move from otherness to blending and sharing cultures. Mother site:

South Asia/India Jesse Knutson (South Asian Languages and Civilizations blog, February 26, 2005, University of Chicago) review of the following:
Brajadulal N. Chattapodhyaya, "Representing the Other? Sanskrit Sources and the Muslims (Eighth to Fourteenth Century)," Manohar, Dehli, 1998. Chattopadhyaya's short but rich monograph is a detailed study of terminologies, modes, and strategies in Sanskrit literary and epigraphic sources for referring to the various Muslim newcomers, invaders and rulers—Arab, Persian, Turkish, etc..
The South Asian website list of films many dealing with the Other and marginalized peoples.
"Where women have everything as long as they can dance," Jeremy Lybarger interview with Sonia Faleiro, author of "Beautiful Thing: Inside Bombay's Secret Dance Clubs," Mother Jones, March 14, 2012.
Dan Hutt, "Outsiders, Outcasts, and Outlaws: Post Modernism and Rock Music as Countercultural Forces in Salman Rushdie's The Ground Beneath Her Feet." A Thesis for MA Degree, Department of English, College of Arts and Sciences, Kansas State University, 2011. (84 pp. pdf)
"Children and Youth in History," Teaching Modules, @ 2008 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University and University of Missouri-Kansas City, World History Matters. Note also Case Studies:
"Sati," Teaching Modules @2004-2006 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, World History Matters. Hindu Indian women as Other. Case Studies on Gender:
"Western Views of Chinese Women," Women in World History modules, primary sources, teaching lessons, and resources." Copyright @ 2004-2006 Roy Rosenzweig Center for History and New Media at George Mason University, World History Matters.
See Converging Cultures section of this Annenberg Learner site, Art Through Time: A Global Vision Central site here:

The first link, Converging Cultures, could support teaching of the new APA World History Curriculum Module: Exchanges and Interactions throughout Afro-Eurasia, especially how cultures interact in positive fashion creating syncretic Art.
Asia and Europe in a Global Context website, University of Heidelberg, review of new book, "Images of Otherness in Medieval and Early Modern Times: Exclusion, Inclusion, Assimilation," which focuses on literature and the visual arts. Seen in home site:

"Oceania," Urban Indigenous Studies website begun in 2010 which displays literature on urban indigenous peoples/mobility/issues. This is Oceania section of a massive site.
"Oceania: Captivity, Cannibalism and Colonialism in the Pacific-Pt. 2,", revised 23, June 2009. This article focuses on how Europeans portrayed and interpreted the "body" of the Pacific other. In this following section the author discussed portrayal of Pacific Islanders as cannibals:
"Re-Imagining Oceania," City Gallery New Zealand. 3 pp. pdf summary of Deane Gallery 2011 exhibit of Pacific/Oceania art depicting the Islanders (Maori specifically) as the Orientalist motif. See "Oceania: Pacific Island Art and Culture" New Zealand site for examples.

Scroll down to bottom of these Oceania art museum links to see links to many world Art sites.
1994 Film, "Once We Were Warriors." Describes Maori decline in New Zealand and their being viewed as outcasts.
James Roy MacBean, "Degrees of Otherness: A Close Reading of First Contact, Joe Leahy's Neighbors and Black Harvest," Visual Anthropology Review, anthrosource 56, Vol. 10, Nov. 2 Fall 1994. The Highland Trilogy on first contact with Europeans in New Guinea. (see reviews and 9 min. video clip below in Film section).
Rob Wilson, (University California, Santa Cruz) "Doing Cultural Studies Inside APEC: Literature, Cultural Identity, and Global/Local Dynamics in the American Pacific," @ 2012.
Frank Blythe, Prod., "Storyteller of the Pacific: Self Determination," 1996, 240 minutes. Two part series of one hour documentaries on Pacific and Pacific Rim peoples.
Margaret Jolly, "Envisioning the Pacific Islands: Indigenous, Colonial and Contempoary Arts," Art History syllabus, 2001. Note especially European visions of the Pacific Islanders texts, articles and art work, drawings from Cook's voyages.
Catherine Kerch, "Hawaii: Art and Its People," Incredible @rtDepartment Art Lessons. Ms. Kerch an art instructor at Holy Family Catholic Academy in Honolulu, Hawaii developed this 12 week Hawaiian art unit for grades 5th-8th.
Center for Art & Public Life website, "Pieces of Cloth, Pieces of Culture," Tongan cloth art exhibit presented by visiting scholar/artist Ping-Ann Addo.
Marcia Langton, "Homeland: Sacred Visions and the Settle State," Langton says otherness of aboriginal art in the West persists due to white settler resistance to release their Euro-centric vision of history. She details Australian aboriginal artist Emily Kame Kngwarray's intimate human interactions with landscapes.

Latin America/Caribbean
Joao Feres Jr., (Instituto Universitario de Pesquisas do Rio (IUPERJ), abstract, "Representing Latin America Through Pre-Columbian Art: Political Correctness and the Semantics of Othering,"
"Art of Mexico-Latin American Art," website, copyright The Incredible Art Department (Princeton On-Line), Ken Rohrer @ 2011. Links to Mexican and Latin American art over time with many examples of outcasts, the other, marginalized peoples.
Kathryn Lehman, "Argentina worker movement through film,", 2008.
Review of Michel-Rolph Trouillot's "Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History." Beacon Press, 1995.
Haitian Art, Music, and Dance digital resources found in
Romina A. Green (Tufts University), "Unearthing Violetta Parra: Art as Multilayered Discourse and Manifestations of Anti-(Neo) Colonialism, Anti-Modernism, Nationalism and Otherness,", nd.. Ms. Green examines Chilean communist, artist, feminist Violetta Parra's efforts to stand against colonialism through her art in the mid-20th century.
Forthcoming articles, film, artworks in Duke University's Worlds & Knowledge Otherwise website, 2008. Home site of Worlds & Knowledge Otherwise website, 2007.
Patricia Mohammed, "Imaging the Caribbean: Culture and Visual Translation," Palgrave Macmillan, May 2010. Dr. Mohammed paints a word and image picture of Caribbean iconography, historically analyzing visual representations of the region as perceived by outsider and insider over 500 years. She covers the entire region, yet focuses on Haiti, Jamaica, Trinidad, and Barbados within colonial and gender encounters. Mohammed peels back the layers of Caribbean culture unveiling an Asian Other.
Patricia Mohammed, (professor gender studies University of the West Indies-Trinidad) "A Triangular trade in gender and visuality: the making of a cross-cultural image base," Feminist Africa, Issue 7, 2007.

Froma I. Zeitlin, "Playing the Other: gender and society in classical Greek Literature," University of Chicago Press, 1996, 474 pp.. Woman as the Other in Greek society—google book.
"Jews in Medieval Christendom," links and articles from 2003 NEH Summer Institute on "Representations of the 'Other': Jews in Medieval Christendom," held at Oxford Centre for Hebrew and Jewish Studies, 9 July-13 August, 2003. Director: Irven M. Resnick. Webpage designed by Barbara Stevenson, Professor of English, Kennesaw State University.
"Otherness," Documenta, Ecclesiastical Images, November, 2011. Jewish and Muslim otherness in Christian lands by 14th century.
John Block Friedman, "The Monstrous Races in Medieval Art and Thought," Syracuse University Press, 2000. Friedman looks at these "races" as viewed by medieval European travelers and how the "monster races" interacted with Western art, literature, and philosophy.
Asia and Europe in a Global Context website, University of Heidelberg, review of new book, "Images of Otherness in Medieval and Early Modern Times: Exclusion, Inclusion, Assimilation," which focuses on literature and the visual arts. See home site:
Frank Felsenstein, "Anti-Semetic Stereotypes: A Paradigm of Otherness in English Popular Culture, 1660-1830," John Hopkins University Press, 1995. Felsenstein researches ephemeral literature such as tracts, periodicals, chapbooks, sermons, etc. along with caricature, paintings to represent anti-semetism in England. (Google book)
"Europe invents the Gypsies: The dark side of modernity"..."Social segregation, cultural appropriation: the six-hundred-year history of the European Roma, as recorded in literature and art, represents the underside of the European subject's self-invention as agent of civilizing progress in the world, writes Klaus-Michael Bogdal in Eurozine. Professor of German Literary Science at the University of Bielfeld.His book Europa erfindet die Zigeuner [Europe invents the Gypsies] is published by Suhrkamp Verlag (2011). Thanks to David Fahey for posting on H-World.
Guido Abbattista, "Trophying Human 'otherness' From Christopher Columbus to contemporary ethno-ecology (fifteenth-twenty first centuries)." 32 slides. Found in Guido Abbattista, ed., "Encountering Otherness. Diversities and Transcultural Experiences in Early Modern European Culture," a series of essays delivered as papers at final conference of the Miur-Interlink 2006-2008 research project, "EUO-Europe Cultures and the Understanding of Otherness, copy. Edizioni Universita di Trieste 2011.,%20The%20Artist%20as%20Outlaw,%20Lambert.pdf
"Artist as Outlaw," excerpted from Gilles Lambert, "Carravagio." Koln: Taschen, 2000, 6-17, 92-94. Seen in Mr. Ed Williams AP Art website:
Newsletter of the Institut Fur Die Wissenschaften Vom Menschen, Vienna and of the Institute For Human Sciences at Boston, University, No. 96, July-December 2007. (In German and English) See especially, p. 22 ff. "Outcasts: The Roma of Slovakia," photo essay by Julia Denesha and p. 20 ff. "Who Is A Partner, And Who is An Alien?" Germany and Austria Policy Debates.
Jagoda Romanowska, "Us and Them. An Intricate History of Otherness." A short review of "Us and Them. An Intricate History of Otherness." International Cultural Centre Gallery, Krakow. Curated by: Anna Olszewska. 16 March-5 June 2011.
Mukal Saxena (University of Warwick,UK), "Construction & Deconstruction of Linguistic Otherness: Conflict and Cooperative code-Switching in (English) bilingual classrooms," English Teaching: Practice & Critique, September 2009, Vol. 8, No. 2, pp.167-187.
Amy Sicilliano, Department of Geography, University of Toronto, "La Haine: Framing the 'Urban Outcasts,'' @ACME Editorial Collective, 2007. The Hate, La Haine, (1995) an analysis of the film portraying riots in the French banlieue outside of Paris.
"We don't exist, nobody sees us," A youth from a banlieue outside of Paris 1992. (Laperyronnie, 1992; quoted in Wacquant, 1993, 377 (scroll down to see video clip of La Haine and analysis in Film section).
Kingston University, London, "The Light Programme," curriculum module. Course is intended to introduce students to light entertainment from it's origins in pagan carnival into 21st century. Idea that TV is contemporary forum for "light entertainment" which has always represented race, gender, ethnicity, the cultural OTHER, and family.
Balkan otherness and Balkan stereotypes in Literature. Note on page 34 of this pdf discussion on Art and Balkan imagery.
"The Image of the Other in History Teaching," Education and Language-History Teaching, Counseil de l'Europe website. Multiculturalism in the European History curriculum.
Giles Perring, "Art and Otherness," University of East London, visual art and birth of the 'Outsider' Art School including a look at Jimi Hendrix and Frank Zappa and French surrealists. See Disabled artists:
"What is Outsider Art?" Description and definitions of Art Brut, Insane Art and Outsider Art as described by French painter Jean Dubuffet after WW II.
Lidia Kyzlinkova, "Ruth Rendell/Barbara Vine: Racial Otherness and Conservative Englishness," SBORNIK PRACI FILOZOFICKE FAKULTY BRNESKE UNIVERSATA STUDIA MINORA FACULTATIS PHILOSOPHICAE UNIVERSITATIS BRUNESIS S 9, 2003—BRNO Studies in Eng 29. British contemporary Psychological crime novels expose the other.
"the Jew as Other: A Century of English Caricatures 1730-1830," presented by the Library of JTS (Jewish Theological Seminary) from a 1995 exhibition. Note example/images of English Caricature "drawings" portraying Jews as the OTHER.
Center for Holocaust & Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota,
Center For Holocaust & Genocide Studies, University of Minnesota, "Visualizing Otherness II: Belgrade's Anti-Masonic Exhibition of 1941-42," Images. Scroll down to Related Links for more on Nazis, Roma and Sinti (Gypsies) and Native Americans.
"Plan b, a second look at his protest song," Independent, 3/21/2012. British young musician music criticizes treatment of the Other and growing poverty in England.
[E]Coco Papy, "Privilege and Otherness: Art to Stand on," posted Feb. 10, 2011 in Perspectives, see on Persephone Magazine website. Papy defines privilege in art and gives examples of European artists who depicted the Other in this short article.

The Centre for Otherness...

Europe and Orientalism

Orientalism has two meanings in our world, perhaps more. One, a 19th century European art movement that portrays a Romantic view of the Mid-East and East, ie., Pin-up art for Europeans in the East? The Oriental mystical women are often portrayed lounging around "ottomans" and bedrooms and look very European. AP World History's new Curriculum module "Zones of Interaction: Long Distance Trade and Long-Term Connections Across Afro-Eurasia" inc. a discussion of the "Other" in it's curriculum.

Orientalism art would be an example of that theme. Note a feminist POV (Jessica) on Orientalism and links exhibiting Oriental Art below. Second, Orientalism refers, also, to a historiographical debate best seen in the Edward Said and Bernard Lewis exchanges. Dr. Said claimed that only regional, ethnic educators should teach specific regional histories and culture studies because they have more of an intuitive "feel" for the region, while the "Other" may be biased in their approach.

University of Ulster, "Postcolonial Logic: Binarism and Alterity," (nd) Lectures explaining the two terms in context of Edward Said's Orientalist argument.


Daniel Sered, "Orientalism," Postcolonial Studies at Emory University website, Fall 1996.
Nineteenth-century artworks often shunned for their stereotypical portrayals of the Arab World have been gaining a new luster of late. Both the NY Times (above) and Saudi Aramco magazines have recently published reports on rising interest and auction prices of Orientalist art, driven in part by Arab art collectors and others who see historical and artistic merit in the works.
Native informers in US search for empire. (Also, note lower right, Orientalist paintings).
Postcards, etc. and original photo for "Reading Lolita in Teheran"
Met Museum timelines of Art—Orientalism.
Orientalist artists.
Harem Paintings.
19th century European Orientalist artists. "Berber Woman" is beautiful. Also, note "music" tab....
Not real impressive.
Victorian painter, Carl Haag, mid-19th century, first European to paint Dome of the Rock, etc. Beautiful Middle East art, watercolor.
Other European Orientalist artists, and song "Terra."
More on Orientalist art.

Susan Preston Blier (Harvard University African and African American Studies), "Imaging Otherness in Ivory: African Portrayals of the Portuguese. ca. 1492," The Art Bulletin, September 1993, Vol. LXXV, Number 3. pdf. Note Blier's website and her bibliography of African art resources:
Africa Philosophy Resources, "Topic: Art, Philosophy and Africa," B. Janz webpage, nd. Links to African art. See especially, Jean-Marie Dederen, "Black Artist, White Critic: Ideological Mindscapes of Otherness."
National Museum of Africa Art list of blogs found within National Museum of African Art site:
"The Herero and Namaqua," Gallery Ezakwautu displaying Central and South African Tribal Art, last updated 2012. Images of the Herero and Namaqua genocide in early 20th century perpetrated by German colonizers. Use of concentration camps may have been a German strategy continued in Hitler's Germany.
Sean O'Hagan, The Guardian Observer (UK), "Africa as you've never seen it," July 19, 2008. Article with 10 photographs analyzing and describing young South African photographer Peter Hugo's unsettling images of Africa's marginalized peoples.
Donna Bryson, "South African photographer pursues hate speech case," The Essential Global News Network, April 11, 2012. Johannesburg, South African 82 year old photojournalist Alf Kumalo pursues hate speech case. Kumalo photographed the South African apartheid struggle.
Dineo Bopape, "Coral Spencer at artSPACE," artthrob on-line journal, archive: Issue No. 91, March 2005. Bopape reviews Spencer's art exhibit of African maids addressing the theme of otherness. See images of her paintings on this site.
Peter Probst, "Troubled Waters: on Otherness and Ownership," The Regents of U. of California and Gale, Cengage Learning 2010. Article found on Business Library (CBS) website. Probst dissects the problem of interpreting art works at exhibits and art museums using African spirit Mami Wata exhibit asking, "To whom does the Other belong?" Who has ownership of summarizing and interpreting art works at exhibits?
Heidi Sincuba blogsite, "In other worlds: The trouble with Otherness and the Rise of the Altermodern," July 25, 2011. A case for more African and non-western art.
Lalla Essaydi exhibit "Converging Territories," Jackson Fine Art Gallery. Essaydi is a Moroccan born NY based visual artist who portrays gender otherness.
Nnamdi Elleh, "A Continent without Borders: Africa's Influence on African American Artists," Resource Library, 2/3/2005. This essay was excerpted with permission of author from 2004 illustrated catalogue for Exhibition "Embracing the Muse: Africa and African American Art" at the Michael Rosenfeld Gallery 1/15-3/6/2004.
Patricia Mohammed, (professor gender studies University of the West Indies-Trinidad) "A Triangular trade in gender and visuality: the making of a cross-cultural image base."
Colin Kilkelly, "Colin Watson a Painter who Captures 'the Otherness' of Morocco," The North African Journal, 4/11/2002. Do you see any alterity in Mr. Watson's works as evidenced by this article?

North America
National Humanities Center, "You Know, we are different Nations and have different ways." European Americans and Native Americans View Each Other, 1700-1775. (2009) National Humanities Center Resource Toolbox, Becoming American: The British Atlantic Colonies, 1690-1763.
Erika Theresa Franz, Brush off the dust! History now! blog, "Dehumanizing now! words and writing the other," 9/8/2010. Ms. Franz discusses Todorov's, "The Conquest of America, The Question of the Other," and William Brennan's, "Dehumanizing the Vulnerable, When Word Games Take Lives."
Lisa Wade, "Representation of the 'Primitive' American Indian," Sociological Images website, March 30, 2011. Edward S. Curtis' photographs of native Americans and how they shaped Images of the Native Other...JP Morgan paid Curtis $75,000 in 1906 to photography native Americans. These manipulated photographs shaped American perception of the "Other" (native American) for years. Link can also be opened here:
The Movies, Race, and Ethnicity: Native Americans in Film from Media Resource Center, Moffitt Library, UC Berkely. Note Bibliography of Native Film and Listing of Western Films.
(Graphic History) Trevor Getz and Liz Clarke, "Abina," Slave women's court testimony turned into a meta-narrative. Getz's syllabus utilizing "Abina" in Anthropology class.
(Graphic/Cartoon Journalism) Anne Elizabeth Moore and graphic artist Mickey Zacchilli, "The Gender of Media Creators Affects What We See," Truthout, 3/13/2012. This article uses evidence from 2011 gender counts (inc. in article) in literary publishing to portray US media as still a man's world effecting how women are displayed via creators of media.
Anthony Lee, "Picturing Chinatown: Art and Orientalism in San Francisco," originally published in U. of California Press, 2001, seen in College Street Journal, Mount Holyoke, Oct. 2002. Fears, needs, social concerns of Chinese community in San Francisco, 1840-1950.
Laura Steiner, "'Sesame Street' Aims to Accurately Portray Latino Culture," posted 4/2/2012 seen in Huffington Post, Cultura Latinovoices, April 7, 2012. Latinos have been portrayed unrealistically and Sesame Street is making an effort to change that. Note Latino muppet created in 1993.
Andres T. Tapia, "Pop Culture helps Normalize the Other in Society," The Inclusion Paradox website, posted September 23, 2010. Pop culture icons Archie and Veronica, Dora the Explorer introduce diversity and the Other.
Or, Pop culture helps see how the Other suffer in society.

Bob Dylan song as to death of Hattie Carroll, a 51 year old maid killed by the cane of a diamond ring wearing Southern man..
Stephanie Hayes, "Hoodies Have a Complicated Fashion Story," Tampa Bay Times, March 25, 2012. Florida shooting of young man wearing a hoodie links fashion to otherness.
Arlene Goldbard, "Varieties of Otherness (of the niqab or Hasidic gear or baggy pants)," Motion Magazine, October 22, 2006. Goldbard begins her article with quote from then British Prime Minister, Tony Blair, as to British migrants wearing the veil or niqab, "It is a mark of separation."
"College Fires Cartoonist over Trayvon 'colored boy' drawing,", 3/29/2012.
Rosalind S. Helderman, "Rep. Bobby Rush chided for wearing hoodie on House floor for Trayvon Martin," Washington Post, 3/28/2012. Not only chided, but removed from House floor for dress code violation.
Linda Baumgarten, "Looking at 18th century American Clothing," Colonial Williamsburg website, nd. See art/painting examples and fact that clothing of the other, the masses, has not survived. Most Clothing collections contain garments worn by the elites.
Pauline Weston Thomas, "Theories of Fashion Costumes and Fashion History,", @2001-2011. Short article on clothes as status. Thomas cites Thorstein Veblen, "The Theory of the Leisure Class," 1899 and purpose of upper class dress as a status symbol that people wearing these types of clothes do NOT do manual labor. See chapter 7 on that discussion by Veblen.
Insiders and Outsiders in the American History narrative...Jstor

One way to keep insiders inside is to ignore or caricaturize their history and America and England WASPs ignored much of Irish history and slandered the Irish as drunks comparative to the Native Americans. That is why St. Patrick's Day revelry is frustrating for some Irish. (see example below)
I'm Irish, but spare the grotesque St. Pat's blarney...
Coco Fusco, "The Other History of Intercultural Performance," first appeared in The Drama Review, 1994, 21 pp. pdf. Performance ART.
Fusco explains her Performance Art exhibit, "Guatinau," or "Couple in a Cage," which was 3 days in a cage with her male colleague. Guatinau was a satirical exhibit (performance art) mimicing European and North American practice of exhibiting Indigenous people from Africa, Asia and Americas in zoos, parks, museums, freak shows, circuses and taverns in late 19th century. The idea of performing the Idealizing of an Other for white audiences. See 2005 example in Augsburg, Germany.
Rick Nahmias, "Golden State of Grace: Prayers of the Disinherited—A Photodocumentary," Photo Exhibit showing spirituality and religious ritual of Jewish addicts, Cham Muslims, Transgender, dispensated nuns, and prison inmate Buddhist converts in California. Rick Nahmias article in Huffington Post, Religion blog, 9/20/2010 discussing Golden State of Grace.
Chris Arnade (Photographer) and Nicole Pasulka (text author), "Portraits of Addiction," Mother Jones, 3/15/2012. Manhatten photographer pictures (slide show) picture and explain the stories of dug addicts, sex workers, and the homeless in Bronx, New York.
"Bringing the Outsider in the world of intuitive art" exhibit, Dusable Art Museum.
Four page pdf defining Outsider Art. artblog,
Jorge Pilay, "Heavy Metal and Gender: All the Gender Issues Aside," paper for Theory of Knowledge course, 8/22/2010. Women as Other in Heavy Metal music.
"The Revenge of the Other: Exploitation Cinema of the Seventies," Horror Effect blog, 3/3/2009. Amidst 1970's social turmoil—race, family breakup, etc., change over time is seen in Horror cinema characters, themes.
"Cloverfield Essay," The Terrible Place blogspot, Media Studies News and Views, October 1, 2008. A review of "Cloverfield," a terror film exhibiting a monster as the Other (as many horror films do, ie., Jaws and King Kong) in New York City during and immediately after 9/11.

Middle East
Middle East Art websites,
Note many art discussion groups, at least two on Islam and Arab Art from H-Net, Humanities and social sciences out of Michigan State University.
Ali Khadra, "Contemporary Art in the Middle East: Orientalism is not the issue—we have art of our own," The Art Newspaper, Opinion, Issue 206, October 2009. Khadra responds to Anna Somers Cock, "Are we colonialising Middle Eastern art?" The Art Newspaper, July, August, who claims Middle Eastern contemporary art is being "produced" to satisfy Western customers much like Orientalist art. Khadra says no, contemporary Middle East artists have too much history and Mid-East art styles to fall into that genre.
Hollywood's Reel Arab Women....a history of Hollywood's perception of Arab women.
Reclaiming Identity: Dismantling Arab stereotypes site....Arab as Other. This site traces the history of these stereotypes, provides tools to identify and understand them, and asks viewers to record their reactions and responses to what they have learned in the site's blog. It also offers perspectives on other segments of American society that are subject to stereotypes. Guest curated by Dr. Evelyn Alsultany of U. of Michigan-Ann Arbor.
Blog site featuring Arab stereotypes, video, photographs, etc.
Hollywood stereotyping...Note first two posts from Matthew Jaber Stiffler on Islamaphobia and Reclaiming Identity.
NY Times review of Edward Said's last interview on Orientalism and otherness, 8/4/2004.
Jarrod Shanahan (U. of Mass.-Boston), "Fanon and the Iraqi Other: Unmasking the Illusions of Colonialism," Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self Knowledge, Summer 2007, 273-284. Shanahan relates the images and symbols (propaganda as art) discussed by Franz Fanon in his critiques on colonialism in Iraq.'s-Literary-Works
Ohood Foad Anbar, approved Thesis paper 2009, "A Post Colonial Reading of Some of Saul Bellow's Literary Works," Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Kingdom of Saud University for Deanship of Higher Studies, Department of English. Ohood Foad Anbar takes two Saul Bellow books, "Henderson on the Rain King" (1959) and "To Jerusalem and Back" (1976) and "expose(s) the colonialist elements in them which excludes the Arabs and Africans from it's scope." Her paper claims Bellow's two works are "a demeaning representation of the 'Other.'"
Soraya Sepahpour-Ulrich, "Terror Most Imperial,", 17 May, 2008. Subtle tools of Imperialism include value laden language to define Arabs and Muslims, such as "terrorist" and "Islamofascism," as other.
"Shirin Neshat: Art in Exile," video, December 2010. Shirin Neshat speaks in this video of ben an Iranian women artist living in exile.
C.M./Dubai, "An Avenue of Free Expression," The Economist, Prospero-Books, arts and culture, April 3, 2012. Article on Dubai Art Fair and resurgence of women's art with otherness theme.
"Contemporary Art From the Middle East, Central Asia and it's Diasporas," tarjama/translation, ArteEast 84 pp. pdf filled with articles on contemporary Mid-East art to background for Queens Museum of Art, Flushing Meadows Park, NY May 10-September 27, 2009 and Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell U., Ithaca, NY exhibits, copyright @ 2009 ArteEast. Articles discuss effectiveness of building cultural bridges with art and concerns by Middle East artists of being Good, moderate, or "Bad" Muslims.
Whitman College, "Relating to Cultural Otherness." Every 2008 Whitman College student was assigned Marjane Satrapi's "Persepolis" to read to understand and attempt to relate to an Iranian young women portrayed in this graphic novel. See reviews on Satrapi's "Persepolis," and illustrations in this piece of cultural graphic art:

"Birth of a Nation," (1915) David Wark Griffith's masterpiece, possibly first full length American movie with a plot, which may have painted a stereotypical rendering of the Black Other in America's psyche. Few remember his attempt to "correct" the racist images with "Intolerance" (1916) or that President Woodrow Wilson, a university professor before politics, was given a special screening of the film calling "Birth of a Nation" true history.
AMC filmsite review of "Birth of a Nation," edited and written by Tim Dirks. Dirks explained how Birth of a Nation was first shown with the title, "The Clansman," based on former North Carolina Baptist minister Reverend Thomas Dixon's 1905 melodrama play, "The Clansman." The Clansman was the 2nd in a trilogy which included first, "The Leopard's Spots: A Romance of the White Man's Burden 1865-1900," The Clansman," and "The Traitor."
French film, "La Haine," The Hate, (1995) 5 minute video clip.
Adele Chapman, "Movie Analysis: The representation of the banlieue in La Haine," Helium, June 18, 2007.
8/4/2004 BBC review of La Haine.
See Converging Cultures and 28 minute video that could add to our teaching of the new AP World History Curriculum Module 2011-2012: Exchanges and Interactions throughout Afro-Eurasia, especially the last unit authored by Bill Strickland on British and Chinese meeting the "Other."
3 part "Bill Cosby on Prejudice" Youtube video—24 minute total....Mr. Cosby's classic "white face" and cigar performance of "stereotyping" the Other..."What am I? I'm a Bigot!"
"Class Divided," PBS, the day after Martin Luther King Jr. was shot a 3rd grade Iowa teacher prepares a lesson on discrimination. 1985 Award Winning documentary and one of PBS's most requested programs in 5 parts.
"San Diego Hate Crimes," 4 min. 56 sec. Youtube video, KPBS news Evening Edition uploaded March 28, 2012 by CAIRtv. KPBS interview with Oscar Garcia District Attorney for San Diego District Attorney's Hate Crime Unit and Edgar Hopida, CAIR-San Diego region.
"The Films of Isaac Julian: Look Back and Talk Black," by Jose Arroyo from Jump Cut, no. 36, May 1991, pp. 98-107, 10, copyright "Jump Cat: A Review of Contempoary Media," 1991, 2006. British Black Film, 1970's-1980's written in the language of Blacks in England. Example, "Territories," 25 minutes, 1984...
"Alia Syed-Experimental Filmmaker," 6 minute vodcast in which Syed explains her influences. Alia Syed's films explore language and culture interactions, love in English/London urban settings from POV of Pakistani/Bengladeshi female perspectives.
Jigar film or urdu word for "friend" or "lover.", Arts News, 2/1/2002.
"Shirin Neshat: Art in Exile," video, December 2010. Shirin Neshat talks about being an Iranian woman artist living in exile.
Coco Fusco, "The Other History of Intercultural Performance," first appeared in The Drama Review, 1994, 21 pp. pdf.
Fusco explains her Performance Art exhibit, "Guatinau," which was 3 days in a cage with her male colleague. Guatinau was a satirical exhibit (performance art) mimicing European and North American practice of exhibiting Indigenous people from Africa, Asia and Americas in zoos, parks, museums, freak shows, circuses and taverns in late 19th century. The idea of performing the Idealizing of an Other for white audiences. {1 min. 54 sec. clip}.
"Herero to Hitler," 58 minute documentary film on Germany's first concentration camp strategy as to the Herero and Namaqua people of Namibia in sw Africa.
Howard Rosenberg review of the 1993 film, "The Longest Hatred," a 2000 year history of anti-semetism in three parts (150 minutes), "The Hatred Will Not Die....," Los Angeles Times, April 21, 1993.
Various Ali Al'Amin Mazrui videos. Mazrui's "The Reinvention of Africa: Edward Said, V.Y. Mudimbe and Beyond" is a classic review of the Other and historiography of Africa.
"The Green Belt Movement: Evaluation, Citizen Action and Environmental Change Strategies," including 9 minute film module "Taking Root: Kenya and Wangari Maathai," Women's Empowerment Collection, David Maduli-writer, @ 2012 Independent Television Services, Inc. (see 8 Lessons on Women's Empowerment-this is lesson 2).
"African Studies Film/Video," Columbia University Library. Listing/Bibliography of African film found in Columbia University libraryweb.
"Bibliography of African Americans in Film," UC Berkeley Library.
Comedian Samantha Bee on the Daily Show, 5 minute video, "Co-Occupation," Food Co-op in Brooklyn faces political boycotts against Israeli food seen in Jewish World Review, March 27, 2012. Daily show clip, March 27, 2012:
Boycotting the political Other, Daily Show, March 27, 2012.
TEDGlobal 2011, "Thandie Newton: Embracing otherness, embracing myself," Filmed July 2011, Posted July 2011. British actress Thandie Newton,

white father and Zimbabwean mother, discusses her childhood and education as "other.",114042.html
Patricia Mohammed short film "Coolie Pink and Green," Newsday Review, 1/12/2010. Mohammed analyzes the South Asian influence and otherness in the Caribbean.
Patricia Mohammed, "The Temples of the Other: The South Asian Aesthetic in the Caribbean," 43:56 minute video recording, March 15, 2012,

Institute of Caribbean Studies. Introduction in Spanish, Dr. Mohammed's presentation in English.
Patricia Mohammed, "A Different Imagination," 6 pt. Documentary.
Josef Raab, "Latinos and Otherness: The Films of Gregory Nava," 2008, 19 pp. pdf. Raab discusses Latino and Chicano film in US with works cited page at end.
"Chicano/Latinos in the Movies: A Bibliography of Materials in the UC Berkeley Library," 1996, last updated 12/8/2011.
1994 Film, "Once We Were Warriors." Describes Maori decline in New Zealand and their being viewed as outcasts, ie., the Other.
Frank Blythe, Prod., "Storyteller of the Pacific: Self Determination," 1996, 240 minutes. Two part series of one hour documentaries on Pacific and Pacific Rim peoples.
Asia Pacific Films website with many films from the Pacific rim countries. Note films on otherness, cultural identities all having 3-4 minute trailers. This link being an example of colonizing the Hawaiian peoples.
"Lagaan," (2001) Bollywood blockbuster set in 1893 India amidst drought and high British (raj) taxes. The film's characters depict otherness within the Indian rural setting and arrogant attitude of the British soldiers....a story filmed around a cricket match.
The South Asian website bibliography of South Asian film many dealing with otherness and marginalized peoples.
NY Times review of "Black Harvest," 1992 film displaying modern culture's effects on Gangia, a aboriginal tribe in Papua New Guinea. "Black Harvest" is Pt. 3 of The Highlands Trilogy following "Joe Leahy's Neighbors," 1989, Pt. 2 of Trilogy by same writers/directors, Robin Anderson and Bob Connolly.
Richard Bernstein review, "Joe Leahy's Neighbors" (1989) NY Times, published April 1, 1989. Joe Leahy is a mixed race wealthy plantation owner in New Guinea. Film depicts relationship between New Guinea tribe and rich man and is Pt. 2 of The Highlands Trilogy.
Pt. 1 of The Highland's Trilogy, "First Contact," color, 54 minutes, 1983. See 9 minute video clip in this link.
"Horse Thief," Tian Zhuangzhuang's film of Tibet, 1986. Story of Tibetan man banished from tribe for stealing horses to help his family.
National Geographic video, "China's Lost Girls," 2005, Video, 43 minutes. National Geographic host Lisa Ling looks at China's one child policy and female babies as the other.
Rubina Ramji review of S. Brent Plate and David Jasper, ed., "Imag(in)ing Otherness: Filmic Visions of Living Together," Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1999. Seven films with Otherness theme highlighted in book which Ramji summarizes in this review.
Dr. Sarah Graham, School of English, Leicester, UK, "Modern Monsters: The Other in Contemporary American Texts," (and film), course module and bibliography of sources—books and films, 2011-2012.

John Maunu is World History Connected Internet Resources Editor, AP Histories Classroom Mentor at Grosse Ile High School, Michigan, veteran AP World history Reader and Table Leader, co-Moderator for AP/College Board Teacher Community, and an AP/College Board World History consultant.


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