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Style Sheet


World History Connected gratefully acknowledges the style sheets published by Common-Place and the National Council for the Social Sciences. Their thoughtful approaches to editing e-journal work have been relied upon in large measure.

General Guidelines

Published on the Web twice a year, World History Connected invites articles on all aspects of world history education. Articles of 3500-7000 words which address the following are solicited.
    • The state of the field. What has recent scholarship to say about particular issues, periods, or regions in world history? What use can world history teachers at all levels make of this scholarship?

    • Interviews with innovative teachers and scholars.

    • Curriculum and assessment. How can teachers design curriculum and assessment to integrate current scholarship with effective teaching practice?

    • Student learning and construction of knowledge. What can teachers do to improve student learning?

    • Point of View. Teachers and scholars often differ on central questions of importance to world history education. How can students best learn? How can classrooms most effectively deal with controversial issues? To what extent should world history teachers welcome standardized exams? What is the ideal balance between teaching skills and teaching content?

From time to time, we will publish thematic issues. Query the editors regarding such plans; query also with suggestions for such issues.We put a premium on engaging writing. We want articles that readers will enjoy enough to pass on to colleagues and to students. We want prose that is lively and informative. Though articles are peer reviewed, authors should avoid the style of a traditional academic journal. Among educational publications, we prize the essays in Education on Asia, the OAH Magazine of History, The Chronicle of Higher Education, Education Week, and the late lamented Lingua Franca. We also value work that will help students make connections across chronological, thematic, or regional lines. An essay focusing on 16th-19th century trans-Pacific trade, for instance, might also suggest how such Pacific commerce compared to that in the Atlantic or Indian basins. Finally, we want articles that teachers can put to immediate use. Except in the case of POV and state-of-the-field essays, we urge authors to discuss in some depth the way that particular ideas are translated into action in the classroom. We will link articles reporting and assessing innovative classroom work to detailed descriptions of lessons and curricula. We particularly value articles which offer samples of student work to further discussion of a lesson’s successes (and, yes, its limits) or to support claims about the way students learn history.

Query with Abstract

Query with a one-paragraph abstract to the editors. The abstract should include the following:

    1. Intended audience (3rd-4th grade teachers, teachers of college and advanced high school students, 9th-10th grade world history instructors).
    2. Central theme and (if appropriate) the central argument.
    3. A brief description of the supplementary supporting materials to be linked to the manuscript (i.e., lesson plans, sample student work, or sample assessments).
    4. Brief biography. The bio should include the author’s name, institutional and departmental affiliations, recent publications, and major awards. Example: Jane Doe has taught high school history for fifteen years, the past five at Eisenhower High School in Stevenson, Illinois. She recently published "Juan Perón: A Teaching Unit" for the Martín Fierro Argentine Studies Center.
Publication Process
    1. Authors will receive, after a reasonable interval, reviews of their abstracts If we like the abstract, we will set a deadline for submitting a complete manuscript. (Note that our enthusiasm for a terrific abstract does not commit us to publish the finished work).
    2. Authors should prepare manuscripts according to the guidelines below. When in doubt, the final arbiter of style is the Chicago Manual of Style, 14th edition. Submit completed manuscripts to the editors.
    3. Each article will be peer reviewed. We will return anonymous reviews to the author along with our decision about the manuscript.
    4. Once a manuscript has been accepted, we will send the author a publication contract. If further changes of style or substance are necessary to ready the manuscript for publication, we will assign a developmental editor to assist the author in meeting these requirements.
    5. Authors will read a web-ready manuscript on line before final publication. At this stage, substantive changes cannot be made.


Though our authors deserve more than our enthusiasm and gratitude, we cannot offer any monetary compensation for articles published with World History Connected.

Multiple Submissions

We strongly discourage multiple or simultaneous submissions. That said, we recognize that some articles, particularly those dealing with contemporary events, may go stale if they have to wait too long for a publisher. Also, an author may wish to place a work with a publication whose readership will not overlap with that of World History Connected. We ask that authors let us know in advance of such extenuating circumstances.

Text and Illustrations

We prefer manuscripts in MS Word for Windows or Mac. Send double-spaced copies in RTF (Rich Text Format).We prefer images as JPG or .GIF files, but can accept PICT, .TIFF, or .BMP files as well. Submit audio clips in .WAV or .MP3 files and video as a .MOV file (Quick Time).


Authors must submit a Permission Form authorizing World History Connected to publish electronically copyright-protected images, film, audio, or other reproductions. Permission forms are available from the editors.Authors must also obtain written permission forms to quote from listserv postings, email, and other works which (while disseminated to a broad audiences) were not necessarily intended for formal publication. Authors who have questions about copyright and permissions should consult the editors.

Fact Checking

Authors should confirm the dates of events, the spelling of names, and the accuracy of all claims of fact. We encourage authors to check the facts with which they are most familiar; in our experience, the fact learned years ago and carried confidently in our heads is the fact that is most likely to contain an inaccuracy and cause us embarrassment.

Citation of Sources

Authors are also responsible for citing their sources accurately and fully. The style for such citations is addressed below. You may or may not agree with allegations leveled against historians Philip Foner, Doris Kearns Goodwin, and Stephen Ambrose, but these allegations dramatize the importance of citation to integrity and reputation.


The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., is the final arbiter of most questions of style. We address several particular issues of style below. In preparing this list, we have relied extensively on the style sheet maintained by the ejournal Common-Place, whose permission we gratefully acknowledge.

Transliteration: Authors should inform the editors if any term needs to remain in its original script. Otherwise, all terms and names not in Roman script must be transliterated. Follow the guidelines in The Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed., ch. 9. For all languages which use a Roman script, authors should indicate all diacritical marks. Contact the editors for assistance using a word processing program to add these marks.

Gender-Neutral Language
: Please follow an editorial preference for gender-neutral language.

Editing quotations
: Authors should use brackets and ellipses to indicate alteration of quotations. Authors may modernize spelling or punctuation if necessary to avoid misunderstanding so long as they note that such changes have been made. Authors should not change the order or meaning of quotations.

Authors should in all instances denote elisions with three dots with one space before and after each dot.

For specific dates, follow this format: July 5, 2003. Where necessary, we prefer bce (before common era) and ce (common era) to bc and ad (note that these abbreviations are in small caps). Authors who use other dating systems should provide the common era equivalents in parentheses. In a documentary source quotation (prepared for a document-based question, for example), indicate the common era equivalent in text introducing the document,or indicate the common era date in brackets: "On the 9th of Rabi II 655 [April 26, 1257], Helegu Khan arrived in Dinawar on his way to Baghdad."

Offices and Titles.
Spell out titles (i.e., Vice President, not V.P.). The only exception: St. for Saint.

En and Em Dashes:
World History Connections prefers the use of single hyphens for en dashes, and double hyphens for em dashes. For hyphenated asides--such as this one--please use double hyphens without spaces between the words that immediately precede and follow the hyphens. Please note that many word processing programs, in their default settings, will automatically format double hyphens as em dashes. Authors should avoid such formatting by adjusting their default settings or by retyping double hyphens.

As a general rule, whole numbers less than one hundred should be spelled out. See Chicago Manual §8 for exceptions.

If in the text of a submission, the author wishes to refer to a Website, that reference should include the name of the Website in plain text, followed by a bracketed notation to embed the link of the Website’s URL. Italicize subsequent references to the same Website. If a Website’s title itself contains italics, please indicate those italics as Roman characters.

Serial Commas:
Please use commas to separate elements in a series. If a conjunction precedes the final element in the series, please use a comma before the conjunction. For further guidance in the use of commas, please consult the Chicago Manual §5.

For the hyphenation of compound words and phrases, please see the Chicago Manual §6, especially Table 6.1.

For the capitalization of names and terms, please consult the Chicago Manual §7. Also, please note that certain words associated with the Internet, the World Wide Web, and other technological resources have not yet obtained uniform usage. World History Connected adheres to the following spellings and capitalization: Web
e-mail Web page
Internet Webmaster
home page Webzine
Listserv Website
online World Wide Web

Citations and References

Standard Note Style: Citations, explanations, and acknowledgements appear in sequentially numbered endnotes. Authors do not need to provide bibliographies but may add "suggestions for further reading" or "resources." The following are typical examples. This is not an exhaustive list. For further guidance, see Chicago Manual of Style, 14th ed. For electronic sources (web sites, listservs, emails, ejournals and the like), see "Adapting Chicago style to cite internet sources" at Bedford/St. Martin’s,


One Author
Neil L. Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1993), 203-207. Second citation: Jamieson, Understanding Vietnam, 122.

Two Authors
Michael Shermer and Alex Grobman, Denying History: Who Says the Holocaust Never Happened and Why Do They Say It? (Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2000), 155. Second citation: Shermer and Grobman, Denying History, 23.

Article in Collection
R. I. Moore, "The Birth of Europe as a Eurasian Phenomenon," in Victor Lieberman, ed., Beyond Binary Histories: Re-imagining Eurasia to c. 1830(Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1997), 143. Second citation: Moore, "The Birth of Europe," 147-149.

Journal and Magazine Articles

Journal, One Author
Jack A. Goldstone, "Efflorescences and Economic Growth in World History: Rethinking the ‘Rise of the West’ and the Industrial Revolution," Journal of World History 13 no. 2 (Fall 2002), 323. Second citation: Goldstone, "Efflorescences," 324.

Journal, Two Authors
Sean Brawley and Chris Dixon, "Jim Crow Downunder? African-American Encounters with White Australia, 1942-1945," Pacific Historical Review 71 no. 4 (November 2002), 611. Second citation: Brawley and Dixon, "Jim Crow Downunder?" 77-78.

John Dower, "The Other Japanese Occupation," The Nation, 7 July 2003, 11. Second citation: Dower, "The Other Japanese Occupation," 13.

Newspaper Article

"Bush Says U.S. Won’t Waver in Iraq Mission," Los Angeles Times, 2 July 2003, A,1. Second citation: "Bush Says U.S. Won’t Waver," A5.

Leon Hadar, "U.S. Empire? Let’s Get Real," Los Angeles Times, 2 July 2003, B15. Second citation: Hadar, "U.S. Empire?" B15.

Works under review. Authors who are reviewing books should cite the work under review at the head of the review essay. Include the author’s name, the title, the place of publication and publication house, the date of publication, the number of pages, the price, and the binding, as in the following example: J. R. McNeill and William McNeill, The Human Web: A Bird’s Eye View of World History. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003. Pp. xviii + 350. $27.95 (cloth)


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